Data Cleaning

Introduction

This notebook goes through a necessary step of any data science project - data cleaning. Data cleaning is a time consuming and unenjoyable task, yet it’s a very important one. So we keep in mind, “garbage in, garbage out”. Feeding dirty data into a model will give us results that are meaningless.

Specifically, we’ll be walking through:

  1. **Getting the data - **in this case, we’ll be scraping data from a website
  2. **Cleaning the data - **we will walk through popular text pre-processing techniques
  3. **Organizing the data - **we will organize the cleaned data into a way that is easy to input into other algorithms

The output of this notebook will be clean, organized data in two standard text formats:

  1. Corpus - a collection of text
  2. Document-Term Matrix - word counts in matrix format

Problem Statement

As a reminder, our goal is to look at all eighteen books of the Mahābhārata and note their similarities and differences. Specifically, we’d like to know if the central kernel is different than other peripheral sections, since it is the part that got us interested in studying the Mahābhārata.

Getting The Data

Luckily, there are wonderful people online that keep track of Mahābhārata recensions. Sacred-Texts makes them available for non-profit and educational purposes.

To decide which reccession to look into, I went on SanskritDocuments and looked specifically at recensions that were released in the past 15 years. To narrow it down further, I looked only at those which are in the public domain. When we found out that there were multiple recensions that fit those requirements, I would pick the most highly acclaimed one. I ended up with one and a half dozen Mahābhārata books.

# Web scraping, pickle imports
import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import pickle

# Scrapes transcript data from scrapsfromtheloft.com
def url_to_transcript(url):
    '''Returns transcript data specifically from scrapsfromtheloft.com.'''
    page = requests.get(url).text
    soup = BeautifulSoup(page, "html")
    text = [p.text for p in soup]
    print(url)
    return text

# URLs of transcripts in scope
urls = ['https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha01.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha02.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha03.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha04.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha05.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha06.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha07.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha08.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha09.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha10.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha11.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha12.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha13.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha14.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha15.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha16.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha17.txt',
        'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha18.txt',
        ]

# Parva book names
parva = ['maha01', 'maha02', 'maha03', 'maha04', 'maha05', 'maha06', 'maha07', 'maha08', 'maha09', 'maha10', 'maha11',
         'maha12', 'maha13', 'maha14', 'maha15', 'maha16', 'maha17', 'maha18']
# # Actually request transcripts (takes a few minutes to run)
#transcripts = [url_to_transcript(u) for u in urls]
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha01.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha02.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha03.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha04.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha05.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha06.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha07.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha08.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha09.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha10.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha11.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha12.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha13.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha14.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha15.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha16.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha17.txt
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/VedantMadane/maha/master/maha18.txt
# # Pickle files for later use

# # Make a new directory to hold the text files
!mkdir transcripts

for i, c in enumerate(parva):
    with open("transcripts/" + c + ".txt", "wb") as file:
        pickle.dump(transcripts[i], file)
A subdirectory or file transcripts already exists.
# Load pickled files
data = {}
for i, c in enumerate(parva):
    with open("transcripts/" + c + ".txt", "rb") as file:
        data[c] = pickle.load(file)
# Double check to make sure data has been loaded properly
data.keys()
dict_keys(['Adi', 'sabhA', 'vana', 'virAta', 'udyoga', 'bhISma', 'droNa', 'karNa', 'shalya', 'sauptika', 'strI', 'shanti', 'anushAsana', 'ashvamedha', 'AshramavAsika', 'mausalA', 'mahAprasthAnika', 'svargArohaNika'])
# More checks
data['sabhA'][:2]
['The Mahabharata\r\n\r\nof\r\n\r\nKrishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa\r\n\r\nBOOK 2\r\n\r\nSABHA PARVA\r\n\r\nTranslated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text\r\n\r\nby\r\n\r\nKisari Mohan Ganguli\r\n\r\n[1883-1896]\r\n\r\nScanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003. Proofed at Distributed Proofing,\r\nJuliet Sutherland, Project Manager. Additional proofing and formatting at\r\nsacred-texts.com, by J. B. Hare.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION I\r\n\r\n(Sabhakriya Parva)\r\n\r\nOm! After having bowed down to Narayana, and Nara, the most exalted male\r\nbeing, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Then, in the presence of Vasudeva, Maya Danava,\r\nhaving worshipped Arjuna, repeatedly spoke unto him with joined hands and\r\nin amiable words,--\'O son of Kunti, saved have I been by thee from this\r\nKrishna in spate and from Pavaka (fire) desirous of consuming me. Tell me\r\nwhat I have to do for thee.\r\n\r\n"Arjuna said,--\'O great Asura, everything hath already been done by thee\r\n(even by this offer of thine). Blest be thou. Go whithersoever thou\r\nlikest. Be kind and well-disposed towards me, as we are even kind to and\r\nwell-pleased with thee!\'\r\n\r\n"Maya said,--\'O bull amongst men, what thou hast said is worthy of thee,\r\nO exalted one. But O Bharata, I desire to do something for thee\r\ncheerfully. I am a great artist, a Viswakarma among the Danavas. O son of\r\nPandu, being what I am, I desire to do something for thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Arjuna said,--\'O sinless one, thou regardest thyself as saved (by me)\r\nfrom imminent death. Even if it hath been so, I cannot make thee do\r\nanything for me. At the same time, O Danava, I do not wish to frustrate\r\nthy intentions. Do thou something for Krishna. That will be a sufficient\r\nrequital for my services to thee.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Then, O bull of the Bharata race, urged by Maya,\r\nVasudeva reflected for a moment as to what he should ask Maya to\r\naccomplish. Krishna, the Lord of the universe and the Creator of every\r\nobject, having reflected in his mind, thus commanded Maya,--\'Let a\r\npalatial sabha (meeting hall) as thou choosest, be built (by thee), if\r\nthou, O son of Diti, who art the foremost of all artists, desirest to do\r\ngood to Yudhishthira the just. Indeed, build thou such a palace that\r\npersons belonging to the world of men may not be able to imitate it even\r\nafter examining it with care, while seated within. And, O Maya, build\r\nthou a mansion in which we may behold a combination of godly, asuric and\r\nhuman designs.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Having heard those words, Maya became\r\nexceedingly glad. And he forthwith built a magnificent palace for the son\r\nof Pandu like unto the palace of the celestials themselves. Then Krishna\r\nand Partha (Arjuna) after having narrated everything unto king\r\nYudhishthira the just, introduced Maya unto him. Yudhishthira received\r\nMaya with respect, offering him the honour he deserved. And, O Bharata,\r\nMaya accepted that honour thinking highly of it. O monarch of the Bharata\r\nrace, that great son of Diti then recited unto the sons of Pandu the\r\nhistory of the Danava Vrisha-parva, and that foremost of artists then,\r\nhaving rested awhile, set himself after much thoughtful planning to build\r\na palace for the illustrious sons of Pandu. Agreeably to the wishes of\r\nboth Krishna and the sons of Pritha, the illustrious Danava of great\r\nprowess, having performed on an auspicious day the initial propitiatory\r\nrites of foundation and having also gratified thousands of well-versed\r\nBrahmanas with sweetened milk and rice and with rich presents of various\r\nkinds, measured out a plot of land five thousand cubits square, which was\r\ndelightful and exceedingly handsome to behold and which was favourable\r\nfor construction of a building well-suited to the exigencies of every\r\nseason."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION II\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Janardana deserving the worship of all, having\r\nlived happily at Khandavaprastha for some time, and having been treated\r\nall the while with respectful love and affection by the sons of Pritha,\r\nbecame desirous one day of leaving Khandavaprastha to behold his father.\r\nThat possessor of large eyes, unto whom was due the obeisance of the\r\nuniverse, then saluted both Yudhishthira and Pritha and made obeisance\r\nwith his head unto the feet of Kunti, his father\'s sister. Thus revered\r\nby Kesava, Pritha smelt his head and embraced him. The illustrious\r\nHrishikesa approached his own sister Subhadra affectionately, with his\r\neyes filled with tears, and spoke unto her words of excellent import and\r\ntruth, terse proper, unanswerable and fraught with good. The\r\nsweet-speeched Subhadra also, saluting him in return and worshipping him\r\nrepeatedly with bent head, told him all that she wished to be conveyed to\r\nher relatives on the paternal side. And bidding her farewell and uttering\r\nbenedictions on his handsome sister, he of the Vrishni race, next saw\r\nDraupadi and Dhaumya. That best of men duly made obeisance unto Dhaumya,\r\nand consoling Draupadi obtained leave from her. Then the learned and\r\nmighty Krishna, accompanied by Partha, went to his cousins. And\r\nsurrounded by the five brothers, Krishna shone like Sakra in the midst of\r\nthe celestials. He whose banner bore the figure of Garuda, desirous of\r\nperforming the rites preparatory to the commencement of a journey,\r\npurified himself by a bath and adorned his person with ornaments. The\r\nbull of the Yadu race then worshipped the gods and Brahmanas with floral\r\nwreaths, mantras, bows of the head, and excellent perfumes. Having\r\nfinished all these rites, that foremost of steady and virtuous persons\r\nthen thought of setting out. The chief of the Yadu race then came out of\r\nthe inner to the outer apartment, and issuing thence he made unto\r\nBrahmanas, deserving of worship, offerings of vessel-fulls of curd and\r\nfruits, and parched-grain and caused them to pronounce benedictions upon\r\nhim. And making unto them presents also of wealth, he went round them.\r\nThen ascending his excellent car of gold endued with great speed and\r\nadorned with banner bearing the figure of Tarkhya (Garuda) and furnished\r\nalso with mace, discus, sword, his bow Sharnga and other weapons, and\r\nyoking thereunto his horses Saivya and Sugriva, he of eyes like lotuses\r\nset out at an excellent moment of a lunar day of auspicious stellar\r\nconjunction. And Yudhishthira, the king of the Kurus, from affection,\r\nascended the chariot after Krishna, and causing that best charioteer\r\nDaruka to stand aside, himself took the reins. And Arjuna also, of long\r\narms, riding on that car, walked round Krishna and fanned him with a\r\nwhite chamara furnished with a handle of gold. And the mighty Bhimasena\r\naccompanied by the twin brothers Nakula and Sahadeva and the priests and\r\ncitizens all followed Krishna from behind. And Kesava, that slayer of\r\nhostile heroes, followed by all the brothers, shone like a preceptor\r\nfollowed by his favourite pupils. Then Govinda spoke unto Arjuna and\r\nclasped him firmly, and worshipping Yudhisthira and Bhima, embraced the\r\ntwins. And embraced in return by the three elder Pandavas, he was\r\nreverentially saluted by the twins. After having gone about half a Yojana\r\n(two miles), Krishna, that subjugator of hostile towns, respectfully\r\naddressed Yudhishthira and requested him, O Bharata, to stop following\r\nhim further. And Govinda, conversant with every duty, then reverentially\r\nsaluted Yudhishthira and took hold of his feet. But Yudhishthira soon\r\nraised Kesava and smelt his head. King Yudhishthira the just, the son of\r\nPandu, having raised Krishna endued with eyes like lotus-petals and the\r\nforemost of the Yadava race, gave him leave, saying,--\'Good bye!\' Then\r\nthe slayer of Madhu, making an appointment with them (about his return)\r\nin words that were proper, and preventing with difficulty the Pandavas\r\nfrom following him further on foot, gladly proceeded towards his own\r\ncity, like Indra going towards Amravati. Out of the love and affection\r\nthey bore him, the Pandavas gazed on Krishna as long as he was within\r\nsight, and their minds also followed him when he got out of sight. And\r\nKesava of agreeable person soon disappeared from their sight, unsatiated\r\nthough their minds were with looking at him. Those bulls among men, the\r\nsons of Pritha, with minds fixed on Govinda, desisted (from following him\r\nfurther) and unwillingly returned to their own city in haste. And Krishna\r\nin his car soon reached Dwaraka followed by that hero Satyaki. Then\r\nSauri, the son of Devaki, accompanied by his charioteer Daruka reached\r\nDwaraka with the speed of Garuda."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Meanwhile king Yudhishthira of unfading glory,\r\naccompanied by his brothers and surrounded by friends, entered his\r\nexcellent capital. And that tiger among men, dismissing all his\r\nrelatives, brothers, and sons, sought to make himself happy in the\r\ncompany of Draupadi. And Kesava also, worshipped by the principal Yadavas\r\nincluding Ugrasena, entered with a happy heart his own excellent city.\r\nAnd worshipping his old father and his illustrious mother, and saluting\r\n(his brother) Valadeva, he of eyes like lotus-petals took his seat.\r\nEmbracing Pradyumna, Shamva, Nishatha, Charudeshna, Gada, Aniruddha and\r\nBhanu, and obtaining the leave of all the elderly men, Janardana entered\r\nthe apartments of Rukmini."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION III\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Then Maya Danava addressed Arjuna, that foremost of\r\nsuccessful warriors, saying,--\'I now go with thy leave, but shall come\r\nback soon. On the north of the Kailasa peak near the mountains of\r\nMainaka, while the Danavas were engaged in a sacrifice on the banks of\r\nVindu lake, I gathered a huge quantity of delightful and variegated vanda\r\n(a kind of rough materials) composed of jewels and gems. This was placed\r\nin the mansion of Vrishaparva ever devoted to truth. If it be yet\r\nexisting, I shall come back, O Bharata, with it. I shall then commence\r\nthe construction of the delightful palace of the Pandavas, which is to be\r\nadorned with every kind of gems and celebrated all over the world. There\r\nis also, I think, O thou of the Kuru race, a fierce club placed in the\r\nlake Vindu by the King (of the Danavas) after slaughtering therewith all\r\nhis foes in battle. Besides being heavy and strong and variegated with\r\ngolden knobs, it is capable of bearing great weight, and of slaying all\r\nfoes, and is equal in strength unto an hundred thousand clubs. It is a\r\nfit weapon for Bhima, even as the Gandiva is for thee. There is also (in\r\nthat lake) a large conch-shell called Devadatta of loud sound, that came\r\nfrom Varuna. I shall no doubt give all these to thee. Having spoken thus\r\nunto Partha, the Asura went away in a north-easterly direction. On the\r\nnorth of Kailasa in the mountains of Mainaka, there is a huge peak of\r\ngems and jewels called Hiranya-sringa. Near that peak is a delightful\r\nlake of the name of Vindu. There, on its banks, previously dwelt king\r\nBhagiratha for many years, desiring to behold the goddess Ganga, since\r\ncalled Bhagirathee after that king\'s name. And there, on its banks, O\r\nthou best of the Bharatas, Indra the illustrious lord of every created\r\nthing, performed one hundred great sacrifices. There, for the sake of\r\nbeauty, though not according to the dictates of the ordinance, were\r\nplaced sacrificial stakes made of gems and altars of gold. There, after\r\nperforming those sacrifices, the thousand-eyed lord of Sachi became\r\ncrowned with success. There the fierce Mahadeva, the eternal lord of\r\nevery creature, has taken up his abode after having created all the\r\nworlds and there he dwelleth, worshipped with reverence by thousands of\r\nspirits. There Nara and Narayana, Brahma and Yama and Sthanu the fifth,\r\nperform their sacrifices at the expiration of a thousand yugas. There,\r\nfor the establishment of virtue and religion, Vasudeva, with pious\r\ndevotion, performed his sacrifices extending for many, many long years.\r\nThere were placed by Keshava thousands and tens of thousands of\r\nsacrificial stakes adorned with golden garlands and altars of great\r\nsplendour. Going thither, O Bharata, Maya brought back the club and the\r\nconch-shell and the various crystalline articles that had belonged to\r\nking Vrishaparva. And the great Asura, Maya, having gone thither,\r\npossessed himself of the whole of the great wealth which was guarded by\r\nYakshas and Rakshasas. Bringing them, the Asura constructed therewith a\r\npeerless palace, which was of great beauty and of celestial make,\r\ncomposed entirely of gems and precious stones, and celebrated throughout\r\nthe three worlds. He gave unto Bhimasena that best of clubs, and unto\r\nArjuna the most excellent conch-shell at whose sound all creatures\r\ntrembled in awe. And the palace that Maya built consisted of columns of\r\ngold, and occupied, O monarch, an area of five thousand cubits. The\r\npalace, possessing an exceedingly beautiful form, like unto that of Agni\r\nor Suryya, or Soma, shone in great splendour, and by its brilliance\r\nseemed to darken even the bright rays of the sun. And with the effulgence\r\nit exhibited, which was a mixture of both celestial and terrestrial\r\nlight, it looked as if it was on fire. Like unto a mass of new clouds\r\nconspicuous in the sky, the palace rose up coming into view of all.\r\nIndeed, the palace that the dexterous Maya built was so wide, delightful,\r\nand refreshing, and composed of such excellent materials, and furnished\r\nwith such golden walls and archways, and adorned with so many varied\r\npictures, and was withal so rich and well-built, that in beauty it far\r\nsurpassed Sudharma of the Dasarha race, or the mansion of Brahma himself.\r\nAnd eight thousand Rakshasas called Kinkaras, fierce, huge-bodied and\r\nendued with great strength, of red coppery eyes and arrowy ears,\r\nwell-armed and capable of ranging through the air, used to guard and\r\nprotect that palace. Within that palace Maya placed a peerless tank, and\r\nin that tank were lotuses with leaves of dark-coloured gems and stalks of\r\nbright jewels, and other flowers also of golden leaves. And aquatic fowls\r\nof various species sported on its bosom. Itself variegated with\r\nfull-blown lotuses and stocked with fishes and tortoises of golden hue,\r\nits bottom was without mud and its water transparent. There was a flight\r\nof crystal stairs leading from the banks to the edge of the water. The\r\ngentle breezes that swept along its bosom softly shook the flowers that\r\nstudded it. The banks of that tank were overlaid with slabs of costly\r\nmarble set with pearls. And beholding that tank thus adorned all around\r\nwith jewels and precious stones, many kings that came there mistook it\r\nfor land and fell into it with eyes open. Many tall trees of various\r\nkinds were planted all around the palace. Of green foliage and cool\r\nshade, and ever blossoming, they were all very charming to behold.\r\nArtificial woods were laid around, always emitting a delicious fragrance.\r\nAnd there were many tanks also that were adorned with swans and\r\nKarandavas and Chakravakas (Brahminy ducks) in the grounds lying about\r\nthe mansion. And the breeze bearing the fragrance of lotuses growing in\r\nwater and (of those growing on land) ministered unto the pleasure and\r\nhappiness of the Pandavas. And Maya having constructed such a palatial\r\nhall within fourteen months, reported its completion unto Yudhishthira."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION IV\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Then that chief of men, king Yudhishthira, entered\r\nthat palatial sabha having first fed ten thousand Brahmanas with\r\npreparations of milk and rice mixed with clarified butter and honey with\r\nfruits and roots, and with pork and venison. The king gratified those\r\nsuperior Brahmanas, who had come from various countries with food\r\nseasoned with seasamum and prepared with vegetables called jibanti, with\r\nrice mixed with clarified butter, with different preparations of\r\nmeat--with indeed various kinds of other food, as also numberless viands\r\nthat are fit to be sucked and innumerable kinds of drinks, with new and\r\nunused robes and clothes, and with excellent floral wreaths. The king\r\nalso gave unto each of those Brahmanas a thousand kine. And, O Bharata,\r\nthe voice of the gratified Brahmanas uttering,--\'What an auspicious day\r\nis this! became so loud that it seemed to reach heaven itself. And when\r\nthe Kuru king entered the palatial sabha having also worshipped the gods\r\nwith various kinds of music and numerous species of excellent and costly\r\nperfumes, the athletes and mimes and prize-fighters and bards and\r\nencomiasts began to gratify that illustrious son of Dharma by exhibiting\r\ntheir skill. And thus celebrating his entry into the palace, Yudhishthira\r\nwith his brothers sported within that palace like Sakra himself in\r\nheaven. Upon the seats in that palace sat, along with the Pandavas,\r\nRishis and kings that came from various countries, viz., Asita and\r\nDevala, Satya, Sarpamali and Mahasira; Arvavasu, Sumitra, Maitreya,\r\nSunaka and Vali; Vaka, Dalvya, Sthulasira, Krishna-Dwaipayana, and Suka\r\nSumanta, Jaimini, Paila, and the disciples of Vyasa, viz., ourselves;\r\nTittiri, Yajanavalkya, and Lomaharshana with his son; Apsuhomya, Dhaumya,\r\nAnimandavya; and Kausika; Damoshnisha and Traivali, Parnada, and\r\nVarayanuka, Maunjayana, Vayubhaksha, Parasarya, and Sarika; Valivaka,\r\nSilivaka, Satyapala, and Krita-srama; Jatukarna, and Sikhavat. Alamva and\r\nParijataka; the exalted Parvata, and the great Muni Markandeya;\r\nPavitrapani, Savarna, Bhaluki, and Galava. Janghabandhu, Raibhya,\r\nKopavega, and Bhrigu: Harivabhru, Kaundinya, Vabhrumali, and Sanatana,\r\nKakshivat, and Ashija, Nachiketa, and Aushija, Nachiketa, and Gautama;\r\nPainga, Varaha, Sunaka, and Sandilya of great ascetic merit: Kukkura,\r\nVenujangha, Kalapa and Katha;--these virtuous and learned Munis with\r\nsenses and souls under complete control, and many others as numerous, all\r\nwell-skilled in the Vedas and Vedangas and conversant with (rules of)\r\nmorality and pure and spotless in behaviour, waited on the illustrious\r\nYudhishthira, and gladdened him by their sacred discourses. And so also\r\nnumerous principal Kshatriyas, such as the illustrious and virtuous\r\nMujaketu, Vivarddhana, Sangramjit, Durmukha, the powerful Ugrasena;\r\nKakshasena, the lord of the Earth, Kshemaka the invincible; Kamatha, the\r\nking of Kamvoja, and the mighty Kampana who alone made the Yavanas to\r\never tremble at his name just as the god that wieldeth the thunder-bolt\r\nmaketh those Asuras, the Kalakeyas, tremble before him; Jatasura, and the\r\nking of the Madrakas, Kunti, Pulinda the king of the Kiratas, and the\r\nkings of Anga and Vanga, and Pandrya, and the king of Udhara, and\r\nAndhaka; Sumitra, and Saivya that slayer of foes; Sumanas, the king of\r\nthe Kiratas, and Chanur the King of the Yavanas, Devarata, Bhoja, and the\r\nso called Bhimaratha, Srutayudha--the king of Kalinga, Jayasena the king\r\nof Magadha; and Sukarman, and Chekitana, and Puru that slayer of foes;\r\nKetumata, Vasudana, and Vaideha and Kritakshana: Sudharman, Aniruddha,\r\nSrutayu endued with great strength; the invincible Anuparaja, the\r\nhandsome Karmajit; Sisupala with his son, the king of Karusha; and the\r\ninvincible youths of the Vrishni race, all equal in beauty unto the\r\ncelestials, viz., Ahuka, Viprithu, Sada, Sarana, Akrura, Kritavarman, and\r\nSatyaka, the son of Sini; and Bhismaka, Ankriti, and the powerful\r\nDyumatsena, those chief of bowmen viz., the Kaikeyas and Yajnasena of the\r\nSomaka race; these Kshatriyas endured with great might, all well-armed\r\nand wealthy, and many others also regarded as the foremost, all waited\r\nupon Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, in that Sabha, desirous of\r\nministering to his happiness. And those princes also, endued with great\r\nstrength, who dressing themselves in deer-skins learnt the science of\r\nweapons under Arjuna, waited upon Yudhishthira. And O king, the princes\r\nalso of the Vrishni race, viz., Pradyumna (the son of Rukmini) and Samva,\r\nand Yuyudhana the son of Satyaki and Sudharman and Aniruddha and Saivya\r\nthat foremost of men who had learnt the science of arms under Arjuna\r\nthese and many other kings, O lord of the Earth, used to wait on\r\nYudhishthira on that occasion. And that friend of Dhananjaya, Tumvuru,\r\nand the Gandharva Chittasena with his ministers, any many other\r\nGandharvas and Apsaras, well-skilled in vocal and instrumental music and\r\nin cadence and Kinnaras also well-versed in (musical) measures and\r\nmotions singing celestial tunes in proper and charming voices, waited\r\nupon and gladdened the sons of Pandu and the Rishis who sat in that\r\nSabha. And seated in that Sabha, those bull among men, of rigid vows and\r\ndevoted to truth, all waited upon Yudhishthira like the celestials in\r\nheaven waiting upon Brahma."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION V\r\n\r\n(Lokapala Sabhakhayana Parva)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"While the illustrious Pandavas were seated in that\r\nSabha along with the principal Gandharvas, there came, O Bharata, unto\r\nthat assembly the celestial Rishi Narada, conversant with the Vedas and\r\nUpanishadas, worshipped by the celestials acquainted with histories and\r\nPuranas, well-versed in all that occurred in ancient kalpas (cycles),\r\nconversant with Nyaya (logic) and the truth of moral science, possessing\r\na complete knowledge of the six Angas (viz., pronunciation, grammar,\r\nprosody, explanation of basic terms, description of religious rites, and\r\nastronomy). He was a perfect master in reconciling contradictory texts\r\nand differentiating in applying general principles to particular cases,\r\nas also in interpreting contraries by reference to differences in\r\nsituation, eloquent, resolute, intelligent, possessed of powerful memory.\r\nHe was acquainted with the science of morals and politics, learned,\r\nproficient in distinguishing inferior things from superior ones, skilled\r\nin drawing inference from evidence, competent to judge of the correctness\r\nor incorrectness of syllogistic statements consisting of five\r\npropositions. He was capable of answering successively Vrihaspati himself\r\nwhile arguing, with definite conclusions properly framed about religion,\r\nwealth, pleasure and salvation, of great soul and beholding this whole\r\nuniverse, above, below, and around, as if it were present before his\r\neyes. He was master of both the Sankhya and Yoga systems of philosophy,\r\never desirous of humbling the celestials and Asuras by fomenting quarrels\r\namong them, conversant with the sciences of war and treaty, proficient in\r\ndrawing conclusions by judging of things not within direct ken, as also\r\nin the six sciences of treaty, war, military campaigns, maintenance of\r\nposts against the enemy and stratagems by ambuscades and reserves. He was\r\na thorough master of every branch of learning, fond of war and music,\r\nincapable of being repulsed by any science or any course, of action, and\r\npossessed of these and numberless other accomplishments. The Rishi,\r\nhaving wandered over the different worlds, came into that Sabha. And the\r\ncelestial Rishi  of immeasurable splendour, endued with great energy was\r\naccompanied, O monarch, by Parijata and the intelligent Raivata and\r\nSaumya and Sumukha. Possessing the speed of the mind, the Rishi came\r\nthither and was filled with gladness upon beholding the Pandavas. The\r\nBrahmana, on arriving there, paid homage unto Yudhishthira by uttering\r\nblessings on him and wishing him victory. Beholding the learned Rishi\r\narrive, the eldest of the Pandavas, conversant with all rules of duty,\r\nquickly stood up with his younger brothers. Bending low with humility,\r\nthe monarch cheerfully saluted the Rishi, and gave with due ceremonies a\r\nbefitting seat unto him. The king also gave him kine and the usual\r\nofferings of the Arghya including honey and the other ingredients.\r\nConversant with every duty the monarch also worshipped the Rishi with\r\ngems and jewels with a whole heart. Receiving that worship from\r\nYudhishthira in proper form, the Rishi became gratified. Thus worshipped\r\nby the Pandavas and the great Rishis, Narada possessing a complete\r\nmastery over the Vedas, said unto Yudhishthira the following words\r\nbearing upon religion, wealth, pleasures and salvation.\r\n\r\n"Narada said--\'Is the wealth thou art earning being spent on proper\r\nobjects? Doth thy mind take pleasure in virtue? Art thou enjoying the\r\npleasures of life? Doth not thy mind sink under their weight? O chief of\r\nmen, continuest thou in the noble conduct consistent with religion and\r\nwealth practised by thy ancestors towards the three classes of subjects,\r\n(viz., good, indifferent, and bad)? Never injurest thou religion for the\r\nsake of wealth, or both religion and wealth for the sake of pleasure that\r\neasily seduces? O thou foremost of victorious men ever devoted to the\r\ngood of all, conversant as thou art with the timeliness of everything,\r\nfollowest thou religion, wealth, pleasure and salvation dividing thy time\r\njudiciously? O sinless one, with the six attributes of kings (viz.,\r\ncleverness of speech, readiness in providing means, intelligence in\r\ndealing with the foe, memory, and acquaintance with morals and politics),\r\ndost thou attend to the seven means (viz., sowing dissensions,\r\nchastisement, conciliation, gifts, incantations, medicine and magic)?\r\nExaminest thou also, after a survey of thy own strength and weakness, the\r\nfourteen possessions of thy foes? These are the country, forts, cars,\r\nelephants, cavalry, foot-soldiers, the principal officials of state, the\r\nzenana, food supply, computations of the army and income, the religious\r\ntreatises in force, the accounts of state, the revenue, wine-shops and\r\nother secret enemies. Attendest thou to the eight occupations (of\r\nagriculture, trade, &c), having examined, O thou foremost of victorious\r\nmonarchs, thy own and thy enemy\'s means, and having made peace with thy\r\nenemies? O bull of the Bharata race, thy seven principal officers of\r\nstate (viz., the governor of the citadel, the commander of forces, the\r\nchief judge, the general in interior command, the chief priest, the chief\r\nphysician, and the chief astrologer), have not, I hope, succumbed to the\r\ninfluence of thy foes, nor have they, I hope, become idle in consequence\r\nof the wealth they have earned? They are, I hope, all obedient to thee.\r\nThy counsels, I hope, are never divulged by thy trusted spies in\r\ndisguise, by thyself or by thy ministers? Thou ascertainest, I hope, what\r\nthy friends, foes and strangers are about? Makest thou peace and makest\r\nthou war at proper times? Observest thou neutrality towards strangers and\r\npersons that are neutral towards thee? And, O hero, hast thou made\r\npersons like thyself, persons that are old, continent in behaviour,\r\ncapable of understanding what should be done and what should not, pure as\r\nregards birth and blood, and devoted to thee, thy ministers? O Bharata,\r\nthe victories of kings can be attributed to good counsels. O child, is\r\nthy kingdom protected by ministers learned in Sastras, keeping their\r\ncounsels close? Are thy foes unable to injure it? Thou hast not become\r\nthe slave of sleep? Wakest thou at the proper time? Conversant with\r\npursuits yielding profit, thinkest thou, during the small hours of night,\r\nas to what thou shouldst do and what thou shouldst not do the next day?\r\nThou settlest nothing alone, nor takest counsels with many? The counsels\r\nthou hast resolved upon, do not become known all over thy kingdom?\r\nCommencest thou soon to accomplish measures of great utility that are\r\neasy of accomplishment? Such measures are never obstructed? Keepest thou\r\nthe agriculturists not out of thy sight? They do not fear to approach\r\nthee? Achievest thou thy measures through persons that are trusted\r\nincorruptible, and possessed of practical experience? And, O brave king.\r\nI hope, people only know the measures already accomplished by thee and\r\nthose that have been partially accomplished and are awaiting completion,\r\nbut not those that are only in contemplation and uncommenced? Have\r\nexperienced teachers capable of explaining the causes of things and\r\nlearned in the science of morals and every branch of learning, been\r\nappointed to instruct the princes and the chiefs of the army? Buyest thou\r\na single learned man by giving in exchange a thousand ignorant\r\nindividuals? The man that is learned conferreth the greatest benefit in\r\nseasons of distress. Are thy forts always filled with treasure, food,\r\nweapons, water, engines and instruments, as also with engineers and\r\nbowmen? Even a single minister that is intelligent, brave, with his\r\npassions under complete control, and possessed of wisdom and judgment, is\r\ncapable of conferring the highest prosperity on a king or a king\'s son. I\r\nask thee, therefore, whether there is even one such minister with thee?\r\nSeekest thou to know everything about the eighteen Tirthas of the foe and\r\nfifteen of thy own by means of three and three spies all unacquainted\r\nwith one another? O slayer of all foes, watchest thou all thy enemies\r\nwith care and attention, and unknown to them? Is the priest thou\r\nhonourest, possessed of humility, and purity of blood, and renown, and\r\nwithout jealousy and illiberality? Hath any well-behaved, intelligent,\r\nand guileless Brahmana, well-up in the ordinance, been employed by thee\r\nin the performance of thy daily rites before the sacred fire, and doth he\r\nremind thee in proper time as to when thy homa should be performed? Is\r\nthe astrologer thou hast employed skilled in reading physiognomy, capable\r\nof interpreting omens, and competent to neutralise the effect of the\r\ndisturbances of nature? Have respectable servants been employed by thee\r\nin offices that are respectable, indifferent ones in indifferent offices,\r\nand low ones in offices that are low? Hast thou appointed to high offices\r\nministers that are guileless and of well conduct for generations and\r\nabove the common run? Oppressest thou not thy people with cruel and\r\nsevere punishment? And, O bull of the Bharata race, do thy ministers rule\r\nthy kingdom under thy orders? Do thy ministers ever slight thee like\r\nsacrificial priests slighting men that are fallen (and incapable of\r\nperforming any more sacrifices) or like wives slighting husbands that are\r\nproud and incontinent in their behaviour? Is the commander of thy forces\r\npossessed of sufficient confidence, brave, intelligent, patient,\r\nwell-conducted, of good birth, devoted to thee, and competent? Treatest\r\nthou with consideration and regard the chief officers of thy army that\r\nare skilled in every kind of welfare, are forward, well-behaved, and\r\nendued with prowess? Givest thou to thy troops their sanctioned rations\r\nand pay in the appointed time? Thou dost not oppress them by withholding\r\nthese? Knowest thou that the misery caused by arrears of pay and\r\nirregularity in the distribution of rations driveth the troops to mutiny,\r\nand that is called by the learned to be one of the greatest of mischiefs?\r\nAre all the principal high-born men devoted to thee, and ready with\r\ncheerfulness to lay down their lives in battle for thy sake? I hope no\r\nsingle individual of passions uncontrolled is ever permitted by thee to\r\nrule as he likes a number of concerns at the same time appertaining to\r\nthe army? Is any servant of thine, who hath accomplished well a\r\nparticular business by the employment of special ability, disappointed in\r\nobtaining from thee a little more regard, and an increase of food and\r\npay? I hope thou rewardest persons of learning and humility, and skill in\r\nevery kind of knowledge with gifts of wealth and honour proportionate to\r\ntheir qualifications. Dost thou support, O bull in the Bharata race, the\r\nwives and children of men that have given their lives for thee and have\r\nbeen distressed on thy account? Cherishest thou, O son of Pritha, with\r\npaternal affection the foe that hath been weakened, or him also that hath\r\nsought thy shelter, having been vanquished in battle? O lord of Earth,\r\nart thou equal unto all men, and can every one approach thee without\r\nfear, as if thou wert their mother and father? And O bull of the Bharata\r\nrace, marchest thou, without loss of time, and reflecting well upon three\r\nkinds of forces, against thy foe when thou hearest that he is in\r\ndistress? O subjugator of all foes beginnest thou thy march when the time\r\ncometh, having taken into consideration all the omens you might see, the\r\nresolutions thou hast made, and that the ultimate victory depends upon\r\nthe twelve mandalas (such as reserves, ambuscades, &c, and payment of pay\r\nto the troops in advance)? And, O persecutor of all foes, givest thou\r\ngems and jewels, unto the principal officers of enemy, as they deserve,\r\nwithout thy enemy\'s knowledge? O son of Pritha, seekest thou to conquer\r\nthy incensed foes that are slaves to their passions, having first\r\nconquered thy own soul and obtained the mastery over thy own senses?\r\nBefore thou marchest out against thy foes, dost thou properly employ the\r\nfour arts of reconciliation, gift (of wealth) producing disunion, and\r\napplication of force? O monarch, goest thou out against thy enemies,\r\nhaving first strengthened thy own kingdom? And having gone out against\r\nthem, exertest thou to the utmost to obtain victory over them? And having\r\nconquered them, seekest thou to protect them with care? Are thy army\r\nconsisting of four kinds of forces, viz., the regular troops, the allies,\r\nthe mercenaries, and the irregulars, each furnished with the eight\r\ningredients, viz., cars, elephants, horses, offices, infantry,\r\ncamp-followers, spies possessing a thorough knowledge of the country, and\r\nensigns led out against thy enemies after having been well trained by\r\nsuperior officers? O oppressor of all foes, O great king, I hope thou\r\nslayest thy foes without regarding their seasons of reaping and of\r\nfamine? O king, I hope thy servants and agents in thy own kingdom and in\r\nthe kingdoms of thy foes continue to look after their respective duties\r\nand to protect one another. O monarch, I hope trusted servants have been\r\nemployed by thee to look after thy food, the robes thou wearest and the\r\nperfumes thou usest. I hope, O king, thy treasury, barns, stables\r\narsenals, and women\'s apartments, are all protected by servants devoted\r\nto thee and ever seeking thy welfare. I hope, O monarch, thou protectest\r\nfirst thyself from thy domestic and public servants, then from those\r\nservants of thy relatives and from one another. Do thy servants, O king,\r\never speak to thee in the forenoon regarding thy extravagant expenditure\r\nin respect of thy drinks, sports, and women? Is thy expenditure always\r\ncovered by a fourth, a third or a half of thy income? Cherishest thou\r\nalways, with food and wealth, relatives, superiors, merchants, the aged,\r\nand other proteges, and the distressed? Do the accountants and clerks\r\nemployed by thee in looking after thy income and expenditure, always\r\nappraise thee every day in the forenoon of thy income and expenditure?\r\nDismissest thou without fault servants accomplished in business and\r\npopular and devoted to thy welfare? O Bharata, dost thou employ superior,\r\nindifferent, and low men, after examining them well in offices they\r\ndeserve? O monarch, employest thou in thy business persons that are\r\nthievish or open to temptation, or hostile, or minors? Persecutest thou\r\nthy kingdom by the help of thievish or covetous men, or minors, or women?\r\nAre the agriculturists in thy kingdom contented. Are large tanks and\r\nlakes constructed all over thy kingdom at proper distances, without\r\nagriculture being in thy realm entirely dependent on the showers of\r\nheaven? Are the agriculturists in thy kingdom wanting in either seed or\r\nfood? Grantest thou with kindness loans (of seed-grains) unto the\r\ntillers, taking only a fourth in excess of every measure by the hundred?\r\nO child, are the four professions of agriculture, trade, cattle-rearing,\r\nand lending at interest, carried on by honest men? Upon these O monarch,\r\ndepends the happiness of thy people. O king, do the five brave and wise\r\nmen, employed in the five offices of protecting the city, the citadel,\r\nthe merchants, and the agriculturists, and punishing the criminals,\r\nalways benefit thy kingdom by working in union with one another? For the\r\nprotection of thy city, have the villages been made like towns, and the\r\nhamlets and outskirts of villages like villages? Are all these entirely\r\nunder thy supervision and sway? Are thieves and robbers that sack thy\r\ntown pursued by thy police over the even and uneven parts of thy kingdom?\r\nConsolest thou women and are they protected in thy realm? I hope thou\r\nplacest not any confidence in them, nor divulgest any secret before any\r\nof them? O monarch, having heard of any danger and having reflected on it\r\nalso, liest thou in the inner apartments enjoying every agreeable object?\r\nHaving slept during the second and the third divisions of the night,\r\nthinkest thou of religion and profit in the fourth division wakefully. O\r\nson of Pandu, rising from bed at the proper time and dressing thyself\r\nwell, showest thou thyself to thy people, accompanied by ministers\r\nconversant with the auspiciousness or otherwise of moments? O represser\r\nof all foes, do men dressed in red and armed with swords and adorned with\r\nornaments stand by thy side to protect thy person? O monarch! behavest\r\nthou like the god of justice himself unto those that deserve punishment\r\nand those that deserve worship, unto those that are dear to thee and\r\nthose that thou likest not? O son of Pritha, seekest thou to cure bodily\r\ndiseases by medicines and fasts, and mental illness with the advice of\r\nthe aged? I hope that the physicians engaged in looking after thy health\r\nare well conversant with the eight kinds of treatment and are all\r\nattached and devoted to thee. Happeneth it ever, O monarch, that from\r\ncovetousness or folly or pride thou failest to decide between the\r\nplaintiff and the defendant who have come to thee? Deprivest thou,\r\nthrough covetousness or folly, of their pensions the proteges who have\r\nsought thy shelter from trustfulness or love? Do the people that inhabit\r\nthy realm, bought by thy foes, ever seek to raise disputes with thee,\r\nuniting themselves with one another? Are those amongst thy foes that are\r\nfeeble always repressed by the help of troops that are strong, by the\r\nhelp of both counsels and troops? Are all the principal chieftains (of\r\nthy empire) all devoted to thee? Are they ready to lay down their lives\r\nfor thy sake, commanded by thee? Dost thou worship Brahmanas and wise men\r\naccording to their merits in respect of various branches of learning? I\r\ntell thee, such worship is without doubt, highly beneficial to thee. Hast\r\nthou faith in the religion based on the three Vedas and practised by men\r\nwho have gone before thee? Dost thou carefully follow the practices that\r\nwere followed by them? Are accomplished Brahmanas entertained in thy\r\nhouse and in thy presence with nutritive and excellent food, and do they\r\nalso obtain pecuniary gifts at the conclusion of those feasts? Dost thou,\r\nwith passions under complete control and with singleness of mind, strive\r\nto perform the sacrifices called Vajapeya and Pundarika with their full\r\ncomplement of rites? Bowest thou unto thy relatives and superiors, the\r\naged, the gods, the ascetics, the Brahmanas, and the tall trees (banian)\r\nin villages, that are of so much benefit to people? O sinless one,\r\ncausest thou ever grief or anger in any one? Do priests capable of\r\ngranting thee auspicious fruits ever stand by thy side? O sinless one,\r\nare thy inclinations and practices such as I have described them, and as\r\nalways enhance the duration of life and spread one\'s renown and as always\r\nhelp the cause of religion, pleasure, and profit? He who conducteth\r\nhimself according to this way, never findeth his kingdom distressed or\r\nafflicted; and that monarch, subjugating the whole earth, enjoyeth a high\r\ndegree of felicity. O monarch, I hope, no well-behaved, pure-souled, and\r\nrespected person is ever ruined and his life taken, on a false charge or\r\ntheft, by thy ministers ignorant of Sastras and acting from greed? And, O\r\nbull among men, I hope thy ministers never from covetousness set free a\r\nreal thief, knowing him to be such and having apprehended him with the\r\nbooty about him? O Bharata, I hope, thy ministers are never won over by\r\nbribes, nor do they wrongly decide the disputes that arise between the\r\nrich and the poor. Dost thou keep thyself free from the fourteen vices of\r\nkings, viz., atheism, untruthfulness, anger, incautiousness,\r\nprocrastination, non-visit to the wise, idleness, restlessness of mind,\r\ntaking counsels with only one man, consultation with persons unacquainted\r\nwith the science of profit, abandonment of a settled plan, divulgence of\r\ncounsels, non-accomplishment of beneficial projects, and undertaking\r\neverything without reflection? By these, O king, even monarchs firmly\r\nseated on their thrones are ruined. Hath thy study of the Vedas, thy\r\nwealth and knowledge of the Sastras and marriage been fruitful?\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--After the Rishi had finished, Yudhishthira\r\nasked,--"How, O Rishi, do the Vedas, wealth, wife, and knowledge of the\r\nSastras bear fruit?"\r\n\r\n"The Rishi answered,--"The Vedas are said to bear fruit when he that hath\r\nstudied them performeth the Agnihotra and other sacrifices. Wealth is\r\nsaid to bear fruit when he that hath it enjoyeth it himself and giveth it\r\naway in charity. A wife is said to bear fruit when she is useful and when\r\nshe beareth children. Knowledge of the Sastras is said to bear fruit when\r\nit resulteth in humility and good behaviour."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--The great ascetic Narada, having answered\r\nYudhishthira thus, again asked that just ruler,-"Do the officers of thy\r\ngovernment, O king, that are paid from the taxes levied on the community,\r\ntake only their just dues from the merchants that come to thy territories\r\nfrom distant lands impelled by the desire of gain? Are the merchants, O\r\nking, treated with consideration in thy capital and kingdom, capable of\r\nbringing their goods thither without being deceived by the false pretexts\r\nof (both the buyers and the officers of government)?\r\n\r\nListenest thou always, O monarch, to the words, fraught with instructions\r\nin religion and wealth, of old men acquainted with economic doctrines?\r\nAre gifts of honey and clarified butter made to the Brahmanas intended\r\nfor the increase of agricultural produce, of kine, of fruits and flowers,\r\nand for the sake of virtue? Givest thou always, O king, regularly unto\r\nall the artisans and artists employed by thee the materials of their\r\nworks and their wages for periods not more than four months? Examinest\r\nthou the works executed by those that are employed by thee, and\r\napplaudest thou them before good men, and rewardest thou them, having\r\nshewn them proper respect? O bull of the Bharata race, followest thou the\r\naphorisms (of the sage) in respect of every concern particularly those\r\nrelating to elephants, horses, and cars? O bull of the Bharata race, are\r\nthe aphorisms relating to the science of arms, as also those that relate\r\nto the practice of engines in warfare--so useful to towns and fortified\r\nplaces, studied in thy court? O sinless one, art thou acquainted with all\r\nmysterious incantations, and with the secrets of poisons destructive of\r\nall foes? Protectest thou thy kingdom from the fear of fire, of snakes\r\nand other animals destructive of life, of disease, and Rakshasas? As\r\nacquainted thou art with every duty, cherishest thou like a father, the\r\nblind, the dumb, the lame, the deformed, the friendless, and ascetics\r\nthat have no homes. Hast thou banished these six evils, O monarch, viz.,\r\nsleep, idleness, fear, anger, weakness of mind, and procrastination?\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--The illustrious bull among the Kurus, having\r\nheard these words of that best of Brahmanas, bowed down unto him and\r\nworshipped his feet. And gratified with everything he heard, the monarch\r\nsaid unto Narada of celestial form,--"I shall do all that thou hast\r\ndirected, for my knowledge hath expanded under thy advice!\' Having said\r\nthis the king acted conformably to that advice, and gained in time the\r\nwhole Earth bounded by her belt of seas. Narada again spoke,\r\nsaying,--"That king who is thus employed in the protection of four\r\norders, Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras, passeth his days\r\nhere happily and attaineth hereafter to the region of Sakra (heaven).\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VI\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--At the conclusion of Narada\'s words, king\r\nYudhishthira the just worshipped him duly; and commanded by him the\r\nmonarch began to reply succinctly to the questions the Rishi had asked.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said--\'O holy one, the truths of religion and morality thou\r\nhast indicated one after another, are just and proper. As regards myself,\r\nI duly observe those ordinances to the best of my power. Indeed, the acts\r\nthat were properly performed by monarchs of yore are, without doubt, to\r\nbe regarded as bearing proper fruit, and undertaken from solid reasons\r\nfor the attainment of proper objects. O master, we desire to walk in the\r\nvirtuous path of those rulers that had, besides, their souls under\r\ncomplete control."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--"Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu, possessed of\r\ngreat glory, having received with reverence the words of Narada and\r\nhaving also answered the Rishi thus, reflected for a moment. And\r\nperceiving a proper opportunity, the monarch, seated beside the Rishi,\r\nasked Narada sitting at his ease and capable of going into every world at\r\nwill, in the presence of that assembly of kings, saying,--\'Possessed of\r\nthe speed of mind, thou wanderest over various and many worlds created in\r\ndays of yore by Brahma, beholding everything. Tell me, I ask thee, if\r\nthou hast, O Brahmana, ever beheld before anywhere an assembly room like\r\nthis of mine or superior to it!\' Hearing these words of Yudhishthira the\r\njust, Narada smilingly answered the son of Pandu in these sweet accents,--\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--\'O child, O king I did neither see nor hear of ever before\r\namongst men, any assembly room built of gems and precious stones like\r\nthis of thine, O Bharata. I shall, however, describe unto thee the rooms\r\nof the king of the departed (Yama), of Varuna (Neptune) of great\r\nintelligence, of Indra, the King of Gods and also of him who hath his\r\nhome in Kailasha (Kuvera). I shall also describe unto thee the celestial\r\nSabha of Brahma that dispelleth every kind of uneasiness. All these\r\nassembly rooms exhibit in their structure both celestial and human\r\ndesigns and present every kind of form that exists in the universe. And\r\nthey are ever worshipped by the gods and the Pitris, the Sadhyas,\r\n(under-deities called Gana), by ascetics offering sacrifices, with souls\r\nunder complete command, by peaceful Munis engaged without intermission in\r\nVedic sacrifices with presents to Brahmanas. I shall describe all these\r\nto you if, O bull of the Bharata race, thou hast any inclinations to\r\nlisten to me!\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--"Thus addressed by Narada, the high-souled king\r\nYudhishthira the just, with his brothers and all those foremost of\r\nBrahmanas (seated around him), joined his hands (in entreaty). And the\r\nmonarch then asked Narada, saying,--\'Describe unto us all those assembly\r\nrooms. We desire to listen to thee. O Brahmana, what are the articles\r\nwith which each of the Sabhas are made of? What is the area of each, and\r\nwhat is the length and breadth of each? Who wait upon the Grandsire in\r\nthat assembly room? And who also upon Vasava, the Lord of the celestials\r\nand upon Yama, the son of Vivaswana? Who wait upon Varuna and upon Kuvera\r\nin their respective assembly rooms. O Brahmana Rishi, tell us all about\r\nthese. We all together desire to hear thee describe them. Indeed, our\r\ncuriosity is great.\' Thus addressed by the son of Pandu, Narada replied,\r\nsaying,--\'O monarch, hear ye all about those celestial assembly rooms one\r\nafter another."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VII\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--the celestial assembly room of Sakra is full of lustre. He\r\nhath obtained it as the fruit of his own acts. Possessed of the splendour\r\nof the sun, it was built, O scion of the Kuru race, by Sakra himself.\r\nCapable of going everywhere at will, this celestial assembly house is\r\nfull one hundred and fifty yojanas in length, and hundred yojanas in\r\nbreadth, and five yojanas in height. Dispelling weakness of age, grief,\r\nfatigue, and fear, auspicious and bestowing good fortune, furnished with\r\nrooms and seats and adorned with celestial trees, it is delightful in the\r\nextreme. There sitteth in that assembly room, O son of Pritha, on an\r\nexcellent seat, the Lord of celestials, with his wife Sachi endowed with\r\nbeauty and affluence. Assuming a form incapable of description for its\r\nvagueness, with a crown on his head and bright bracelets on the upper\r\narms, attired in robes of pure white and decked with floral wreaths of\r\nmany hues, there he sitteth with beauty, fame, and glory by his side. And\r\nthe illustrious deity of a hundred sacrifices is daily waited upon. O\r\nmonarch, in that assembly by the Marutas in a body, each leading the life\r\nof a householder in the bosom of his family. And the Siddhyas, celestial\r\nRishis, the Sadhyas in all, the gods, and Marutas of brilliant complexion\r\nand adorned with golden garlands,--all of them in celestial form and\r\ndecked in ornaments, always wait upon and worship the illustrious chief\r\nof the immortals, that mighty represser of all foes. And O son of Pritha,\r\nthe celestial Rishis also, all of pure souls, with sins completely washed\r\noff and resplendent as the fire, and possessed of energy, and without\r\nsorrow of any kind, and freed from the fever of anxiety, and all\r\nperformers of the Soma sacrifice, also wait upon and worship Indra. And\r\nParasara and Parvata and Savarni and Galava; and Sankha, and the Muni,\r\nGaursiras, and Durvasa, and Krodhana and Swena and the Muni Dhirghatamas;\r\nand Pavitrapani, Savarni, Yajnavalkya and Bhaluki; and Udyalaka,\r\nSwetaketu, and Tandya, and also Bhandayani; and Havishmat, and Garishta,\r\nand king Harischandra; and Hridya, Udarshandilya. Parasarya, Krishivala;\r\nVataskandha, Visakha, Vidhatas and Kala. Karaladanta, Tastri, and\r\nVishwakarman, and Tumuru; and other Rishis, some born of women and others\r\nliving upon air, and others again living upon fire, these all worship\r\nIndra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, the lord of all the worlds. And\r\nSahadeva, and Sunitha, and Valmiki of great ascetic merit; and Samika of\r\ntruthful speech, and Prachetas ever fulfilling their promises, and\r\nMedhatithi, and Vamadeva, and Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu; and Maruta and\r\nMarichi, and Sthanu of great ascetic merit; and Kakshivat, and Gautama,\r\nand Tarkhya, and also the Muni Vaishwanara; and the Muni Kalakavrikhiya\r\nand Asravya, and also Hiranmaya, and Samvartta, and Dehavya, and\r\nViswaksena of great energy; and Kanwa, and Katyayana, O king, and Gargya,\r\nand Kaushika;--all are present there along with the celestial waters and\r\nplants; and faith, and intelligence, and the goddess of learning, and\r\nwealth, religion, and pleasure; and lightning. O son of Pandu; and the\r\nrain-charged clouds, and the winds, and all the loud-sounding forces of\r\nheaven; the eastern point, the twenty seven fires conveying the\r\nsacrificial butter, Agni and Soma, and the fire of Indra, and Mitra, and\r\nSavitri, and Aryaman; Bhaga, Viswa the Sadhyas, the preceptor\r\n(Vrihaspati), and also Sukra; and Vishwavasu and Chitrasena, and Sumanas,\r\nand also Taruna; the Sacrifices, the gifts to Brahmanas, the planets, and\r\nthe stars, O Bharata, and the mantras that are uttered in sacrifices--all\r\nthese are present there. And, O King, many Apsaras and Gandharvas, by\r\nvarious kinds of dances and music both instrumental and vocal, and by the\r\npractice of auspicious rites, and by the exhibition of many feats of\r\nskill, gratify the lord of the celestials--Satakratu--the illustrious\r\nslayer of Vala and Vritra. Besides these, many other Brahmanas and royal\r\nand celestial Rishis, all resplendent as the fire, decked in floral\r\nwreaths and ornaments, frequently come to and leave that assembly, riding\r\non celestial cars of various kinds. And Vrihaspati and Sukra are present\r\nthere on all occasions. These and many other illustrious ascetics of\r\nrigid wows, and Bhrigu and the seven Rishis who are equal, O king, unto\r\nBrahma himself, come to and leave that assembly house, riding on cars\r\nbeautiful as the car of Soma, and themselves looking as bright therein as\r\nSoma himself. This, O mighty armed monarch, is the assembly house, called\r\nPushkaramalini, of Indra of a hundred sacrifices that I have seen. Listen\r\nnow to the account of Yama\'s assembly house."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VIII\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--\'O Yudhisthira, I shall now describe the assembly house of\r\nYama, the son of Vivaswat, which, O son of Pritha, was built by\r\nViswakarma. Listen now to me. Bright as burnished gold, that assembly\r\nhouse, O monarch, covers an area of much more than a hundred yojanas.\r\nPossessed of the splendour of the sun, it yieldeth everything that one\r\nmay desire. Neither very cool nor very hot, it delighteth the heart. In\r\nthat assembly house there is neither grief nor weakness of age, neither\r\nhunger nor thirst. Nothing disagreeable findeth a place there, nor any\r\nkind of evil feelings there. Every object of desire, celestial or human,\r\nis to be found in that mansion. And all kinds of enjoyable articles, as\r\nalso of sweet, juicy, agreeable, and delicious edibles in profusion that\r\nare licked, sucked, and drunk, are there, O chastiser of all enemies. The\r\nfloral wreaths in that mansion are of the most delicious fragrance, and\r\nthe trees that stand around it yield fruits that are desired of them.\r\nThere are both cold and hot waters and these are sweet and agreeable. In\r\nthat mansion many royal sages of great sanctity and Brahmana sages also\r\nof great purity, cheerfully wait upon, O child, and worship Yama, the son\r\nof Vivaswat. And Yayati, Nahusha, Puru, Mandhatri, Somaka, Nriga; the\r\nroyal sage Trasadasyu, Kritavirya, Sautasravas; Arishtanemi, Siddha,\r\nKritavega, Kriti, Nimi, Pratarddana, Sivi, Matsya, Prithulaksha,\r\nVrihadratha, Vartta, Marutta, Kusika, Sankasya, Sankriti, Dhruva,\r\nChaturaswa, Sadaswormi and king Kartavirya; Bharata and Suratha, Sunitha,\r\nNisatha, Nala, Divodasa, and Sumanas, Amvarisha, Bhagiratha; Vyaswa,\r\nVadhraswa, Prithuvega, Prithusravas, Prishadaswa, Vasumanas, Kshupa, and\r\nSumahavala, Vrishadgu, and Vrishasena, Purukutsa, Dhwajin and Rathin;\r\nArshtisena, Dwilipa, and the high-souled Ushinara; Ausinari, Pundarika,\r\nSaryati, Sarava, and Suchi; Anga, Rishta, Vena, Dushmanta, Srinjaya and\r\nJaya; Bhangasuri, Sunitha, and Nishada, and Bahinara; Karandhama,\r\nValhika, Sudymna, and the mighty Madhu; Aila and the mighty king of earth\r\nMaruta; Kapota, Trinaka, and Shadeva, and Arjuna also. Vysawa; Saswa and\r\nKrishaswa, and king Sasavindu; Rama the son of Dasaratha, and Lakshmana,\r\nand Pratarddana; Alarka, and Kakshasena, Gaya, and Gauraswa; Rama the son\r\nof Jamadagnya, Nabhaga, and Sagara; Bhuridyumna and Mahaswa, Prithaswa,\r\nand also Janaka; king Vainya, Varisena, Purujit, and Janamejaya;\r\nBrahmadatta, and Trigarta, and king Uparichara also; Indradyumna,\r\nBhimajanu, Gauraprishta, Nala, Gaya; Padma and Machukunda, Bhuridyumna,\r\nPrasenajit; Aristanemi, Sudymna, Prithulauswa, and Ashtaka also; a\r\nhundred kings of the Matsya race and hundred of the Vipa and a hundred of\r\nthe Haya races; a hundred kings of the name of Dhritarashtra, eighty\r\nkings of the name of Janamejaya; a hundred monarchs called Brahmadatta,\r\nand a hundred kings of the name of Iri; more than two hundred Bhishmas,\r\nand also a hundred Bhimas; a hundred Prativindhyas, a hundred Nagas, and\r\na hundred Palasas, and a hundred called Kasa and Kusa; that king of kings\r\nSantanu, and thy father Pandu, Usangava, Sata-ratha, Devaraja,\r\nJayadratha; the intelligent royal sage Vrishadarva with his ministers;\r\nand a thousand other kings known by the name of Sasa-vindu, and who have\r\ndied, having performed many grand horse-sacrifices with large presents to\r\nthe Brahmanas--these holy royal sages of grand achievements and great\r\nknowledge of the Sastras, wait upon, O King, and worship the son of\r\nVivaswat in that assembly house. And Agastya and Matanga, and Kala, and\r\nMrityu (Death), performers of sacrifices, the Siddhas, and many Yogins;\r\nthe Prtris (belonging to the classes--called Agniswattas, Fenapa,\r\nUshampa, Swadhavat, and Verhishada), as also those others that have\r\nforms; the wheel of time, and the illustrious conveyer himself of the\r\nsacrificial butter; all sinners among human beings, as also those that\r\nhave died during the winter solstice; these officers of Yama who have\r\nbeen appointed to count the allotted days of everybody and everything;\r\nthe Singsapa, Palasa, Kasa, and Kusa trees and plants, in their embodied\r\nforms, these all, O king, wait upon and worship the god of justice in\r\nthat assembly house of his. These and many others are present at the\r\nSabha of the king of the Pitris (manes). So numerous are they that I am\r\nincapable of describing them either by mentioning their names or deeds. O\r\nson of Pritha, the delightful assembly house, moving everywhere at the\r\nwill of its owner, is of wide extent. It was built by Viswakarma after a\r\nlong course of ascetic penances. And, O Bharata, resplendent with his own\r\neffulgence, it stands glorified in all its beauty. Sannyasis of severe\r\nascetic penance, of excellent vows, and of truthful speech, peaceful and\r\npure and sanctified by holy deeds, of shining bodies and attired in\r\nspotless robes, decked with bracelets and floral garlands, with ear-rings\r\nof burnished gold, and adorned with their own holy acts as with the marks\r\nof their order (painted over their bodies), constantly visit that Sabha\r\n(Assembly). Many illustrious Gandharvas, and many Apsaras fill every part\r\nof that mansion with music; both instrumental and vocal and with sounds\r\nof laughter and dance. And, O son of Pritha, excellent perfumes, and\r\nsweet sounds and garlands of celestial flowers always contribute towards\r\nmaking that mansion supremely blest. And hundreds of thousands of\r\nvirtuous persons, of celestial beauty and great wisdom, always wait upon\r\nand worship the illustrious Yama, the lord of created beings in that\r\nassembly house. Such, O monarch, is the Sabha, of the illustrious king of\r\nthe Pitris! I shall now describe unto the assembly house of Varuna also\r\ncalled Pushkaramalini!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION IX\r\n\r\n\'Narada said--O Yudhishthira, the celestial Sabha of Varuna is\r\nunparalleled in splendour. In dimensions it is similar to that of Yama.\r\nIts walls and arches are all of pure white. It hath been built by\r\nViswakarma (the celestial architect) within the waters. It is surrounded\r\non all sides by many celestial trees made of gems and jewels and yielding\r\nexcellent fruits and flowers. And many plants with their weight of\r\nblossoms, blue and yellow, and black and darkish, and white and red, that\r\nstand there, or excellent bowers around. Within those bowers hundreds and\r\nthousands of birds of diverse species, beautiful and variegated, always\r\npour forth their melodies. The atmosphere of that mansion is extremely\r\ndelightful, neither cold nor hot. Owned by Varuna, that delightful\r\nassembly house of pure white consists of many rooms and is furnished with\r\nmany seats. There sitteth Varuna attired in celestial robe, decked in\r\ncelestial ornaments and jewels, with his queen, adorned with celestial\r\nscents and besmeared with paste of celestial fragrance. The Adityas wait\r\nupon and worship the illustrious Varuna, the lord of the waters. And\r\nVasuki and Takshaka, and the Naga called Airavana; Krishna and Lohita;\r\nPadma and Chitra endued with great energy; the Nagas called Kamvala and\r\nAswatara; and Dhritarashtra and Valahaka; Matimat and Kundadhara and\r\nKarkotaka and Dhananjaya; Panimat and the mighty Kundaka, O lord of the\r\nEarth; and Prahlada and Mushikada, and Janamejaya,--all having auspicious\r\nmarks and mandalas and extended hoods;--these and many other snakes. O\r\nYudhishthira, without anxiety of any kind, wait upon and worship the\r\nillustrious Varuna. And, O king, Vali the son of Virochana, and Naraka\r\nthe subjugator of the whole Earth; Sanghraha and Viprachitti, and those\r\nDanavas called Kalakanja; and Suhanu and Durmukha and Sankha and Sumanas\r\nand also Sumati; and Ghatodara, and Mahaparswa, and Karthana and also\r\nPithara and Viswarupa, Swarupa and Virupa, Mahasiras; and Dasagriva,\r\nVali, and Meghavasas and Dasavara; Tittiva, and Vitabhuta, and Sanghrada,\r\nand Indratapana--these Daityas and Danavas, all bedecked with ear-rings\r\nand floral wreaths and crowns, and attired in the celestial robes, all\r\nblessed with boons and possessed of great bravery, and enjoying\r\nimmortality, and all well of conduct and of excellent vows, wait upon and\r\nworship in that mansion the illustrious Varuna, the deity bearing the\r\nnoose as his weapon. And, O king, there are also the four oceans, the\r\nriver Bhagirathee, the Kalindi, the Vidisa, the Venwa, the Narmada of\r\nrapid current; the Vipasa, the Satadu, the Chandrabhaga, the Saraswati;\r\nthe Iravati, the Vitasta, the Sindhu, the Devanadi; the Godavari, the\r\nKrishnavenwa and that queen of rivers the Kaveri; the Kimpuna, the\r\nVisalya and the river Vaitarani also; the Tritiya, the Jeshthila, and the\r\ngreat Sone (Soane); the Charmanwati and the great river Parnasa; the\r\nSarayu, the Varavatya, and that queen of rivers the Langali, the\r\nKaratoya, the Atreyi, the red Mahanada, the Laghanti, the Gomati, the\r\nSandhya, and also the Trisrotasi--these and other rivers which are all\r\nsacred and are world-renowned places of pilgrimage, as also other rivers\r\nand sacred waters and lakes and wells and springs, and tanks, large or\r\nsmall, in their personified form, O Bharata, wait upon and worship the\r\nlord Varuna. The points of the heavens, the Earth, and all the Mountains,\r\nas also every species of aquatic animals, all worship Varuna there. And\r\nvarious tribes of Gandharvas and Apsaras, devoted to music, both vocal\r\nand instrumental, wait upon Varuna, singing eulogistic hymns unto him.\r\nAnd all those mountains that are noted for being both delightful and rich\r\nin jewels, wait (in their personified forms) in that Sabha, enjoying\r\nsweet converse with one another. And the chief minister of Varuna,\r\nSunabha by name, surrounded by his sons and grandsons, also attend upon\r\nhis master, along with (the personified form) of a sacred water called\r\ngo. These all, in their personified forms, worship the deity. O bull of\r\nthe Bharata race, such is the assembly room of Varuna seen by me before,\r\nin the course of my wanderings. Listen now to the account I give of the\r\nassembly room of Kuvera.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION X\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--\'Possessed of great splendour, the assembly house of\r\nVaisravana, O king, is a hundred yojanas in length and seventy yojanas in\r\nbreadth. It was built, O king, by Vaisravana himself using his ascetic\r\npower. Possessing the splendour of the peaks of Kailasa, that mansion\r\neclipses by its own the brilliance of the Moon himself. Supported by\r\nGuhyakas, that mansion seems to be attached to the firmament. Of\r\ncelestial make, it is rendered extremely handsome with high chambers of\r\ngold. Extremely delightful and rendered fragrant with celestial perfumes,\r\nit is variegated with numberless costly jewels. Resembling the peaks of a\r\nmass of white clouds, it seems to be floating in the air. Painted with\r\ncolours of celestial gold, it seems to be decked with streaks of\r\nlightning. Within that mansion sitteth on an excellent seat bright as the\r\nsun and covered with celestial carpets and furnished with a handsome\r\nfootstool, king Vaisravana of agreeable person, attired in excellent\r\nrobes and adorned with costly ornaments and ear-rings of great\r\nbrilliance, surrounded by his thousand wives. Delicious and cooling\r\nbreezes murmuring through forests of tall Mandaras, and bearing fragrance\r\nof extensive plantations of jasmine, as also of the lotuses on the bosom\r\nof the river Alaka and of the Nandana-gardens, always minister to the\r\npleasure of the King of the Yakshas. There the deities with the\r\nGandharvas surrounded by various tribes of Apsaras, sing in chorus, O\r\nking, notes of celestial sweetness. Misrakesi and Rambha, and Chitrasena,\r\nand Suchismita; and Charunetra, and Gritachi and Menaka, and\r\nPunjikasthala; and Viswachi Sahajanya, and Pramlocha and Urvasi and Ira,\r\nand Varga and Sauraveyi, and Samichi, and Vududa, and Lata--these and a\r\nthousand other Apsaras and Gandharvas, all well-skilled in music and\r\ndance, attend upon Kuvera, the lord of treasures. And that mansion,\r\nalways filled with the notes of instrumental and vocal music, as also\r\nwith the sounds of dance of various tribes of Gandharvas, and Apsaras\r\nhath become extremely charming and delicious. The Gandharvas called\r\nKinnaras, and others called Naras, and Manibhadra, and Dhanada, and\r\nSwetabhadra and Guhyaka; Kaseraka, Gandakandu, and the mighty Pradyota;\r\nKustumvuru, Pisacha, Gajakarna, and Visalaka, Varaha-Karna, Tamraushtica,\r\nFalkaksha, and Falodaka; Hansachuda, Sikhavarta, Vibhishana, Pushpanana,\r\nPingalaka, Sonitoda and Pravalaka; Vrikshavaspa-niketa, and\r\nChiravasas--these O Bharata, and many other Yakshas by hundred and\r\nthousands always wait upon Kuvera. The goddess Lakshmi always stayeth\r\nthere, also Kuvera\'s son Nalakuvera. Myself and many others like myself\r\noften repair thither. Many Brahmana Rishis and celestial Rishis also\r\nrepair there often. Many Rakshasas, and many Gandharvas, besides those\r\nthat have been named, wait upon the worship, in that mansion, the\r\nillustrious lord of all treasures. And, O tiger among kings, the\r\nillustrious husband of Uma and lord of created things, the three-eyed\r\nMahadeva, the wielder of the trident and the slayer of the Asura called\r\nBhaga-netra, the mighty god of the fierce bow, surrounded by multitudes\r\nof spirits in their hundreds and thousands, some of dwarfish stature,\r\nsome of fierce visage, some hunch-backed, some of blood-red eyes, some of\r\nfrightful yells, some feeding upon fat and flesh, and some terrible to\r\nbehold, but all armed with various weapons and endued with the speed of\r\nwind, with the goddess (Parvati) ever cheerful and knowing no fatigue,\r\nalways waiteth here upon their friend Kuvera, the lord of treasures. And\r\nhundreds of Gandharva chiefs, with cheerful hearts and attired in their\r\nrespective robes and Viswavasu, and Haha and Huhu; and Tumvuru and\r\nParvatta, and Sailusha; and Chitrasena skilled in music and also\r\nChitraratha,--these and innumerable Gandharvas worship the lord of\r\ntreasures. And Chakradhaman, the chief of the Vidyadharas, with his\r\nfollowers, waiteth in that mansion upon the lord of treasures. And\r\nKinnaras by hundreds and innumerable kings with Bhagadatta as their\r\nchief, and Druma, the chief of the Kimpurushas, and Mahendra, the chief\r\nof the Rakshasas, and Gandhamadana accompanied by many Yakshas and\r\nGandharvas and many Rakshasas wait upon the lord of treasures. The\r\nvirtuous Vibhishana also worshippeth there his elder brother the lord\r\nKuvera (Croesus). The mountains of Himavat, Paripatra, Vindhya, Kailasa,\r\nMandara, Malaya, Durdura, Mahendra, Gandhamadana, Indrakila, Sunava, and\r\nEastern and the Western hills--these and many other mountains, in their\r\npersonified forms, with Meru standing before all, wait upon and worship\r\nthe illustrious lord of treasures. The illustrious Nandiswaras, and\r\nMahakala, and many spirits with arrowy ears and sharp-pointed mouths,\r\nKaksha, Kuthimukha, Danti, and Vijaya of great ascetic merit, and the\r\nmighty white bull of Siva roaring deep, all wait in that mansion. Besides\r\nthese many other Rakshasas and Pisachas (devils) worship Kuvera in that\r\nassembly house. The son of Pulastya (Kuvera) formerly used always to\r\nworship in all the modes and sit, with permission obtained, beside the\r\ngod of gods, Siva, the creator of the three worlds, that supreme Deity\r\nsurrounded by his attendants. One day the exalted Bhava (Siva) made\r\nfriendship with Kuvera. From that time, O king, Mahadeva always sitteth\r\non the mansion of his friend, the lord of treasures. Those best of all\r\njewels, those princes of all gems in the three worlds, viz., Sankha and\r\nPadma, in their personified forms, accompanied by all the jewels of the\r\nearth (also in their personified forms) worship Kuvera."\r\n\r\n"This delightful assembly house of Kuvera that I have seen, attached to\r\nthe firmament and capable of moving along it, is such, O king. Listen now\r\nto the Sabha I describe unto thee, belonging to Brahma the Grandsire."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XI\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--Listen to me, O child, as I tell thee of the assembly\r\nhouse of the Grandsire, that house which none can describe, saying it is\r\nsuch. In the Krita (golden) age of old, O king, the exalted deity Aditya\r\n(once) came down from heaven into the world of men. Having seen before\r\nthe assembly-house of Brahma the Self-created, Aditya was cheerfully\r\nwandering over the Earth in human form, desirous of beholding what could\r\nbe seen here. It was on that occasion, O son of Pandu, that the god of\r\nday spoke unto me, O bull of the Bharata race, of that celestial Sabha\r\n(assembly) of the Grandsire, immeasurable and immaterial and\r\nindescribable, as regards form and shape, and capable of delighting the\r\nheart of every creature by its splendour. Hearing, O bull of the Bharata\r\nrace, of the merits of that Sabha, I became, O king, desirous of\r\nbeholding it. I then asked Aditya, saying,--O exalted one, I desire to\r\nbehold the sacred Sabha of the Grandsire. O lord of light, tell me, O\r\nexalted one, by what ascetic penances, or by what acts, or by what charms\r\nor by what rites, I may be enabled to behold that excellent sin-cleaning\r\nSabha."--Hearing these words of mine, Aditya the god of day, the deity of\r\na thousand rays, answered me, O chief of the Bharata race, thus: Observe\r\nthou, with mind rapt in meditation, the Brahma vow extending for a\r\nthousand years. Repairing then to the breast of the Himavat, I commenced\r\nthat great vow, and after I had completed it the exalted and sinless\r\ndeity Surya endued with great energy, and knowing no fatigue, took me\r\nwith him to the Sabha of the Grandsire. O king, it is impossible to\r\ndescribe that Sabha, saying--it is such, for within a moment it assumes a\r\ndifferent form that language fails to paint. O Bharata, it is impossible\r\nto indicate its dimensions or shape. I never saw anything like it before.\r\nEver contributing to the happiness of those within it, its atmosphere is\r\nneither cold nor warm. Hunger and thirst or any kind of uneasiness\r\ndisappear as soon as one goeth thither. It seems to be made up of\r\nbrilliant gems of many kinds. It doth not seem to be supported on\r\ncolumns, it knoweth no deterioration, being eternal. That self effulgent\r\nmansion, by its numerous blazing, celestial indications of unrivalled\r\nsplendour, seems to surpass the moon, the sun and the fire in splendour.\r\nStationed in heaven, it blazes forth, censuring as it were the maker of\r\nthe day. In that mansion O king, the Supreme Deity, the Grand-sire of all\r\ncreated things, having himself created everything by virtue of his\r\ncreative illusion, stayeth ever. And Daksha, Prachetas, Pulaha, Marichi,\r\nthe master Kasyapa, Bhrigu, Atri, and Vasistha and Gautama, and also\r\nAngiras, and Pulastya, Kraut, Prahlada, and Kardama, these Prajapatis,\r\nand Angirasa of the Atharvan Veda, the Valikhilyas, the Marichipas;\r\nIntelligence, Space, Knowledge, Air, Heat, Water, Earth, Sound, Touch,\r\nForm, Taste, Scent; Nature, and the Modes (of Nature), and the elemental\r\nand prime causes of the world,--all stay in that mansion beside the lord\r\nBrahma. And Agastya of great energy, and Markandeya, of great ascetic\r\npower, and Jamadagni and Bharadwaja, and Samvarta, and Chyavana, and\r\nexalted Durvasa, and the virtuous Rishyasringa, the illustrious\r\nSanatkumara of great ascetic merit and the preceptor in all matters\r\naffecting Yoga; Asita and Devala, and Jaigishavya acquainted with truth;\r\nRishava, Ajitasatru, and Mani of great energy; and the Science of healing\r\nwith its eight branches--all in their personified forms, O Bharata; the\r\nmoon with all the stars and the stellar conjunctions; Aditya with all his\r\nrays; the winds; the Sacrifices, the Declarations of purpose (in\r\nsacrifices), the Vital principles,--these illustrious and vow-observing\r\nbeings in their personified forms, and many others too numerous to\r\nmention, attend all upon Brahma in that mansion. Wealth and Religion and\r\nDesire, and Joy, and Aversion, and Asceticism and Tranquillity--all wait\r\ntogether upon the Supreme Deity in that palace. The twenty tribes of the\r\nGandharvas and Apsaras, as also their seven other tribes, and all the\r\nLokapalas (chief protectors of several regions), and Sukra, and\r\nVrihaspati, and Vudha, and Angaraka (Mangala), Sani, Rahu, and the other\r\nplanets; the Mantras (of the Sama Veda), the special Mantras (of the same\r\nVeda); (the rites of) Harimat and Vasumat, the Adityas with Indra, the\r\ntwo Agnis mentioned by name (viz. Agnisoma and Indragni), the Marutas,\r\nViswakarman, and the Vasus, O Bharata; the Pitris, and all kinds of\r\nsacrificial libations, the four Vedas. viz., Rig, Sama, Yajuh, and\r\nAtharva; all Sciences and branches of learning; Histories and all minor\r\nbranches of learning; the several branches of the Vedas; the planets, the\r\nSacrifices, the Soma, all the deities; Savitri (Gayatri), the seven kinds\r\nof rhyme; Understanding, Patience, Memory, Wisdom, Intelligence, Fame,\r\nForgiveness; the Hymns of the Sama Veda; the Science of hymns in general,\r\nand various kinds of Verses and Songs; various Commentaries with\r\narguments;--all in their personified forms, O king, and various Dramas\r\nand Poems and Stories and abridged Glosses--these also, and many others\r\nwait upon the Supreme Deity in that Sabha, Kshanas, Lavas, Muhurtas, Day,\r\nNight, Fortnights, Months, the six Seasons, O Bharata, Years, Yugas, the\r\nfour kinds of Days and Nights (viz., appearing to man, to the Pitris, to\r\nthe gods, and to Brahma) and that eternal, indestructible,\r\nundeteriorating, excellent Wheel of Time and also the Wheel of\r\nVirtue,--these always wait there. O Yudhishthira; and Aditi, Diti, Danu,\r\nSurasa, Vinata, Ira, Kalika, Suravi, Devi, Sarama, Gautami and the\r\ngoddesses Pradha, and Kadru;--these mothers of the celestials, and\r\nRudrani, Sree, Lakshmi, Bhadra, Shashthi, the Earth, Ganga, Hri, Swaha,\r\nKriti, the goddess Sura, Sachi Pushti, Arundhati, Samvritti, Asa, Niyati,\r\nSrishti, Rati,--these and many other goddesses wait upon the Creator of\r\nall. The Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Marutas, Aswinas, the Viswadevas\r\nSadhyas, and the Pitris gifted with the speed of the mind; these all wait\r\nthere upon the Grandsire. And, O bull amongst men, know thou that there\r\nare seven classes of Pitris, of which four classes have embodied forms\r\nand the remaining three without embodied forms. It is well known that the\r\nillustrious Vairajas and Agniswattas and Garhapattyas (three classes of\r\nPitris) range in heaven. And those amongst the Pitris that are called the\r\nSomapas, the Ekasringras, the Chaturvedas, and the Kalas, are ever\r\nworshipped amongst the four orders of men. Gratified with the Soma\r\n(juice), first, these gratify Soma afterwards. All these tribes of Pitris\r\nwait upon the Lord of the creation and cheerfully worship the Supreme\r\nDeity of immeasurable energy. And Rakshasas, Pisachas, the Danavas and\r\nGuhyakas; Nagas, Birds, and various animals; and all mobile and immobile\r\ngreat beings;--all worship the Grandsire. And Purandara the chief of the\r\ncelestials, and Varuna and Kuvera and Yama, and Mahadeva accompanied by\r\nUma, always repair thither. And, O king of kings, Mahasena (Kartikeya)\r\nalso adoreth there the Grandsire. Narayana himself, and the celestial\r\nRishis, and those Rishis called Valakhillyas, and all beings born of\r\nfemales and all those not born of females, and whatever else is seen in\r\nthe three worlds--both mobile and immobile, were all seen by me there,\r\nknow O king. And eighty thousand Rishis with vital seed drawn up, and O\r\nPandu, fifty thousand Rishis having sons, were all seen by me there. And\r\nall the dwellers in heaven repairing thither behold the Supreme Deity\r\nwhen they please, and worshipping him with a bow of their head return\r\nwhence they came. And, O king of men, the Grandsire of all created\r\nbeings, the Soul of the universe, the Self create Brahma of immeasurable\r\nintelligence and glory, equally kind unto all creatures, honoureth as\r\nthey deserve, and gratifieth with sweet speech and gift of wealth and\r\nother enjoyable articles, the gods, the Daityas, the Nagas, the\r\nBrahmanas, the Yakshas, the Birds, the Kaleyas, the Gandharvas, the\r\nApsaras, and all other exalted beings that came to him as his guests. And\r\nthat delicious Sabha, O child, is always crowded with persons coming and\r\ngoing. Filled with every kind of energy, and worshipped by Brahmarshis,\r\nthat celestial Sabha blazes forth with the graceful possessions of Brahma\r\nand looks extremely handsome, O tiger among kings as this Sabha of yours\r\nis unrivalled in the world of men, so is that Sabha of Brahma, seen by me\r\nunrivalled in all the worlds. I have seen these Sabhas, O Bharata, in\r\nregions of the celestials. This thy Sabha is unquestionably the foremost\r\nin the world of men!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XII\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'O thou foremost of eloquent men, as thou hast\r\ndescribed the different Sabhas unto me, it appeareth that almost all the\r\nmonarchs of the earth are to be found in the Sabha of Yama. And, O\r\nmaster, almost all the Nagas, and principal Daityas, and rivers, and\r\noceans, are to be found in the Sabha of Varuna. And so the Yakshas, the\r\nGuhyakas, the Rakshasas, the Gandharvas and Apsaras and the Deity (Yama)\r\nhaving the bull for his vehicle, are to be found in the Sabha of the lord\r\nof treasures. Thou hast said that in the Sabha of the Grandsire are to be\r\nseen all the great Rishis, all the gods, all the branches of learning. As\r\nregards the Sabha of Sakra, however, thou hast named, O Muni, all the\r\ngods, the Gandharvas, and various Rishis. But, O great Muni, thou hast\r\nmentioned one and only one king, viz., the royal Rishi Harishchandra as\r\nliving in the Sabha of the illustrious chief of the gods. What act was\r\nperformed by that celebrated king, or what ascetic penances with steady\r\nvows, in consequence of which he hath been equal to Indra himself? O\r\nBrahmana, how didst thou also meet with my father, the exalted Pandu, now\r\na guest in the region of the Pitris? O exalted one of excellent vows hath\r\nhe told thee anything? O tell me all as I am exceedingly curious to hear\r\nall this from thee."\r\n\r\n"Narada said,--\'O king of kings, I shall tell thee all that thou askest\r\nme about Harischandra, I shall presently tell thee of his high\r\nexcellence. He was a powerful king, in fact, an emperor over all the\r\nkings of the earth. Indeed, all the kings of the earth obeyed his sway. O\r\nmonarch, mounted alone upon a victorious car adorned with gold, that king\r\nby the prowess of his weapons brought the whole earth with her seven\r\nislands under his sway. And, O monarch, having subjugated the whole earth\r\nwith her mountains, forests, and woods, he made preparations for the\r\ngreat sacrifice called the Rajasuya. And all the kings of the earth\r\nbrought at his command wealth unto that sacrifice. All of them consented\r\nto become distributors of food and gifts unto the Brahmanas that were fed\r\non the occasion. At that sacrifice king Harishchandra gave away unto all\r\nwho asked, wealth that was five times what each had solicited. At the\r\nconclusion of the sacrifice, the king gratified the Brahmanas that came\r\nfrom various countries with large presents of various kinds of wealth.\r\nThe Brahmanas gratified with various kinds of food and enjoyable\r\narticles, given away unto them to the extent of their desires, and with\r\nthe heaps of jewels distributed amongst them, began to say,--King\r\nHarischandra is superior to all kings in energy and renown.--And know, O\r\nmonarch, O bull of the Bharata race, it was for this reason that\r\nHarischandra shone more brightly than thousands of other kings. The\r\npowerful Harischandra having concluded his great sacrifice, became\r\ninstalled, O king, in the sovereignty of the earth and looked resplendent\r\non his throne. O bull of the Bharata race, all those monarchs that\r\nperform the sacrifice of Rajasuya, (attaining to the region of Indra)\r\npass their time in felicity in Indra\'s company. And, O bull of the\r\nBharata race, those kings also that yield up their lives without turning\r\ntheir backs on the field of battle attain to the mansion of Indra and\r\nlive in joy with him. Those again that yield up their bodies after severe\r\nascetic penances also attain to the same region and shine brightly there\r\nfor ages. O king of the Kuru race, O son of Kunti, thy father Pandu,\r\nbeholding the good fortune of Harischandra and wondering much thereat,\r\nhath told thee something. Knowing that I was coming to the world of men,\r\nhe bowed unto me and said,--Thou shouldst tell Yudhishthira, O Rishi,\r\nthat he can subjugate the whole Earth inasmuch as his brothers are all\r\nobedient to him. And having done this let him commence the grand\r\nsacrifice called Rajasuya. He is my son; if he performeth that sacrifice,\r\nI may, like Harischandra, soon attain to the region of Indra, and there\r\nin his Sabha pass countless years in continuous joy. I told him in\r\nreply,--O King, I shall tell thy son all this, if I go to the world of\r\nman. I have now told thee what he said, O tiger among men. Accomplish\r\nthen, O son of Pandu, the desires of thy father. If thou performest that\r\nsacrifice, thou shall then be able to go, along with thy deceased\r\nancestors, into the same region that is inhabited by the chief of the\r\nimmortals. It hath been said,--O king, that the performance of this great\r\nsacrifice is attended with many obstacles. A class of Rakshasas called\r\nBrahma Rakshasas, employed in obstructing all sacrifices, always search\r\nfor loop-holes when this great sacrifice is commenced. On the\r\ncommencement of such a sacrifice a war may take place destroying the\r\nKshatriyas and even furnishing occasion for the destruction of the whole\r\nEarth. A slight obstacle may involve the whole Earth in ruin. Reflecting\r\nupon all this, O king of kings do what is for thy good. Be thou watchful\r\nand ready in protecting the four orders of thy subjects. Grow, thou in\r\nprosperity, and enjoy thou felicity. Gratify thou the Brahmanas with\r\ngifts of wealth. I have now answered in detail all that thou hast asked\r\nme. With thy leave I will now go to the city (Dwaravati) of that\r\nDasarhas."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'O Janamejaya, having said this unto the son of\r\nPritha, Narada went away, accompanied by those Rishis with whom he had\r\ncome. And after Narada had gone away, king Yudhishthira, O thou of the\r\nKuru race, began to think, along with his brothers, of that foremost of\r\nsacrifices called Rajasuya.\'\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Yudhishthira, having heard these words of Narada,\r\nbegan to sigh heavily. And, O Bharata, engaged in his thoughts about the\r\nRajasuya, the king had no peace of mind. Having heard of this glory of\r\nthe illustrious monarchs (of old) and being certain about the acquisition\r\nof regions of felicity by performers of sacrifices in consequence of\r\ntheir sacred deeds, and thinking especially of that royal sage\r\nHarischandra who had performed the great sacrifice king Yudhishthira\r\ndesired to make preparations for the Rajasuya sacrifice. Then worshipping\r\nhis counsellors and others present at his Sabha, and worshipped by them\r\nin return, he began to discuss with them about that sacrifice. Having\r\nreflected much, that king of kings, that bull amongst the Kurus, inclined\r\nhis mind towards making preparations for the Rajasuya. That prince of\r\nwonderful energy and prowess, however, reflecting upon virtue and\r\nrighteousness, again set his heart to find out what would be for the good\r\nof all his people. For Yudhishthira, that foremost of all virtuous men,\r\nalways kind unto his subjects, worked for the good of all without making\r\nany distinctions. Indeed, shaking off both anger and arrogance,\r\nYudhishthira always said,--Give unto each what is due to each,--and the\r\nonly sounds that he could hear were,--Blessed be Dharma! Blessed be\r\nDharma! Yudhishthira! conducting himself thus and giving paternal\r\nassurance to everybody, there was none in the kingdom who entertained any\r\nhostile feelings towards him. He therefore came to be called Ajatasatru\r\n(one with no enemy at all). The king cherished every one as belonging to\r\nhis family, and Bhima ruled over all justly. Arjuna, used to employing\r\nboth his hands with equal skill, protected the people from (external)\r\nenemies. And the wise Sahadeva administered justice impartially. And\r\nNakula behaved towards all with humility that was natural to him. Owing\r\nto all this, the kingdom became free from disputes and fear of every\r\nkind. And all the people became attentive to their respective\r\noccupations. The rain became so abundant as to leave no room for desiring\r\nmore; and the kingdom grew in prosperity. And in consequence of the\r\nvirtues of the king, money-lenders, the articles required for sacrifices,\r\ncattle-rearing, tillage, and traders, all and everything grew in\r\nprosperity. Indeed, during the reign of Yudhishthira who was ever devoted\r\nto truth, there was no extortion, no stringent realisation of arrears of\r\nrent, no fear of disease, of fire, or of death by poisoning and\r\nincantations, in the kingdom. It was never heard at that time that\r\nthieves or cheats or royal favourites ever behaved wrongfully towards the\r\nking or towards one another amongst themselves. Kings conquered on the\r\nsix occasions (of war, treaty, &c.) were wont to wait upon him in order\r\nto do good unto the monarch and worship him ever, while the traders of\r\ndifferent classes came to pay him the taxes leviable on their respective\r\noccupations. And accordingly during the reign of Yudhishthira who was\r\never devoted to virtue, his dominion grew in prosperity. Indeed, the\r\nprosperity of the kingdom was increased not by these alone but even by\r\npersons wedded to voluptuousness and indulging in all luxuries to their\r\nfill. And the king of kings, Yudhishthira, whose sway extended over all,\r\nwas possessed of every accomplishment and bore everything with patience.\r\nAnd, O king, whatever countries the celebrated and illustrious monarch\r\nconquered, the people everywhere, from Brahmanas to swains, were all more\r\nattached to him than to their own fathers and mothers.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"King Yudhishthira, then, that foremost of speakers,\r\nsummoning together his counsellors and brothers, asked them repeatedly\r\nabout the Rajasuya sacrifice. Those ministers in a body, thus asked by\r\nthe wise Yudhishthira desirous of performing the sacrifice, then told him\r\nthese words of grave import,--\'One already in possession of a kingdom\r\ndesireth all the attributes of an emperor by means of that sacrifice\r\nwhich aideth a king in acquiring the attributes of Varuna. O prince of\r\nKuru race, thy friends think that as thou art worthy of the attributes of\r\nan emperor, the time is even come for thee for the performance of the\r\nRajasuya sacrifice. The time for the performance of that sacrifice in\r\nwhich Rishis of austere vows kindle six fires with mantras of the Sama\r\nVeda, is come for thee in consequence of thy Kshatriya possessions. At\r\nthe conclusion of the Rajasuya sacrifice when the performer is installed\r\nin the sovereignty of the empire, he is rewarded with the fruits of all\r\nsacrifices including the Agnihotra. It is for this that he is called the\r\nconqueror of all. Thou art quite able, O strong-armed one, to perform\r\nthis sacrifice. All of us are obedient to thee. Soon will you be able, O\r\ngreat king, to perform the Rajasuya sacrifice. Therefore, O great king,\r\nlet thy resolution be taken to perform this sacrifice without further\r\ndiscussion. Thus, spoke unto the king all his friends and counsellors\r\nseparately and jointly. And, O king, Yudhishthira that slayer of all\r\nenemies, having heard these virtuous, bold, agreeable and weighty words\r\nof theirs, accepted them mentally. And having heard those words of his\r\nfriends and counsellors, and knowing his own strength also, the king, O\r\nBharata, repeatedly thought over the matter. After this the intelligent\r\nand virtuous Yudhishthira, wise in counsel, again consulted with his\r\nbrothers, with the illustrious Ritwijas about him, with his ministers and\r\nwith Dhaumya and Dwaipayana and others.\r\n\r\n\'Yudhishthira said,--"How may this wish that I entertain of performing\r\nthe excellent sacrifice of Rajasuya that is worthy of an emperor, bear\r\nfruit, in consequence of my faith and speech alone.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"O thou of eyes like lotus-petals, thus asked by the\r\nking, they replied at that time unto Yudhishthira the just in these\r\nwords,--Being conversant with the dictates of morality, thou art, O king,\r\nworthy to perform the grand sacrifice of Rajasuya. After the Ritwijas and\r\nthe Rishis  had told these words unto the king, his ministers and\r\nbrothers highly approved of the speech. The king, however, possessed of\r\ngreat wisdom, and with mind under complete control, actuated by the\r\ndesire of doing good unto the world, again resolved the matter in his\r\nmind, thinking of his own strength and means, the circumstances of time\r\nand place and his income and expenditure. For he knew that the wise never\r\ncome to grief owing to their always acting after full deliberation.\r\nThinking that the sacrifice should not be commenced, pursuant to his own\r\nresolution only, Yudhishthira, carefully bearing upon his shoulder the\r\nweight of affairs thought of Krishna that persecutor of all sinners as\r\nthe fittest person to decide the matter, in as much as he knew him to be\r\nthe foremost of all persons, possessed of immeasurable energy,\r\nstrong-armed, without birth but born amongst men from Will alone.\r\nReflecting upon his god-like feats the son of Pandu concluded that there\r\nwas nothing that was unknown to him, nothing that he could not achieve,\r\nand nothing that he could not bear, and Yudhishthira, the son of Pritha,\r\nhaving come to this settled resolution soon sent a messenger unto that\r\nmaster of all beings, conveying through him blessings and speeches such\r\nas one senior in age might send to one that is younger. And that\r\nmessenger riding in a swift car arrived amongst the Yadavas and\r\napproached Krishna who was then residing in Dwaravati. And Achyuta\r\n(Krishna) hearing that the son of Pritha had become desirous of seeing\r\nhim, desired to see his cousin. And quickly passing over many regions,\r\nbeing drawn by his own swift horses, Krishna arrived at Indraprastha,\r\naccompanied by Indrasena. And having arrived at Indraprastha, Janardana\r\napproached Yudhisthira without loss of time. And Yudhisthira received\r\nKrishna with paternal-affection, and Bhima also received him likewise.\r\nAnd Janardana then went with a cheerful heart to his father\'s sister\r\n(Kunti). And worshipped then with reverence by the twins, he began to\r\nconverse cheerfully with his friend Arjuna who was overjoyed at seeing\r\nhim. And after he had rested awhile in a pleasant apartment and had been\r\nfully refreshed, Yudhishthira approached him at his leisure and informed\r\nhim all about the Rajasuya sacrifice.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'I have wished to perform the Rajasuya sacrifice.\r\nThat sacrifice, however, cannot be performed by one\'s wishing alone to\r\nperform it. Thou knowest, O Krishna, even thing about the means by which\r\nit may be accomplished. He alone can achieve this sacrifice in whom\r\neverything is possible, who is worshipped everywhere and who is the king\r\nof kings. My friends and counsellors approaching me have said that I\r\nshould perform that sacrifice. But, O Krishna, in respect of that matter,\r\nthy words shall be my guide. Of counsellers some from friendship do not\r\nnotice the difficulties; others from motives of self-interest say only\r\nwhat is agreeable. Some again regard that which is beneficial to\r\nthemselves as worthy of adoption. Men are seen to counsel thus on matters\r\nawaiting decision. But thou, O Krishna, art above such motives. Thou hast\r\nconquered both desire and anger. It behoveth thee to tell me what is most\r\nbeneficial to the world."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIV\r\n\r\n(Rajasuyarambha Parva)\r\n\r\n"Krishna said,--\'O great king, thou art a worthy possessor of all the\r\nqualities essential for the performance of the Rajasuya sacrifice. Thou\r\nknowest everything, O Bharata. I shall, however, still tell thee\r\nsomething. Those persons in the world that now go by the name of\r\nKshatriyas are inferior (in everything) to those Kshatriyas that Rama,\r\nthe son of Jamadagnya, exterminated.\' O lord of the earth, O bull of the\r\nBharata race, thou knowest what form of rule these Kshatriyas, guided by\r\nthe instructions traditionally handed down from generation to generation,\r\nhave established amongst their own order, and how far they are competent\r\nto perform the Rajasuya sacrifice. The numerous royal lines and other\r\nordinary Kshatriyas all represent themselves to be the descendants of\r\nAila and Ikshwaku. The descendants of Aila, O king, as, indeed, the kings\r\nof Ikshwaku\'s race, are, know O bull of the Bharata race, each divided\r\ninto a hundred separate dynasties. The descendants of Yayati and the\r\nBhojas are great, both in extent (number) and accomplishments. O king,\r\nthese last are to-day scattered all over the earth. And all the\r\nKshatriyas worship the prosperity of those monarchs. At present, however,\r\nO monarch, king Jarasandha, overcoming that prosperity enjoyed by their\r\nwhole order, and overpowering them by his energy hath set himself over\r\nthe heads of all these kings. And Jarasandha, enjoying the sovereignty\r\nover the middle portion of the earth (Mathura), resolved to create a\r\ndisunion amongst ourselves. O monarch, the king who is the lord paramount\r\nof all kings, and in whom alone the dominion of the universe is centered,\r\nproperly deserves to be called an emperor. And, O monarch, king Sisupala\r\nendued with great energy, hath placed himself under his protection and\r\nhath become the generalissimo of his forces. And, O great king, the\r\nmighty Vaka, the king of the Karushas, capable of fighting by putting\r\nforth his powers of illusion, waiteth, upon Jarasandha, as his disciple.\r\nThere are two others, Hansa and Dimvaka, of great energy and great soul,\r\nwho have sought the shelter of the mighty Jarasandha. There are others\r\nalso viz., Dantavakra, Karusha, Karava, Meghavahana, that wait upon\r\nJarasandha. He also that beareth on his head that gem which is known as\r\nthe most wonderful on earth, that king of the Yavanas, who hath chastised\r\nMuru and Naraka, whose power is unlimited, and who ruleth the west like\r\nanother Varuna, who is called Bhagadatta, and who is the old friend of\r\nthy father, hath bowed his head before Jarasandha, by speech and\r\nspecially by act. In his heart, however, tied as he is by affection to\r\nthee, he regardeth thee as a father regardeth his child. O king, that\r\nlord of the earth who hath his dominions on the west and the south, who\r\nis thy maternal uncle and who is called Purujit, that brave perpetuator\r\nof the Kunti race, that slayer of all foes, is the single king that\r\nregardeth thee from affection. He whom I did not formerly slay, that\r\nwicked wretch amongst the Chedis, who represented himself in this world\r\nas a divine personage and who hath become known also as such, and who\r\nalways beareth, from foolishness, the signs that distinguish me that king\r\nof Vanga Pundra and the Kiratas, endowed with great strength, and who is\r\nknown on earth by the names of Paundraka and Vasudeva hath also espoused\r\nthe side of Jarasandha. And, O king of kings, Bhishmaka, the mighty king\r\nof the Bhojas--the friend of Indra--the slayer of hostile heroes--who\r\ngoverns a fourth part of the world, who by his learning conquered the\r\nPandyas and the Kratha-Kausikas, whose brother the brave Akriti was like\r\nRama, the son of Jamdagni, hath become a servitor to the king of Magadha.\r\nWe are his relatives and are, therefore, engaged everyday in doing what\r\nis agreeable unto him. But although we regard him much, still he\r\nregardeth us not and is engaged in doing us ill. And, O king, without\r\nknowing his own strength and the dignity of the race to which he\r\nbelongeth, he hath placed himself under Jarasandha\'s shelter at sight of\r\nthe latter\'s blazing fame alone. And, O exalted one, the eighteen tribes\r\nof the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west;\r\nso also have the Surasenas, the Bhadrakas, the Vodhas, the Salwas, the\r\nPatachchavas, the Susthalas, the Mukuttas, and the Kulindas, along with\r\nthe Kuntis. And the king of the Salwayana tribe with their brethren and\r\nfollowers; and the southern Panchalas and the eastern Kosalas have all\r\nfled to the country of the Kuntis. So also the Matsyas and the\r\nSannyastapadas, overcome with fear, leaving their dominions in the north,\r\nhave fled into the southern country. And so all the Panchalas, alarmed at\r\nthe power of Jarasandha, have left their own kingdom and fled in all\r\ndirections. Some time before, the foolish Kansa, having persecuted the\r\nYadavas, married two of the daughters of Jarasandha. They are called Asti\r\nand Prapti and are the sister of Sahadeva. Strengthened by such an\r\nalliance, the fool persecuting his relatives gained an ascendency over\r\nthem all. But by this conduct he earned great obloquy. The wretch also\r\nbegan to oppress the old kings of the Bhoja tribe, but they, to protect\r\nthemselves from the persecution of their relative, sought our help.\r\nHaving bestowed upon Akrura the handsome daughter of Ahuka, with\r\nSankarshana as my second I did a service to my relatives, for both Kansa\r\nand Sunaman were slain by me assisted by Rama. But after the immediate\r\ncause of fear was removed (by the death of Kansa), Jarasandha, his\r\nfather-in-law, took up arms. Ourselves consisting of the eighteen younger\r\nbranches of the Yadavas arrived at the conclusion that even if we struck\r\nour enemies continually with excellent weapons capable of taking the\r\nlives of the foes, we should still be unable to do anything unto him even\r\nin three hundred years. He hath two friends that are like unto the\r\nimmortals, and in point of strength the foremost of all men endued with\r\nmight. They are called Hansa and Dimvaka who are both incapable of being\r\nslain by weapons. The mighty Jarasandha, being united with them, becomes\r\nincapable, I think, of being vanquished by even the three worlds. O thou\r\nforemost of all intelligent men, this is not our opinion alone but all\r\nother kings also are of the same mind. There lived, O monarch, a king of\r\nthe name of Hansa, who was slain by Rama (Valadeva) after a battle of\r\neighteen days. But, O Bharata, hearing people say that Hansa had been\r\nkilled, Dimvaka, O king, thought that he could not live without Hansa. He\r\naccordingly jumped into the waters of the Yamuna and killed himself.\r\nAfterwards when Hansa, the subjugator of hostile heroes, heard that\r\nDimvaka, had killed himself, he went to the Yamuna and jumped into its\r\nwaters. Then, O bull of the Bharata race, king Jarasandha, hearing that\r\nboth Hansa and Dimvaka had been killed, returned to his kingdom with an\r\nempty heart. After Jarasandha had returned, O slayer of all foes, we were\r\nfilled with pleasure and continued to live at Mathura. Then the widow of\r\nHansa and the daughter of Jarasandha, that handsome woman with eyes like\r\nlotus-petals, grieved at the death of her lord, went unto her father, and\r\nrepeatedly urged, O Monarch, the king of Magadha, saying,--O slayer of\r\nall foes, kill thou the slayer of my husband.--Then, O great king,\r\nremembering the conclusion to which we had come of old we became\r\nexceedingly cheerless and fled from Mathura. Dividing our large wealth\r\ninto small portions so as to make each portion easily portable, we fled\r\nfrom fear of Jarasandha, with our cousins and relatives. Reflecting upon\r\neverything, we fled towards the west. There is a delightful town towards\r\nthe west called Kusasthali, adorned by the mountains of Raivata. In that\r\ncity, O monarch, we took up our abode. We rebuilt its fort and made it so\r\nstrong that it has become impregnable even to the Gods. And from within\r\nit even the women might fight the foe, what to speak of the Yadava heroes\r\nwithout fear of any kind? O slayer of all foes, we are now living in that\r\ncity. And, O tiger of the Kuru race, considering the inaccessibility of\r\nthat first of mountains and regarding themselves as having already\r\ncrossed the fear of Jarasandha, the descendants of Madhu have become\r\nexceedingly glad. Thus, O king, though possessed of strength and energy,\r\nyet from the oppressions of Jarasandha we have been obliged to repair to\r\nthe mountains of Gomanta, measuring three Yojanas in length. Within each\r\nyojana have been established one and twenty posts of armed men. And at\r\nintervals of each yojana are hundred gates with arches which are defended\r\nby valourous heroes engaged in guarding them. And innumerable Kshatriyas\r\ninvincible in war, belonging to the eighteen younger branches of the\r\nYadavas, are employed in defending these works. In our race, O king,\r\nthere are full eighteen thousand brothers and cousins. Ahuka hath had a\r\nhundred sons, each of whom is almost like a god (in prowess), Charudeshna\r\nwith his brother Chakradeva, Satyaki, myself, Valadeva the son of Rohini,\r\nand my son Samva who is equal unto me in battle--these seven, O king are\r\nAtirathas. Besides these, there are others, O king, whom I shall\r\npresently name. They are Kritavarman, Anadhrishti, Samika, Samitinjaya,\r\nKanka, Sanku and Kunti. These seven are Maharathas. There are also two\r\nsons of Andhakabhoja, and the old king himself. Endued with great energy\r\nthese are all heroes, each mighty as the thunderbolt. These Maharathas,\r\nchoosing the middle country, are now living amongst the Vrishnis. O thou\r\nbest of the Bharata line, thou alone art worthy of being an emperor. It\r\nbehoveth thee, O Bharata, to establish thy empire over all the\r\nKshatriyas. But this is my judgment, O king, that thou wilt not be able\r\nto celebrate the Rajasuya sacrifice as long as the mighty Jarasandha\r\nliveth. By him have been immured in his hillfort numerous monarchs, like\r\na lion that hath deposited the slain bodies of mighty elephants within a\r\ncave of the king of mountains. O slayer of all enemies, king Jarasandha,\r\ndesirous of offering in sacrifice hundred monarchs, adored for his fierce\r\nascetic penances the illustrious god of gods, the lord of Uma. It is by\r\nthis means that the kings of the earth have been vanquished by\r\nJarasandha. And, O best of monarchs, he hath by that means been able to\r\nfulfil the vow he had made relative to his sacrifice. By defeating the\r\nkings with their troops and bringing all of them as captives into this\r\ncity, he had swelled its crowds enormously. We also, O king, from fear of\r\nJarasandha, at one time had to leave Mathura and fly to the city of\r\nDwaravati. If, O great king, thou desirest to perform this sacrifice,\r\nstrive to release the kings confined by Jarasandha, as also to compass\r\nhis death. O son of the Kuru race, otherwise this undertaking of thine\r\ncan never be completed. O thou foremost of intelligent men if the\r\nRajasuya is to be performed by thee, you must do this in this way and not\r\notherwise. This, O king, is my view (on the matter). Do, O sinless one,\r\nas thou thinkest. Under these circumstances, O king, having reflected\r\nupon everything, taking note of causes, tell us what thou thyself\r\nthinkest proper."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XV\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--"Intelligent as thou art, thou hast said what none\r\nelse is capable of saying. There is none else on earth who is settler of\r\nall doubts. Behold, there are kings in every province employed in\r\nbenefiting their respective selves. But no one amongst them hath been\r\nable to achieve the imperial dignity. Indeed, the title emperor is\r\ndifficult of acquisition. He that knoweth the valour and strength of\r\nothers never applaudeth himself. He, indeed, is really worthy of applause\r\n(worship) who, engaged in encounters with his enemies, beareth himself\r\ncommendably. O thou supporter of the dignity of the Vrishni race, man\'s\r\ndesires and propensities, like the wide earth itself adorned with many\r\njewels, are varied and extensive. As experience can seldom be gained but\r\nby travelling in regions remote from one\'s home, so salvation can never\r\nbe attained except by acting according to principles that are very high,\r\ncompared with the ordinary level of our desire and propensities. I regard\r\npeace of mind as the highest object here, for from that quality may\r\nproceed my prosperity. In my judgment, if I undertake to celebrate this\r\nsacrifice, I shall never win the highest reward. O Janardana, endued with\r\nenergy and intelligence, these that have been born in our race think that\r\nsome one amongst them will at one time become the foremost amongst all\r\nKshatriyas. But, O exalted one, we also were all frightened by the fear\r\nof Jarasandha and, O sinless one, by the wickedness of that monarch. O\r\nthou invincible in battle, the might of thy arm is my refuge. When,\r\ntherefore, thou taken fright at Jarasandha\'s might, how should I regard\r\nmyself strong in comparison with him? Madhava, O thou of the Vrishni\r\nrace, I am repeatedly depressed by the thought whether Jarasandha is\r\ncapable or not of being slain by thee, by Rama, by Bhimasena, or by\r\nArjuna. But what shall I say, O Keshava? Thou art my highest authority on\r\neverything.\'\r\n\r\n"On hearing these words, Bhima well-skilled in speech said,--\'That king\r\nwho is without exertion, or who being weak and without resources entereth\r\ninto hostility with one that is strong, perisheth like an ant-hill. It\r\nmay be generally seen, however, that even a king that is weak may\r\nvanquish an enemy that is strong and obtain the fruition of all his\r\nwishes, by wakefulness and by the application of policy. In Krishna is\r\npolicy, in myself strength, in Arjuna triumphs. So like the three\r\n(sacrificial) fires that accomplish a sacrifice, we shall accomplish the\r\ndeath of the king of Magadha."\r\n\r\n"Krishna then said,--\'One that is immature in understanding seeketh the\r\nfruition of his desire without an eye to what may happen to him in\r\nfuture. It is seen that no one forgiveth for that reason a foe that is of\r\nimmature understanding and inclined to serve his own interests. It hath\r\nbeen heard by us that in the krita age, having brought every one under\r\ntheir subjection, Yauvanaswin by the abolition of all taxes, Bhagiratha\r\nby his kind treatment to his subjects, Kartavirya by the energy of his\r\nasceticism, the lord Bharata by his strength and valour, and Maruta by\r\nhis prosperity, all these five became emperors. But, O Yudhishthira, thou\r\nwho covetest the imperial dignity deserves it, not by one but by all\r\nthese qualities, viz., victory, protection afforded to thy people,\r\nvirtue, prosperity, and policy. Know, O bull of the Kuru race, that\r\nJarasandha, the son of Vrihadratha, is even such (i.e., a candidate for\r\nthe imperial dignity). A hundred dynasties of kings have become unable to\r\noppose Jarasandha. He, therefore, may be regarded to be an emperor for\r\nhis strength. Kings that are wearers of jewels worship Jarasandha (with\r\npresents of jewels). But, wicked from his childhood, he is scarcely\r\nsatisfied with such worship. Having become the foremost among all, he\r\nattacketh yet with violence kings with crowns on their heads. Nor is\r\nthere seen any king from whom he taketh not tribute. Thus hath he brought\r\nunder his sway nearly a hundred kings. How can, O son of Pritha, any weak\r\nmonarch approach him with hostile intentions? Confined in the temple of\r\nShiva and offered as sacrifice unto him like so many animals, do not\r\nthese monarchs dedicated unto that god feel the most poignant misery, O\r\nbull of the Bharata race? A Kshatriya that dieth in battle is ever\r\nregarded with respect. Why shall we not, therefore, meet together and\r\noppose Jarsandha in battle? He hath already brought eighty-six kings;\r\nfourteen only are wanting to complete one hundred. As soon as he\r\nobtaineth those fourteen, he will begin his cruel act. He that shall be\r\nto obstruct that act will surely win blazing renown. And he that will\r\nvanquish Jarasandha will surely become the emperor of all the\r\nKshatriyas.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVI\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'Desirous of the imperial dignity but acting from\r\nselfish motives and relying upon courage alone, how, O Krishna, can I\r\ndespatch ye (unto Jarasandha)? Both Bhima and Arjuna, I regard as my\r\neyes, and thee, O Janardana as my mind. How shall I live, deprived of my\r\neyes and mind. Yama himself cannot vanquish in battle the mighty host of\r\nJarasandha that is endued, besides, with terrible valour. What valour can\r\nye exhibit against it. This affair that promises to terminate otherwise\r\nmay lead to great mischief. It is my opinion, therefore, that the\r\nproposed task should not be undertaken. Listen, O Krishna, to what I for\r\none think. O Janardana, desisting from this act seemeth to me to be\r\nbeneficial. My heart to-day is afflicted. The Rajasuya appeareth to me\r\ndifficult of accomplishment.\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Arjuna who had obtained that excellent of bows and\r\nthat couple of inexhaustible quivers, and that car with that banner, as\r\nalso that assembly room, now addressed Yudhishthira and said,--\'I have\r\nobtained, O king, a bow and weapons and arrows and energy and allies and\r\ndominions and fame and strength. Those are always difficult of\r\nacquisition, however much they may be desired. Learned men of repute\r\nalways praise in good society nobleness of descent. But nothing is equal\r\nto might. Indeed, O monarch, there is nothing I like more than prowess.\r\nBorn in a race noted for its valour, one that is without valour is\r\nscarcely worthy of regard. One, however, possessed of valour, that is\r\nborn in a race not noted for it, is much superior to the former. He, O\r\nking, is a Kshatriya in every thing who increaseth his fame and\r\npossessions by the subjugation of his enemies. And he that is possessed\r\nof valour, though destitute of all (other) merits, will vanquish his\r\nfoes. One, however, that is destitute of valour, though possessed of\r\nevery (other) merit, can scarcely accomplish anything. Every merit exists\r\nby the side of valour in an incipient state. Concentration of attention,\r\nexertion and destiny exist as the three causes of victory. One, however,\r\nthat is possessed of valour doth not yet deserve success if he acts\r\ncarelessly. It is for this that an enemy endued with strength sometimes\r\nsuffers death at the hands of his foes. As meanness overtakes the weak,\r\nso folly sometimes overtakes the strong. A king, therefore, that is\r\ndesirous of victory, should avoid both these causes of destruction. If,\r\nfor the purpose of our sacrifice, we endeavour to slay Jarasandha and\r\nrescue the kings kept by him for a cruel purpose, there is no higher act\r\nwhich we could employ ourselves in. If, however, we do not undertake the\r\ntask, the world will always think us incompetent. We have certainly the\r\ncompetence, O king! Why should you, therefore, regard us as incompetent?\r\nThose that have become Munis desirous of achieving tranquillity of souls,\r\nobtain yellow robes with ease. So if we vanquish the foe, the imperial\r\ndignity will easily be ours. We shall, therefore fight the foe."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVII\r\n\r\n"Vasudeva said,--\'Arjuna hath indicated what the inclination should be of\r\none that is born in the Bharata race, especially of one who is the son of\r\nKunti. We know not when death will overtake us, in the night or in the\r\nday. Nor have we ever heard that immortality hath been achieved by\r\ndesisting from fight. This, therefore, is the duty of men, viz., to\r\nattack all enemies in accordance with the principles laid down in the\r\nordinance. This always gives satisfaction to the heart. Aided by good\r\npolicy, if not frustrated by Destiny, an undertaking becomes crowned with\r\nsuccess. If both parties aided by such means encounter each other, one\r\nmust obtain ascendency over the other, for both cannot win or lose. A\r\nbattle however, if directed by bad policy which again is destitute of the\r\nwell-known arts, ends in defeat or destruction. If, again, both parties\r\nare equally circumstanced, the result becomes doubtful. Both, however,\r\ncannot win. When such is the case, why should we not, aided by good\r\npolicy, directly approach the foe; and destroy him, like the current of\r\nthe river uprooting a tree? If, disguising our own faults, we attack the\r\nenemy taking advantage of his loopholes, why should we not succeed?\r\nIndeed, the policy of intelligent men, is that one should not fight\r\nopenly with foes that are exceedingly powerful and are at the head of\r\ntheir well-arrayed forces. This too is my opinion. If, however, we\r\naccomplish our purpose secretly entering the abode of our foe and\r\nattacking his person, we shall never earn obloquy. That bull among\r\nmen--Jarasandha--alone enjoyeth unfaded glory, like unto him who is the\r\nself in the heart of every created being. But I see his destruction\r\nbefore me. Desirous of protecting our relatives we will either slay him\r\nin battle or shall ascend to heaven being ourselves slain in the end by\r\nhim.\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said--"O Krishna, who is this Jarasandha? What is his energy\r\nand what is his prowess, that having touched thee he hath not been burnt\r\nlike an insect at the touch of fire?"\r\n\r\nKrishna said,--\'Hear, O monarch, who Jarasandha is; what his energy; and\r\nwhat is his prowess; and why also he hath been spared by us, Even though\r\nhe hath repeatedly offended us. There was a mighty king of the name of\r\nVrihadratha, the lord of the Magadhas. Proud in battle, he had three\r\nAkshauhinis of troops. Handsome and endued with energy, possessed of\r\naffluence and prowess beyond measure, and always bearing on his person\r\nmarks indicating installation at sacrifices. He was like a second Indra.\r\nIn glory he was like unto Suryya, in forgiveness like unto the Earth, in\r\nwrath like unto the destroyer Yama and in wealth like unto Vaisravana.\r\nAnd O thou foremost of the Bharata race, the whole earth was covered by\r\nhis qualities that descended upon him from a long line of ancestors, like\r\nthe rays emerging from the sun. And, O bull of the Bharata race, endued\r\nwith great energy that monarch married two twin daughters of the king of\r\nKasi, both endued with the wealth of beauty. And that bull among men made\r\nan engagement in secret with his wives that he would love them equally\r\nand would never show a preference for either. And the lord of the earth\r\nin the company of his two dearly loved wives, both of whom suited him\r\nwell, passed his days in joy like a mighty elephant in the company of two\r\ncow-elephants, or like the ocean in his personified form between Ganga\r\nand Yamuna (also in their personified forms). The monarch\'s youth\r\nhowever, passed away in the enjoyment of his possessions, without any son\r\nbeing born unto him to perpetuate his line. The best of monarch failed to\r\nobtain a son to perpetuate his race, even by means of various auspicious\r\nrites, and homas, and sacrifices performed with the desire for having an\r\noffspring. One day the king heard that the high-souled Chanda-kausika,\r\nthe son of Kakshivat of the illustrious Gautama race, having desisted\r\nfrom ascetic penances had come in course of his wanderings to his capital\r\nand had taken his seat under the shade of a mango tree. The king went\r\nunto that Muni accompanied by his two wives, and worshipping him with\r\njewels and valuable presents gratified him highly. That best of Rishis\r\ntruthful in speech and firmly attached to truth, then told the king,--O\r\nking of kings, I have been pleased with thee. O thou of excellent vows,\r\nsolicit thou a boon. King Vrihadratha then, with his wives, bending low\r\nunto that Rishi, spoke these words choked with tears in consequence of\r\nhis despair of obtaining a child.--\'O holy one forsaking my kingdom I am\r\nabout to go into the woods to practise ascetic penances. I am very\r\nunfortunate for I have no son. What shall I do, therefore, with my\r\nkingdom or with a boon?\'\r\n\r\nKrishna continued,--"Hearing these words (of the king), the Muni\r\ncontrolling his outer senses entered into meditation, sitting in the\r\nshade of that very mango tree where he was. And there fell upon the lap\r\nof the seated Muni a mango that was juicy and untouched by the beak of a\r\nparrot or any other bird. That best of Munis, taking up the fruit and\r\nmentally pronouncing certain mantras over it, gave it unto the king as\r\nthe means of his obtaining an incomparable offspring. And the great Muni,\r\npossessed also of extraordinary wisdom, addressing the monarch,\r\nsaid,--"Return, O king, thy wish is fulfilled. Desist, O king, from going\r\n(into the woods)".--Hearing these words of the Muni and worshipping his\r\nfeet, the monarch possessed of great wisdom, returned to his own abode.\r\nAnd recollecting his former promise (unto them) the king gave, O bull of\r\nthe Bharata race, unto his two wives that one fruit. His beautiful\r\nqueens, dividing that single fruit into two parts, ate it up. In\r\nconsequence of the certainty of the realisation of the Muni\'s words and\r\nhis truthfulness, both of them conceived, as an effect of their having\r\neaten that fruit. And the king beholding them in that state became filled\r\nwith great joy. Then, O wise monarch, some time after, when the time\r\ncame, each of the queens brought forth a fragmentary body. And each\r\nfragment had one eye, one arm, one leg, half a stomach, half a face, and\r\nhalf an anus. Beholding the fragmentary bodies, both the mothers trembled\r\nmuch. The helpless sisters then anxiously consulted each other, and\r\nsorrowfully abandoned those fragments endued with life. The two midwives\r\n(that waited upon the queens) then carefully wrapping up the still-born\r\n(?) fragments went out of the inner apartments (of the palace) by the\r\nback door and throwing away the bodies, returned in haste. A little while\r\nafter, O tiger among men, a Rakshasa woman of the name of Jara living\r\nupon flesh and blood, took up the fragments that lay on a crossing. And\r\nimpelled by force of fate, the female cannibal united the fragments for\r\nfacility of carrying them away. And, O bull among men, as soon as the\r\nfragments were united they formed a sturdy child of one body (endued with\r\nlife). Then, O king, the female cannibal, with eyes expanded in wonder,\r\nfound herself unable to carry away that child having a body as hard and\r\nstrong as the thunder-bolt. That infant then closing his fists red as\r\ncopper and inserting them into its mouth, began to roar terribly as\r\nrain-charged clouds. Alarmed at the sound, the inmates of the palace, O\r\ntiger among men, suddenly came out with the king, O slayer of all foes.\r\nThe helpless and disappointed and sad queens also, with breasts full of\r\nmilk, also came out suddenly to recover their child. The female cannibal\r\nbeholding the queens in that condition and the king too so desirous of an\r\noffspring, and the child was possessed of such strength thought within\r\nherself--I live within dominions of the king who is so desirous of an\r\noffspring. It behoveth not me, therefore, to kill the infant child of\r\nsuch an illustrious and virtuous monarch. The Rakshasa woman then,\r\nholding the child in her arms like the clouds enveloping the sun, and\r\nassuming a human form, told the king these words,--O Vrihadratha, this is\r\nthy child. Given to thee by me, O, take it. It hath been born of both thy\r\nwives by virtue of the command of the great Brahmana. Cast away by the\r\nmidwives, it hath been protected by me!\r\n\r\n"Krishna continued,--O thou foremost of the Bharata race, the handsome\r\ndaughters of the king of Kasi, having obtained the child, soon drenched\r\nit with their lacteal streams. The king ascertaining everything, was\r\nfilled with joy, and addressing that female cannibal disguised as a human\r\nbeing possessing the complexion of gold, asked,--O thou of the complexion\r\nof the filament of the lotus, who art thou that givest me this child? O\r\nauspicious one, thou seemest to me as a goddess roaming at thy pleasure!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVIII\r\n\r\n"Krishna continued,--\'hearing these words of the king, the Rakshasa woman\r\nanswered--Blessed be thou, O king of kings. Capable of assuming any form\r\nat will. I am a Rakshasa woman called Jara. I am living, O king, happily\r\nin thy house, worshipped by all. Every day I wander from house to house\r\nof men. Indeed, I was created of old by the Self-create and was named\r\nGrihadevi (the household goddess)\'. Of celestial beauty I was placed (in\r\nthe world) for the destruction of the Danavas. He that with devotion\r\npainteth on the walls (of his house) a likeness of myself endued with\r\nyouth and in the midst of children, must have prosperity in his abode;\r\notherwise a household must sustain decay and destruction. O lord, painted\r\non the walls of thy house is a likeness of myself surrounded by numerous\r\nchildren. Stationed there I am daily worshipped with scents and flowers,\r\nwith incense and edibles and various objects of enjoyment. Thus\r\nworshipped in thy house, I daily think of doing thee some good in return.\r\nIt chanced, O virtuous king, that I beheld the fragmentary bodies of thy\r\nson. When these happened to be united by me, a living child was formed of\r\nthem. O great king, it hath been so owing to thy good fortune alone. I\r\nhave been only the instrument, I am capable of swallowing the mountain of\r\nMeru itself, what shall I say of the child? I have, however, been\r\ngratified with thee in consequence of the worship I receive in thy house.\r\nIt is, therefore, O king, that I have bestowed this child on thee.\r\n\r\n"Krishna continued,--Having spoken these words, O king, Jara disappeared\r\nthere and then. The king having obtained the child then entered the\r\npalace. And the king then caused all the rites of infancy to be performed\r\non that child, and ordered a festival to be observed by his people in\r\nHonour of that Rakshasa woman. And the monarch equal unto Brahma himself\r\nthen bestowed a name on his child. And he said that because the child had\r\nbeen united by Jara, he should be called (Jarasandha i.e., united by\r\nJara). And the son of the king of Magadha endued with great energy, began\r\nto grow up in bulk and strength like a fire into which hath been poured\r\nlibation of clarified butter. And increasing day by day like the moon in\r\nthe bright fortnight, the child began to enhance the joy of his parents.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIX\r\n\r\n"Krishna said,--some time after this, the great ascetic, the exalted\r\nChandakausika, again came into the country of the Magadhas. Filled with\r\njoy at the advent of the Rishi, king Vrihadratha, accompanied by his\r\nministers and priest and wives and son, went out to receive him. And, O\r\nBharata, worshipping the Rishi with water to wash his feet and face, and\r\nwith the offerings of Arghya the king then offered his whole kingdom\r\nalong with his son for the acceptance of the Rishi. The adorable Rishi\r\naccepting that worship offered by the king, addressing the ruler of\r\nMagadha, O monarch, said with well-pleased heart,--O king, I knew all\r\nthis by spiritual insight. But hear, O king of kings, what this son of\r\nthine will be in future, as also what his beauty, excellence, strength,\r\nand valour will be. Without doubt this son of thine, growing in\r\nprosperity and endued with prowess, will obtain all these. Like other\r\nbirds that can never imitate the speed of Vinata\'s son (Garuda), the\r\nother monarchs of the earth will not be able to equal in energy this thy\r\nson, who will be endued with great valour. And all those that will stand\r\nin his way will certainly be destroyed. Like the force of the current\r\nthat can never make the slightest impression upon the rocky breast of a\r\nmountain, weapons hurled at him even by the celestials will fail to\r\nproduce the least pain in him. He will blaze forth above the heads of all\r\nthat wear crowns on their brows. Like the sun that dims the lustre of all\r\nluminous bodies, this son of thine will rob all monarchs of their\r\nsplendour. Even kings that are powerful and own large armies and\r\nnumberless vehicles and animals, upon approaching this son of thine, will\r\nall perish as insects upon fire. This child will seize the growing\r\nprosperity of all kings like the ocean receiving the rivers swollen with\r\nthe water of the rainy season. Like the huge earth that bears all kinds\r\nof produce, supporting things that are both good and evil, this child\r\nendued with great strength will support all the four orders of men. And\r\nall the kings of the earth will live in obedience to the commands of this\r\nchild just as every creature endued with body live in dependence upon\r\nVayu that is dear as self unto beings. This prince of Magadha--the\r\nmightiest of all men in the world--will behold with his physical eyes the\r\ngod of gods called Rudra or Hara, the slayer of Tripura. O thou slayer of\r\nall foes, saying this, the Rishi, thinking of his own business, dismissed\r\nking Vrihadratha. The lord of the Magadhas then, re-entering his capital,\r\nand calling together his friends and relations, installed Jarasandha, on\r\nthe throne. King Vrihadratha then came to feel a great distaste for\r\nworldly pleasures. And after the installation of Jarasandha king\r\nVrihadratha followed by his two wives became an inmate of an ascetic\r\nasylum in the woods. And, O king, after his father and mothers had\r\nretired into the woods, Jarasandha by his valour brought numerous kings\r\nunder his sway.\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--\'King Vrihadratha, having lived for some time\r\nin the woods and practised ascetic penances, ascended to heaven at last\r\nwith his wives. King Jarasandha, also, as uttered by Kausika, having\r\nreceived those numerous boons ruled his kingdom like a father. Some time\r\nafter when king Kansa was slain by Vasudeva, an enmity arose between him\r\nand Krishna. Then, O Bharata, the mighty king of Magadha from his city of\r\nGirivraja, whirling a mace ninety-nine times, hurled it towards Mathura.\r\nAt that time Krishna of wonderful deeds was residing at Mathura. The\r\nhandsome mace hurled by Jarasandha fell near Mathura at a distance of\r\nninety-nine yojanas from Gririvraja The citizens beholding the\r\ncircumstance well, went unto Krishna and informed him of the fall of the\r\nmace. The place where the mace fell is adjacent to Mathura and is called\r\nGadavasan. Jarasandha had two supporters called Hansa and Dimvaka, both\r\nof whom were incapable of being slain by weapons. Well-conversant with\r\nthe science of politics and morality, in counsel they were the foremost\r\nof all intelligent men. I have already told thee everything about that\r\nmighty pair. They two and Jarasandha, I believe, are more than a match\r\nfor three worlds. O brave king, it was for this reason that the powerful\r\nKukkura, Andhaka and Vrishni tribes, acting from motives of policy, did\r\nnot deem it proper to fight with him.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XX\r\n\r\n(Jarasandhta-badha Parva)\r\n\r\n"Krishna said,--both Hansa and Dimvaka have fallen; Kansa also with all\r\nhis followers has been slain. The time hath, therefore come for the\r\ndestruction of Jarasandha. He is incapable of being vanquished in battle\r\neven by all the celestials and the Asuras (fighting together). We think,\r\nhowever, that he should be vanquished in a personal struggle with bare\r\narms. In me is policy, in Bhima is strength and in Arjuna is triumph; and\r\ntherefore, as prelude to performing the Rajasuya, we will certainly\r\nachieve the destruction of the ruler of Magadha. When we three approach\r\nthat monarch in secret, and he will, without doubt, be engaged in an\r\nencounter with one of us. From fear of disgrace, from covetousness, and\r\nfrom pride of strength he will certainly summon Bhima to the encounter.\r\nLike death himself that slays a person however swollen with pride, the\r\nlong-armed and mighty Bhimasena will effect the destruction of the king.\r\nIf thou knowest my heart, if thou hast any faith in me, then make over to\r\nme, as a pledge, Bhima and Arjuna without loss of time!"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--Thus addressed by the exalted one,\r\nYudhishthira, beholding both Bhima and Arjuna standing with cheerful\r\nfaces, replied, saying--\'O Achyuta, O Achyuta, thou slayer of all\r\nenemies, say not so. Thou art the lord of the Pandavas! We are dependent\r\non thee. What thou sayest, O Govinda, is consistent with wise counsels.\r\nThou never leadest those upon whom Prosperity hath turned her back. I who\r\nstay under thy command regard that Jarasandha is already slain, that the\r\nmonarchs confined by him have already been set free, that the Rajasuya\r\nhath already been accomplished by me. O lord of the universe, O thou best\r\nof persons, watchfully act thou so that this task may be accomplished.\r\nWithout ye then I dare not live, like a sorrowful man afflicted with\r\ndisease, and bereft of the three attributes of morality, pleasure and\r\nwealth. Partha cannot live without Sauri (Krishna), nor can Sauri live\r\nwithout Partha. Nor is there anything in the world that is unconquerable\r\nby these two, viz., Krishna and Arjuna. This handsome Bhima also is the\r\nforemost of all persons endued with might. Of great renown, what can he\r\nnot achieve when with ye two? Troops, when properly led, always do\r\nexcellent service. A force without a leader hath been called inert by the\r\nwise. Forces, therefore, should always be led by experienced commanders.\r\nInto places that are low, the wise always conduct the water. Even\r\nfishermen cause the water (of tank) to run out through holes.\r\n(Experienced leaders always lead their forces noting the loopholes and\r\nassailable points of the foe). We shall, therefore, strive to accomplish\r\nour purpose following the leadership of Govinda conversant with the\r\nscience of politics, that personage whose fame hath spread all over the\r\nworld. For the successful accomplishment of one\'s purposes one should\r\never place Krishna in the van, that foremost of personages whose strength\r\nconsists in wisdom and policy and who possesseth a knowledge of both\r\nmethod and means. For the accomplishment of one\'s purpose let, therefore,\r\nArjuna, the son of Pritha, follow Krishna the foremost of the Yadavas and\r\nlet Bhima follow Arjuna. Policy and good fortune and might will (then)\r\nbring about success in a matter requiring valour.\' Vaisampayana\r\nsaid,--\'Thus addressed by Yudhishthira, the trio Krishna, Arjuna and\r\nBhima, all possessed of great energy, set out for Magadha attired in the\r\ngarb of Snataka Brahmanas of resplendent bodies, and blessed by the\r\nagreeable speeches of friends and relatives. Possessed of superior energy\r\nand of bodies already like the Sun, the Moon, and the Fire, inflamed with\r\nwrath at the sad lot of their relative kings, those bodies of theirs\r\nbecame much more blazing. And the people, beholding Krishna and Arjuna,\r\nboth of whom had never before been vanquished in battle, with Bhima in\r\nthe van, all ready to achieve the same task, regarded Jarasandha as\r\nalready slain. For the illustrious pair (Krishna and Arjuna) were masters\r\nthat directed every operation (in the universe), as also all acts\r\nrelating to the morality, wealth, and pleasure of every being. Having set\r\nout from the country of the Kurus, they passed through Kuru-jangala and\r\narrived at the charming lake of lotuses. Passing over the hills of\r\nKalakuta, they then went on crossing the Gandaki, the Sadanira\r\n(Karatoya), and the Sarkaravarta and the other rivers taking their rise\r\nin the same mountains. They then crossed the delightful Sarayu and saw\r\nthe country of Eastern Kosala. Passing over that country they went to\r\nMithila and then crossing the Mala and Charamanwati, the three heroes\r\ncrossed the Ganges and the Sone and went on towards the east. At last\r\nthose heroes of unfaded glory arrived at Magadha in the heart of (the\r\ncountry of) Kushamva. Reaching then the hills of Goratha, they saw the\r\ncity of Magadha that was always filled with kine and wealth and water and\r\nrendered handsome with the innumerable trees standing there.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXI\r\n\r\n"Vasudeva said,--\'behold, O Partha, the great capital of Magadha,\r\nstanding in all its beauty. Filled with flocks and herds and its stock of\r\nwater never exhausted, and adorned also with fine mansions standing in\r\nexcellent array, it is free from every kind of calamity. The five large\r\nhills of Vaihara, Varaha, Vrishava, Rishigiri, and the delightful\r\nChaitya, all of high peaks and overgrown with tall trees of cool shade\r\nand connected with one another, seem to be jointly protecting the city of\r\nGirivraja. The breasts of the hills are concealed by forests of\r\ndelightful and fragrant Lodhras having the ends of their branches covered\r\nwith flowers. It was here that the illustrious Gautama of rigid vows\r\nbegat on the Sudra woman Ausinari (the daughter of Usinara) Kakshivat and\r\nother celebrated sons. That the race sprung from Gautama doth yet live\r\nunder the sway of an ordinary human race (of monarchs) is only evidence\r\nof Gautama\'s kindness to kings. And, O Arjuna, it was here that in olden\r\ntimes the mighty monarchs of Anga, and Vanga and other countries, came to\r\nthe abode of Gautama, and passed their days in joy and happiness. Behold,\r\nO Partha, those forests of delightful Pippalas and beautiful Lodhras\r\nstanding near the side of Gautama\'s abode. There dwelt in old days those\r\nNagas, Arvuda and Sakravapin, those persecutors of all enemies, as also\r\nthe Naga Swastika and that other excellent Naga called Manu. Manu himself\r\nhad ordered the country of the Magadhas to be never afflicted with\r\ndrought, and Kaushika and Manimat also have favoured the country. Owning\r\nsuch a delightful and impregnable city, Jarasandha is ever bent on\r\nseeking the fruition of his purposes unlike other monarchs. We shall,\r\nhowever, by slaying him to-day humble his pride."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--Thus saying those brothers of abundant energy, viz.,\r\nhe of the Vrishni race and the two Pandavas entered the city of Magadha.\r\nThey then approached towards the impregnable city of Girivraja that was\r\nfull of cheerful and well-fed inhabitants belonging to all the four\r\norders, and where festivities were perennial. On arriving then at the\r\ngate of the city, the brothers (instead of passing through it) began to\r\npierce (with their shafts) the heart of the high Chaityaka peak that was\r\nworshipped by the race of Vrihadratha, as also by the citizens and which\r\ndelighted the hearts of all the Magadhas. There Vrihadratha had slain a\r\ncannibal called Rishava and having slain the monster made of his hide\r\nthree drums which he placed in his own city. And those drums were such\r\nthat once beaten their sound lasted one full month. And the brothers\r\nbroke down the Chaityaka peak that was delightful to all the Magadhas, at\r\nthat point where those drums covered with celestial flowers used to yield\r\ntheir continuous sound. And desirous of slaying Jarasandha they seemed by\r\nthat act of theirs to place their feet upon the head of their foe. And\r\nattacking with their mighty arms that immovable and huge and high and old\r\nand celebrated peak always worshipped with perfumes and floral wreaths,\r\nthose heroes broke it down. And with joyful hearts they then entered the\r\ncity. And it so happened that the learned Brahmanas residing within the\r\ncity saw many evil omens which they reported to Jarasandha. And the\r\npriest making the king mount an elephant whirled lighted brands about\r\nhim. And king Jarasandha also, possessed of great prowess, with a view to\r\nwarding of those evils, entered upon the celebration of a sacrifice, with\r\nproper vows and fasts. Meanwhile, O Bharata, the brothers unarmed, or\r\nrather with their bare arms as their only weapons, desirous of fighting\r\nwith Jarasandha, entered the capital in the guise of Brahmanas. They\r\nbeheld the extraordinary beauty of the shops full of various edibles and\r\nfloral wreaths, and supplied with articles of every variety of various\r\nqualities that man can desire. Those best of men, Krishna, Bhima, and\r\nDhananjaya, beholding in those shops their affluence, passed along the\r\npublic road. And endued with great strength they snatched forcibly from\r\nthe flower-vendors the garlands they had exposed for sale. And attired in\r\nrobes of various colours and decked in garlands and ear-rings the heroes\r\nentered the abode of Jarasandha possessed of great intelligence, like\r\nHimalayan lions eyeing cattle-folds. And the arms of those warriors, O\r\nking, besmeared with sandal paste, looked like the trunks of sala trees.\r\nThe people of Magadha, beholding those heroes looking like elephants,\r\nwith necks broad like those of trees and wide chests, began to wonder\r\nmuch. Those bull among men, passing through three gates that were crowded\r\nwith men, proudly and cheerfully approached the king. And Jarasandha\r\nrising up in haste received them with water to wash their feet with, and\r\nhoney and the other ingredients of the Arghya--with gifts of kine, and\r\nwith other forms of respect. The great king addressing them said,--\'Ye\r\nare welcome\'! And, O Janamejaya, both Partha and Bhima remained silent at\r\nthis. And addressing the monarch Krishna said,--\'O king of kings these\r\ntwo are now in the observance of a vow. Therefore they will not speak.\r\nSilent they will remain till midnight After that hour they will speak\r\nwith thee!\' The king then quartering his guests in the sacrificial\r\napartments retired into his private chambers. And when midnight arrived,\r\nthe monarch arrived at the place where his guests attired as Brahmanas\r\nwere. For, O King, that ever victorious monarch observed this vow which\r\nwas known throughout the Worlds that as soon as he should hear of the\r\narrival of Snataka Brahmanas at his place, should it be even at midnight,\r\nhe would immediately, O Bharata, come out and grant them an audience.\r\nBeholding the strange attire of his guests that best of kings wondered\r\nmuch. For all that, however, he waited on them respectfully. Those bulls\r\namong men, those slayers of all foes, on the other hand, O thou best of\r\nthe Bharata race, beholding king Jarasandha, said,--\'Let salvation be\r\nattained by thee, O king, without difficulty.\' And, O tiger among kings,\r\nhaving said this unto the monarch, they stood looking at each other. And,\r\nO king of kings, Jarasandha then said unto those sons of Pandu and him of\r\nthe Yadu race, all disguised as Brahmanas--\'Take your seats.\' And those\r\nbulls among men sat themselves down, and like the three priests of a\r\ngreat sacrifice blazed forth in their beauty. And king Jarasandha, O thou\r\nof the Kuru race, firmly devoted to truth, censuring the disguised\r\nguests, said unto them,--\'It is well known to me that in the whole world\r\nBrahmanas in the observance of Snataka vow never deck their persons with\r\ngarlands and fragrant paste unseasonably. Who are ye, therefore, thus\r\ndecked with flowers, and with hands bearing the marks of the bow-string?\r\nAttired in coloured robes and decked unseasonably with flowers and paste,\r\nye give me to understand that ye are Brahmanas, although ye bear\r\nKshatriya energy. Tell me truly who ye are. Truth decks even kings.\r\nBreaking down the peak of the Chaityaka hill, why have ye, in disguise,\r\nentered (the city) by an improper gate without fear of the royal wrath?\r\nThe energy of a Brahmana dwelleth in his speech, (not in act). This your\r\nfeat is not suited to the order to which ye profess to belong. Tell us\r\ntherefore, the end ye have in view. Arrived here by such an improper way,\r\nwhy accept ye not the worship I offer? What is your motive for coming to\r\nme? Thus addressed by the king, the high-souled Krishna, well-skilled in\r\nspeech, thus replied unto the monarch in a calm and grave voice.\r\n\r\n"Krishna said,--\'O king, know us for Snataka Brahmanas. Brahmanas and\r\nKshatriyas and Vaishyas are all, O monarch, competent to observe the vow\r\nof Snataka. This vow, besides, hath (many) especial and general rules. A\r\nKshatriya observing this vow with especial rules always achieve\r\nprosperity. Therefore, have we decked ourselves with flowers. Kshatriyas\r\nagain, O king, exhibit their energy by their arms and not in speech. It\r\nis, therefore, O son of Vrihadratha, that the speeches uttered by a\r\nKshatriya are never audacious. O monarch, the creator hath planted his\r\nown energy in the aim of the Kshatriya. If thou wishest to behold it,\r\nthou shalt certainly behold it today. These are the rules of the\r\nordinance, viz., that an enemy\'s abode should be entered through a wrong\r\ngate and a friend\'s abode through the right one. And know, O monarch,\r\nthat this also is our eternal vow that having entered the foe\'s abode for\r\nthe accomplishment of our purpose, we accept not the worship offered to\r\nus!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXII\r\n\r\n"Jarasandha said,--\'I do not recollect if I ever acted injuriously\r\ntowards ye! Even upon a careful mental scrutiny I fail to see the injury\r\nI did unto ye. When I have never done ye an injury, why, ye Brahmanas do\r\nye regard me, who am innocent, as your foe? O, answer me truly, for this,\r\nindeed, is the rule followed by the honest. The mind is pained at the\r\ninjury to one\'s pleasure and morality. That Kshatriya who injures an\r\ninnocent man\'s (sources of) pleasure and morality even if he be otherwise\r\na great warrior and well-versed in all rules of morality, obtains,\r\nwithout any doubt the fate of sinners (hereafter) and falls off from\r\nprosperity. The practices of the Kshatriyas are the best of those that\r\nare honest in the three worlds Indeed, those that are acquainted with\r\nmorality applaud the Kshatriya practices. Adhering to those practices of\r\nmy order with steady soul, I never injure those that are under me. In\r\nbringing this charge, therefore, against me, it appears that ye speak\r\nerroneously!\'\r\n\r\n"Krishna said,--\'O thou of mighty arms, there is a certain person of the\r\nhead of a (royal) line who upholdeth the dignity of his race At his\r\ncommand have we come against thee. Thou hast brought, O king, many of the\r\nKshatriyas of the world as captives (to thy city.) Having perpetrated\r\nthat wicked wrong how dost thou regard thyself as innocent? O best of\r\nmonarchs, how can a king act wrongfully towards other virtuous kings? But\r\nthou, O king, treating other kings with cruelty, seekest to offer them as\r\nsacrifice unto the god Rudra! O son of Vrihadratha, this sin committed by\r\nthee may touch even us, for as we are virtuous in our practices, we are\r\ncapable of protecting virtue. The slaughter of human being as sacrifice\r\nunto the gods is never seen. Why dost thou, therefore, seek to perform a\r\nsacrifice unto god Sankara by slaughtering human beings? Thou art\r\naddressing persons belonging to thy own order as animals (fit for\r\nsacrifice)! Fool as thou art, who else, O Jarasandha, is capable of\r\nbehaving in this way? One always obtaineth the fruits of whatever acts\r\none performeth under whatever circumstances. Therefore, desirous as we\r\nare of helping all distressed people, we have, for the prosperity of our\r\nrace, come hither to slay thee, the slaughterer of our relatives. Thou\r\nthinkest that there is no man among the Kshatriyas (equal to thee). This,\r\nO king, is a great error of judgment on thy part. What Kshatriya is\r\nthere, O king, who endued with greatness of soul and recollecting the\r\ndignity of his own parentage, would not ascend to eternal heaven that\r\nhath not its like anywhere, falling in open fight? Know O bull among men,\r\nthat Kshatriyas engage themselves in battle, as persons installed in\r\nsacrifices, with heaven in view, and vanquish the whole world! Study of\r\nthe Vedas, great fame, ascetic penances, and death in battle, are all\r\nacts that lead to heaven. The attainment of heaven by the three other\r\nacts may be uncertain, but death in battle hath that for its certain\r\nconsequence. Death in battle is the sure cause of triumph like Indra\'s.\r\nIt is graced by numerous merits. It is for this reason that he of a\r\nhundred sacrifices (Indra) hath become what he is, and by vanquishing the\r\nAsuras he ruleth the universe. Hostility with whom else than thee is so\r\nsure of leading to heaven, proud as thou art of the excessive strength of\r\nthy vast Magadha host? Don\'t disregard others, O king. Valour dwelleth in\r\nevery man. O king of men, there are many men whose valour may be equal or\r\nsuperior to thine. As long as these are not known, so long only art thou\r\nnoted for thy valour. Thy prowess, O king, can be borne by us. It is,\r\ntherefore, that I say so. O king of Magadha, cast off thy superiority and\r\npride in the presence of those that are thy equals. Go not, O king, with\r\nthy children and ministers and army, into the regions of Yama.\r\nDamvodhava, Kartavirya, Uttara, and Vrihadratha, were kings that met with\r\ndestruction, along with all their forces, for having disregarded their\r\nsuperiors. Desirous of liberating the captive monarchs from thee, know\r\nthat we are certainly not Brahmanas. I am Hrishesha otherwise called\r\nSauri, and these two heroes among men are the sons of Pandu. O king of\r\nMagadha, we challenge thee. Fight standing before us. Either set free all\r\nthe monarchs, or go thou to the abode of Yama.\r\n\r\n"Jarasandha said,--\'I never make a captive of a king without first\r\nvanquishing him. Who hath been kept here that hath not been defeated in\r\nwar? This, O Krishna, it hath been said, is the duty that should be\r\nfollowed by the Kshatriyas, viz., to bring others under sway by the\r\nexhibition of prowess and then to treat them as slaves. Having gathered\r\nthese monarchs with the intention of offering them as sacrifices unto the\r\ngod, how shall I, O Krishna, from fear liberate them to-day, when I\r\nrecollect also the duty I have recited of a Kshatriya? With troops\r\nagainst troops arrayed in order of battle, or alone against one, or\r\nagainst two, or against three, at the same time or separately, I am ready\r\nto fight.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Having spoken thus, and desiring to fight with those\r\nheroes of terrible achievements, king Jarasandha ordered (his son)\r\nSahadeva to be installed on the throne. Then, O bull of the Bharata race,\r\nthe king, on the eve of battle, thought of his two generals Kausika and\r\nChitrasena. These two, O king, were formerly called by everybody in the\r\nworld of men by the respectful appellations of Hansa and Dimvaka. And, O\r\nmonarch, that tiger among men, the lord Sauri ever devoted to truth, the\r\nslayer of Madhu, the younger brother of Haladhara, the foremost of all\r\npersons having their senses under complete control, keeping in view the\r\ncommand of Brahma and remembering that the ruler of Magadha was destined\r\nto be slain in battle by Bhima and not by the descendant of Madhu\r\n(Yadavas), desired not to slay himself king Jarasandha, that foremost of\r\nall men endued with strength, that hero possessed of the prowess of a\r\ntiger, that warrior of terrible valour."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'then that foremost of all speakers, Krishna of the\r\nYadava race, addressing king Jarasandha who was resolved upon fighting,\r\nsaid,--\'O king, with whom amongst us three dost thou desire to fight? Who\r\namongst us shall prepare himself for battle (with thee)?\' Thus addressed,\r\nthe ruler of Magadha, king Jarasandha of great splendour, expressed his\r\ndesire for fighting with Bhima. The priest then, bringing with him the\r\nyellow pigment obtained from the cow and garlands of flowers and other\r\nauspicious articles, as also various excellent medicines for restoring\r\nlost consciousness and alleviating pain, approached Jarasandha, panting\r\nfor battle. The king Jarasandha, on whose behalf propitiatory ceremonies\r\nwith benedictions were performed by a renowned Brahmana, remembering the\r\nduty of a Kshatriya dressed himself for battle. Taking off his crown and\r\nbinding his hair properly, Jarasandha stood up like an ocean bursting its\r\ncontinents. Then the monarch possessed of terrible prowess, addressing\r\nBhima. said, \'I will fight with thee. It is better to be vanquished by a\r\nsuperior person.\' And saying this, Jarasandha, that represser of all foes\r\nendued, rushed with great energy at Bhimasena like the Asura Vala or old\r\nwho rushed at the chief of the celestials. And the mighty Bhimasena, on\r\nwhose behalf the gods had been invoked by Krishna, that cousin of his,\r\nhaving consulted with advanced towards Jarasandha, impelled by the desire\r\nof fight. Then those tigers among men, those heroes of great prowess,\r\nwith their bare arms as their only weapons, cheerfully engaged themselves\r\nin the encounter, each desirous of vanquishing the other. And seizing\r\neach other\'s arms and twining each other\'s legs, (at times) they slapped\r\ntheir arm-pits, causing the enclosure to tremble at the sound. And\r\nfrequently seizing each other\'s necks with their hands and dragging and\r\npushing it with violence, and each pressing every limb of his body\r\nagainst every limb of the other, they continued, O exalted one, to slap\r\ntheir arm-pits (at time). And sometimes stretching their arms and\r\nsometimes drawing them close, and now raising them up and now dropping\r\nthem down, they began to seize each other. And striking neck against neck\r\nand forehead against forehead, they caused fiery sparks to come out like\r\nflashes of lightning. And grasping each other in various ways by means of\r\ntheir arms, and kicking each other with such violence as to affect the\r\ninnermost nerves, they struck at each other\'s breasts with clenched\r\nfists. With bare arms as their only weapons roaring like clouds they\r\ngrasped and struck each other like two mad elephants encountering each\r\nother with their trunks. Incensed at each other\'s blow, they fought on\r\ndragging and pushing each other and fiercely looking at each other like\r\ntwo wrathful lions. And each striking every limb of the other with his\r\nown and using his arms also against the other, and catching hold of each\r\nother\'s waist, they hurled each other to a distance. Accomplished in\r\nwrestling, the two heroes clasping each other with their arms and each\r\ndragging the other unto himself, began to press each other with great\r\nviolence. The heroes then performed those grandest of all feats in\r\nwrestling called Prishtabhanga, which consisted in throwing each other\r\ndown with face towards the earth and maintaining the one knocked down in\r\nthat position as long as possible. And employing his arms, each also\r\nperformed the feats called Sampurna-murchcha and Purna-kumbha. At times\r\nthey twisted each other\'s arms and other limbs as if these were vegetable\r\nfibres that were to be twisted into chords. And with clenched fists they\r\nstruck each other at times, pretending to aim at particular limbs while\r\nthe blows descended upon other parts of the body. It was thus that those\r\nheroes fought with each other. The citizens consisting of thousands, of\r\nBrahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras, and even women and the\r\naged, O tiger among men, came out and gathered there to behold the fight.\r\nAnd the crowd became so great that it was one solid mass of humanity with\r\nno space between body and body. The sound the wrestlers made by the\r\nslapping of their arms, the seizing of each other\'s necks for bringing\r\neach other down, and the grasping of each other\'s legs for dashing each\r\nother to the ground, became so loud that it resembled the roar of thunder\r\nor of falling cliffs. Both of them were foremost of mighty men, and both\r\ntook great delight in such encounter. Desirous of vanquishing the other,\r\neach was on the alert for taking advantage of the slightest lapse of the\r\nother. And, O monarch, the mighty Bhima and Jarasandha fought terribly on\r\nin those lists, driving the crowd at times by the motions of their hands\r\nlike Vritra and Vasava of old. Thus two heroes, dragging each other\r\nforward and pressing each other backward and with sudden jerks throwing\r\neach other face downward and sideways, mangled each other dreadfully. And\r\nat times they struck each other with their knee-joints. And addressing\r\neach other loudly in stinging speeches, they struck each other with\r\nclenched fists, the blows descending like a mass of stone upon each\r\nother. With broad shoulders and long arms and both well-skilled in\r\nwrestling encounters, they struck each other with those long arms of\r\ntheirs that were like maces of iron. That encounter of the heroes\r\ncommenced on the first (lunar) day of the month of Kartic (October) and\r\nthe illustrious heroes fought on without intermission and food, day and\r\nnight, till the thirteenth lunar day. It was on the night of the\r\nfourteenth of the lunar fortnight that the monarch of Magadha desisted\r\nfrom fatigue. And O king, Janardana beholding the monarch tired,\r\naddressed Bhima of terrible deeds, and as if to stimulate him said,--\'O\r\nson of Kunti, a foe that is fatigued cannot be pressed for if pressed at\r\nsuch a time he may even die. Therefore, O son of Kunti, this king should\r\nnot be oppressed by thee. On the other hand, O bull of the Bharata race,\r\nfight with him With thy arms, putting forth as much strength only as thy\r\nantagonist hath now left!\' Then that slayer of hostile heroes, the son of\r\nPandu, thus addressed by Krishna, understood the plight of Jarasandha and\r\nforthwith resolved upon taking his life. And that foremost of all men\r\nendued with strength, that prince of the Kuru race, desirous of\r\nvanquishing the hitherto unvanquished Jarasandha, mustered all his\r\nstrength and courage."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIV\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"thus addressed, Bhima firmly resolved upon slaying\r\nJarasandha, replied unto Krishna of the Yadu race, saying,--O tiger of\r\nthe Yadu race, O Krishna, this wretch that yet stayeth before me with\r\nsufficient strength and bent upon fight, should not be forgiven by me.\r\nHearing these words of Vrikodara (Bhima), that tiger among men, Krishna,\r\ndesiring to encourage that hero to accomplish the death of Jarasandha\r\nwithout any delay, answered,--\'O Bhima, exhibit today upon Jarasandha the\r\nstrength thou hast luckily derived, the might thou hast obtained from\r\n(thy father), the god Maruta.\' Thus addressed by Krishna, Bhima, that\r\nslayer of foes, holding up in the air the powerful Jarasandha, began to\r\nwhirl him on high. And, O bull of the Bharata race, having so whirled him\r\nin the air full hundred times, Bhima pressed his knee against\r\nJarasandha\'s backbone and broke his body in twain. And having killed him\r\nthus, the mighty Vrikodara uttered a terrible roar. And the roar of the\r\nPandava mingling with that death knell of Jarasandha, while he was being\r\nbroken on Bhima\'s knee, caused a loud uproar that struck fear into the\r\nheart of every creature. And all the citizens of Magadha became dumb with\r\nterror and many women were even prematurely delivered. And hearing those\r\nroars, the people of Magadha thought that either the Himavat was tumbling\r\ndown or the earth itself was being rent asunder. And those oppressors of\r\nall foes then, leaving the lifeless body of the king at the palace gate\r\nwhere he lay as one asleep, went out of the town. And Krishna, causing\r\nJarasandha\'s car furnished with an excellent flagstaff to be made ready\r\nand making the brothers (Bhima and Arjuna) ride in it, went in and\r\nreleased his (imprisoned) relatives. And those kings rescued from\r\nterrible fate, rich in the possession of jewels, approaching Krishna made\r\npresents unto him of jewels and gems. And having vanquished his foe,\r\nKrishna furnished with weapons and unwounded and accompanied by the kings\r\n(he had released), came out of Girivraja riding in that celestial car (of\r\nJarasandha). And he also who could wield the bow with both hands\r\n(Arjuna), who was incapable of being vanquished by any of the monarchs on\r\nearth, who was exceedingly handsome in person and well-skilled in the\r\ndestruction of the foe, accompanied by the possessor of great strength\r\n(Bhima), came out of that tort with Krishna driving the car whereon he\r\nrode. And that best of cars, incapable of being vanquished by any king,\r\nridden in by those warriors Bhima and Arjuna, and driven by Krishna,\r\nlooked exceedingly handsome. Indeed, it was upon that car that Indra and\r\nVishnu had fought of old in the battle (with the Asuras) in which Taraka\r\n(the wife of Vrihaspati) had become the immediate cause of much\r\nslaughter. And riding upon that car Krishna now came out of the\r\nhill-fort. Possessed of the splendour of heated gold, and decked with\r\nrows of jingling bells and furnished with wheels whose clatter was like\r\nthe roar of clouds, and ever victorious in battle, and always\r\nslaughtering the foe against whom it was driven, it was that very car\r\nriding upon which Indra had slain ninety-nine Asuras of old. And those\r\nbulls among men (the three cousins) having obtained that car became\r\nexceedingly glad. The people of Magadha, behold the long-armed Krishna\r\nalong with the two brothers, seated in that car (of Jarasandha) wondered\r\nmuch. O Bharata, that car, whereunto were yoked celestial horses and\r\nwhich possessed the speed of the wind, thus ridden upon by Krishna,\r\nlooked exceedingly beautiful. And upon that best of cars was a flag-staff\r\nwithout being visibly attached thereto, and which was the product of\r\ncelestial skill. And the handsome flag-staff, possessed of the splendour\r\nof the rainbow, could be seen from the distance of a yojana. And Krishna\r\nwhile, coming out, thought of Garuda. And Garuda, thought of by his\r\nmaster, came thither in no time, like a tree of vast proportions standing\r\nin a village worshipped by all. Garuda of immense weight of body and\r\nliving upon snakes sat upon that excellent car along with the numberless\r\nopen-mouthed and frightfully-roaring creatures on its flag-staff. And\r\nthereupon that best of cars became still more dazzling with its splendour\r\nand was as incapable of being looked at by created being as the midday\r\nsun surrounded by a thousand rays. And, O king, such was that best of\r\nflag-staffs of celestial make that it never struck against any tree nor\r\ncould any weapon injure it at all even though visible to men\'s eyes. And\r\nAchyuta, that tiger among men, riding with the two sons of Pandu upon\r\nthat celestial car, the clatter of whose wheels was like the roar of the\r\nclouds, came out of Girivraja. The car upon which Krishna rode had been\r\nobtained by king Vasu from Vasava, and from Vasu by Vrihadratha, and from\r\nthe latter in due course by king Jarasandha. And he of long arms and eyes\r\nlike lotus-petals and possessed of illustrious reputation, coming out of\r\nGirivraja, stopped (for some time) on a level plain outside the town.\r\nAnd, O king, all the citizens then, with the Brahmanas at their head,\r\nhastened thither to adore him with due religious rites. And the kings who\r\nhad been released from confinement worshipped the slayer of Madhu with\r\nreverence, and addressing him with eulogies said,--O thou of long arms,\r\nthou hast to-day rescued us, sunk in the deep mire of sorrow in the hand\r\nof Jarasandha. Such an act of virtue by thee, O son of Devaki, assisted\r\nby the might of Bhima and Arjuna, is most extraordinary. O Vishnu,\r\nlanguishing as we all were in the terrible hill-fort of Jarasandha, it\r\nwas verily from sheer good fortune alone that thou hast rescued us, O son\r\nof the Yadu race, and achieved thereby a remarkable reputation. O tiger\r\namong men, we bow down to thee. O, command us what we shall do. However\r\ndifficult of accomplishment, thy command being made known to us, O lord\r\n(Krishna), it will at once be accomplished by us. Thus addressed by the\r\nmonarchs, the high-souled Hrishikesa gave them every assurance and\r\nsaid,--\'Yudhishthira is desirous of performing the sacrifice of Rajasuya.\r\nThat monarch, ever guided by virtue, is solicitous of acquiring the\r\nimperial dignity. Having known this from me assist ye him in his\r\nendeavours. Then, O king, all those monarchs with joyous hearts accepted\r\nthe words of Krishna, saying,--\'So be it! And saying this, those lords of\r\nearth made presents of jewels unto him of the Dasarha race. And Govinda,\r\nmoved by kindness towards them, took a portion of those presents,\r\n\r\n"Then the son of Jarasandha, the high-souled Sahadeva, accompanied by his\r\nrelatives and the principal officers of state, and with his priest in\r\nfront came thither. And the prince, bending himself low and making large\r\npresents of jewels and precious stones, worshipped Vasudeva, that god\r\namong men. Then that best of men, Krishna, giving every assurance unto\r\nthe prince afflicted with fear, accepted those presents of his of great\r\nvalue. And Krishna joyfully installed the prince there and then in the\r\nsovereignty of Magadha. And the strong-armed and illustrious son of\r\nJarasandha, thus installed on the throne by those most exalted of men and\r\nhaving obtained the friendship of Krishna and treated with respect and\r\nkindness by the two sons of Pritha, re-entered the city of his father.\r\nAnd that bull amongst men, Krishna, accompanied by the sons of Pritha and\r\ngraced with great good fortune, left the city of Magadha, laden with\r\nnumerous jewels. Accompanied by the two sons of Pandu, Achyuta (Krishna)\r\narrived at Indraprastha, and approaching Yudhishthira joyfully addressing\r\nthat monarch said,--\'O best of kings, from good fortune, the mighty\r\nJarasandha hath been slain by Bhima, and the kings confined (at\r\nGirivraja) have been all set free. From good fortune also, these two,\r\nBhima and Dhananjaya, are well and arrived, O Bharata, it their own city\r\nunwounded. Then Yudhishthira worshipped Krishna as he deserved and\r\nembraced Bhima and Arjuna in joy. And the monarch who had no enemy,\r\nhaving obtained victory through the agency of his brothers in consequence\r\nof the death of Jarasandha, gave himself up to pleasure and merriment\r\nwith all his brothers. And the oldest son of Pandu (Yudhisthira) together\r\nwith his brothers approached the kings who had come to Indraprastha and\r\nentertaining and worshipping them, each according to his age, dismissed\r\nthem all. Commanded by Yudhishthira those kings with joyful hearts, set\r\nout for their respective countries without loss of time, riding upon\r\nexcellent vehicles. Thus, O king, did that tiger among men. Janardana of\r\ngreat intelligence, caused his foe Jarasandha to be slain through the\r\ninstrumentality of the Pandavas. And, O Bharata, that chastiser of all\r\nfoes having thus caused Jarasandha to be slain, took leave of\r\nYudhishthira and Pritha, and Draupadi and Subhadra, and Bhimasena and\r\nArjuna and the twins Nakula and Sahadeva. After taking leave of\r\nDhananjaya also, he set out for his own city (of Dwarka), riding upon\r\nthat best of cars of celestial make, possessed of the speed of the mind\r\nand given unto him by Yudhishthira, filling the ten points of the horizon\r\nwith the deep rattle of its wheels. And, O bull of the Bharata race, just\r\nas Krishna was on the point of setting out, the Pandavas with\r\nYudhishthira at their head walked round that tiger among men who was\r\nnever fatigued with exertion.\'\r\n\r\n"And after the illustrious Krishna, the son of Devaki, had departed (from\r\nIndraprastha) having acquired that great victory and having also\r\ndispelled the fears of the kings, that feat, O Bharata, swelled the fame\r\nof the Pandavas. And, O king, the Pandavas passed their days, continuing\r\nto gladden the heart of Draupadi. And at that time, whatever was proper\r\nand consistent with virtue, pleasure, and profit, continued to be\r\nproperly executed by king Yudhishthira in the exercise of his duties of\r\nprotecting his subjects."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXV\r\n\r\n(Digvijaya Parva)\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--Arjuna, having obtained that best of bows and that\r\ncouple of inexhaustible quivers and that car and flag-staff, as also that\r\nassembly-house, addressing Yudhisthira said,--Bow, weapons, great energy,\r\nallies, territory, fame, army-those, O king, difficult of acquisition\r\nhowever desirable, have all been obtained by me. I think, therefore, that\r\nwhat should now be done is for the swelling up of our treasury. I desire,\r\nO best of monarchs, to make the kings (of the earth) pay tributes to us.\r\nI desire to set out, in an auspicious moment of a holy day of the moon\r\nunder a favourable constellation for the conquest of the direction that\r\nis presided over by the Lord of treasures (viz. the North)."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"King Yudhisthira the just, hearing these words\r\nof Dhananjaya, replied unto him in a grave and collected tone, saying,--O\r\nbull of the Bharata race, set thou out, having made holy Brahmanas utter\r\nbenedictions on thee, to plunge thy enemies in sorrow and to fill thy\r\nfriend with joy. Victory, O son of Pritha, will surely be thine, and thou\r\nwilt surely obtain thy desires fulfilled.\r\n\r\n"Thus addressed, Arjuna, surrounded by a large host, set out in that\r\ncelestial car of wonderful achievements he had obtained from Agni. And\r\nBhimasena also, and those bull among men, the twins, dismissed with\r\naffection by Yudhishthira the just set out, each at the head of a large\r\narmy. And Arjuna, the son of the chastiser of Paka then brought under\r\nsubjugation that direction (the North) which was presided over by the\r\nLord of treasures. And Bhimasena overcome by force the East and Sahadeva\r\nthe South, and Nakula, O king, acquainted with all the weapons, conquered\r\nthe West. Thus while his brothers were so employed, the exalted king\r\nYudishthira the just stayed within Khandavaprastha in the enjoyment of\r\ngreat affluence in the midst of friends and relatives."\r\n\r\n"Bhagadatta, hearing this, said,--\'O thou who hast Kunto for thy mother,\r\nas thou art to me, so is Yudhishthira also. I shall do all this. Tell me,\r\nwhat else I may do for thee."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--thus addressed, Dhananjaya replied unto\r\nBhagadatta, saying,--\'If thou wilt give thy promise to do this, thou hast\r\ndone all I desire. And having thus subjugated the king of Pragjyotisha,\r\nDhananjaya of long arms, the son of Kunti, then marched towards the\r\nnorth--the direction presided over by the lord of treasures. That bull\r\namongst men, that son of Kunti, then conquered the mountainous tracts and\r\ntheir outskirts, as also the hilly regions. And having conquered all the\r\nmountains and the kings that reigned there, and bringing them under his\r\nsway, he exacted tributes from all. And winning the affections of those\r\nkings and uniting himself with them, he next marched, O king, against\r\nVrihanta, the king of Uluka, making this earth tremble with the sound of\r\nhis drums, the clatter of his chariot-wheels, and the roar of the\r\nelephants in his train. Vrihanta, however, quickly coming out of his city\r\nfollowed by his army consisting of four kinds of troops, gave battle to\r\nFalguna (Arjuna). And the fight that took place between Vrihanta and\r\nDhananjaya was terrible. It so happened that Vrihanta was unable to bear\r\nthe prowess of the son of Pandu. Then that invincible king of the\r\nmountainous region regarding the son of Kunti irresistible, approached\r\nhim with all his wealth. Arjuna snatched out the kingdom from Vrihanta,\r\nbut having made peace with him marched, accompanied by that king, against\r\nSenavindu whom he soon expelled from his kingdom. After this he\r\nsubjugated Modapura, Vamadeva, Sudaman, Susankula, the Northern Ulukas,\r\nand the kings of those countries and peoples. Hereafter at the command of\r\nYudhishthira, O monarch, Arjuna, did not move from the city of Senavindu\r\nbut sent his troops only and brought under his sway those five countries\r\nand peoples. For Arjuna, having arrived at Devaprastha, the city of\r\nSenavindu, took up his quarters there with his army consisting of four\r\nkinds of forces. Thence, surrounded by the kings and the peoples he had\r\nsubjugated, the hero marched against king Viswagaswa--that bull of Puru\'s\r\nrace. Having vanquished in battle the brave mountaineers, who were all\r\ngreat warriors, the son of Pandu, O king, then occupied with the help of\r\nhis troops, the town protected by the Puru king. Having vanquished in\r\nbattle the Puru king, as also the robber tribes, of the mountains, the\r\nson of Pandu brought under his sway the seven tribes called\r\nUtsava-sanketa. That bull of the Kshatriya race then defeated the brave\r\nKshatriyas of Kashmira and also king Lohita along with ten minor chiefs.\r\nThen the Trigartas, the Daravas, the Kokonadas, and various other\r\nKshatriyas, O king, advanced against the son of Pandu. That Prince of the\r\nKuru race then took the delightful town of Avisari, and then brought\r\nunder his sway Rochamana ruling in Uraga. Then the son of Indra (Arjuna),\r\nputting forth his might, pressed the delightful town of Singhapura that\r\nwas well-protected with various weapons. Then Arjuna, that bull amongst\r\nthe son of Pandu, at the head of all his troops, fiercely attacked the\r\nregions called Suhma and Sumala. Then the son of Indra, endued with great\r\nprowess, after pressing them with great force, brought the Valhikas\r\nalways difficult of being vanquished, under his sway. Then Falguna, the\r\nson of Pandu, taking with him a select force, defeated the Daradas along\r\nwith the Kambojas. Then the exalted son of Indra vanquished the robber\r\ntribes that dwelt in the north-eastern frontier and those also that dwelt\r\nin the woods. And, O great king, the son of Indra also subjugated the\r\nallied tribes of the Lohas, the eastern Kambojas, and northern Rishikas.\r\nAnd the battle with the Rishikas was fierce in the extreme. Indeed, the\r\nfight that took place between them and the son of Pritha was equal to\r\nthat between the gods and the Asuras in which Taraka (the wife of\r\nVrihaspati) had become the cause of so much slaughter. And defeating, O\r\nking, the Rishikas in the field of battle, Arjuna took from them as\r\ntribute eight horses that were of the colour of the parrot\'s breast, as\r\nalso other horses of the hues of the peacock, born in northern and other\r\nclimes and endued with high speed. At last having conquered all the\r\nHimalayas and the Nishkuta mountains, that bull among men, arriving at\r\nthe White mountains, encamped on its breast."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"that heroic and foremost of the Pandavas endued with\r\ngreat energy, crossing the White mountains, subjugated the country of the\r\nLimpurushas ruled by Durmaputra, after a collision involving a great\r\nslaughter of Kshatriyas, and brought the region under his complete sway.\r\nHaving reduced that country, the son of Indra (Arjuna) with a collected\r\nmind marched at the head of his troops to the country called Harataka,\r\nruled by the Guhakas. Subjugating them by a policy of conciliation, the\r\nKuru prince beheld (in that region) that excellent of lakes called Manasa\r\nand various other lakes and tanks sacred to the Rishis. And the exalted\r\nprince having arrived at the lake Manasa conquered the regions ruled by\r\nthe Gandharvas that lay around the Harataka territories. Here the\r\nconqueror took, as tribute from the country, numerous excellent horses\r\ncalled Tittiri, Kalmasha, Manduka. At last the son of the slayer of Paka,\r\narriving in the country of North Harivarsha desired to conquer it.\r\nThereupon certain frontier-guards of huge bodies and endued with great\r\nstrength and energy, coming to him with gallant hearts, said, \'O son of\r\nPritha, this country can be never conquered by thee. If thou seekest thy\r\ngood, return hence. He that entereth this region, if human, is sure to\r\nperish. We have been gratified with thee; O hero, thy conquests have been\r\nenough. Nor is anything to be seen here, O Arjuna, that may be conquered\r\nby thee. The Northern Kurus live here. There cannot be war here. Even if\r\nthou enterest it, thou will not be able to behold anything, for with\r\nhuman eyes nothing can be seen here. If, however thou seekest anything\r\nelse, O Bharata tell us, O tiger among men, so that we may do thy\r\nbidding. Thus addressed by them, Arjuna smilingly addressing them,\r\nsaid,--\'I desire the acquisition of the imperial dignity by Yudhishthira\r\nthe just, of great intelligence. If your land is shut against human\r\nbeings, I shall not enter it. Let something be paid unto Yudhishthira by\r\nye as tribute. Hearing these words of Arjuna, they gave him as tribute\r\nmany cloths and ornaments of celestial make, silks of celestial texture\r\nand skins of celestial origin.\r\n\r\n"It was thus that tiger among men subjugated the countries that lay to\r\nthe North, having fought numberless battles with both Kshatriya and\r\nrobber tribes. And having vanquished the chiefs and brought them under\r\nhis sway he exacted from them much wealth, various gems and jewels, the\r\nhorses of the species called Tittiri and Kalmasha, as also those of the\r\ncolour of the parrot\'s wings and those that were like the peacocks in hue\r\nand all endued with the speed of the wind. And surrounded, O king, by a\r\nlarge army consisting of the four kinds of forces, the hero came back to\r\nthe excellent city of Sakraprastha. And Partha offered the whole of that\r\nwealth, together with the animals he had brought, unto Yudhishthira the\r\njust. And commanded by the monarch, the hero retired to a chamber of the\r\npalace for rest."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--in the meantime, Bhimasena also endued with great\r\nenergy, having obtained the assent of Yudhishthira the just marched\r\ntowards the eastern direction. And the tiger among the Bharatas,\r\npossessed of great valour and ever increasing the sorrows of his foes,\r\nwas accompanied by a mighty host with the full complement of elephants\r\nand horses and cars, well-armed and capable of crushing all hostile\r\nkingdoms. That tiger among men, the son of Pandu, going first into the\r\ngreat country of the Panchalas, began by various means to conciliate that\r\ntribe. Then that hero, that bull of the Bharata race, within a short\r\ntime, vanquished the Gandakas and the Videhas. That exalted one then\r\nsubjugated the Dasarnas. There in the country of the Dasarnas, the king\r\ncalled Sudharman with his bare arms fought a fierce battle with\r\nBhimasena. And Bhimasena, beholding that feat of the illustrious king,\r\nappointed the mighty Sudharman as the first in command of his forces.\r\nThen Bhima of terrible prowess marched towards the east, causing the\r\nearth itself to tremble with the tread of the mighty host that followed\r\nhim. Then that hero who in strength was the foremost of all strong men\r\ndefeated in battle Rochamana, the king of Aswamedha, at the head of all\r\nhis troops. And the son of Kunti, having vanquished that monarch by\r\nperforming feats that excelled in fierceness, subjugated the eastern\r\nregion. Then that prince of the Kuru race, endued with great prowess\r\ngoing into the country of Pulinda in the south, brought Sukumara and the\r\nking Sumitra under his sway. Then, O Janamejaya, that bull in the Bharata\r\nrace, at the command of Yudhishthira the just marched against Sisupala of\r\ngreat energy. The king of Chedi, hearing of the intentions of the son of\r\nPandu, came out of his city. And that chastiser of all foes then received\r\nthe son of Pritha with respect. Then, O king, those bulls of the Chedi\r\nand the Kuru lines, thus met together, enquired after each other\'s\r\nwelfare. Then, O monarch, the king of Chedi offered his kingdom unto\r\nBhima and said smilingly,--\'O sinless one, upon what art thou bent?\' And\r\nBhima thereupon represented unto him the intentions of king Yudhishthira.\r\nAnd Bhima dwelt there, O king, for thirty nights, duly entertained by\r\nSisupala. And after this he set out from Chedi with his troops and\r\nvehicles."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--that chastiser of all foes then vanquished king\r\nSrenimat of the country of Kumara, and then Vrihadvala, the king of\r\nKosala. Then the foremost of the sons of Pandu, by performing feats\r\nexcelling in fierceness, defeated the virtuous and mighty king\r\nDirghayaghna of Ayodhya. And the exalted one then subjugated the country\r\nof Gopalakaksha and the northern Kosalas and also the king of Mallas. And\r\nthe mighty one, arriving then in the moist region at the foot of the\r\nHimalayas soon brought the whole country under his sway. And that bull of\r\nBharata race brought under control in this way diverse countries. And\r\nendued with great energy and in strength the foremost of all strong men,\r\nthe son of Pandu next conquered the country of Bhallata, as also the\r\nmountain of Suktimanta that was by the side of Bhallata. Then Bhima of\r\nterrible prowess and long arms, vanquishing in battle the unretreating\r\nSuvahu the king of Kasi, brought him under complete sway. Then that bull\r\namong the sons of Pandu overcame in battle, by sheer force, the great\r\nking Kratha reigning in the region lying about Suparsa. Then the hero of\r\ngreat energy vanquished the Matsya and the powerful Maladas and the\r\ncountry called Pasubhumi that was without fear or oppression of any kind.\r\nAnd the long-armed hero then, coming from that land, conquered Madahara,\r\nMahidara, and the Somadheyas, and turned his steps towards the north. And\r\nthe mighty son of Kunti then subjugated, by sheer force, the country\r\ncalled Vatsabhumi, and the king of the Bhargas, as also the ruler of the\r\nNishadas and Manimat and numerous other kings. Then Bhima, with scarcely\r\nany degree of exertion and very soon, vanquished the southern Mallas and\r\nthe Bhagauanta mountains. And the hero next vanquished, by policy alone,\r\nthe Sarmakas and the Varmakas. And that tiger among men then defeated\r\nwith comparative ease that lord of earth, Janaka the king of the Videhas.\r\nAnd the hero then subjugated strategically the Sakas and the barbarians\r\nliving in that part of the country. And the son of Pandu, sending forth\r\nexpeditions from Videha, conquered the seven kings of the Kiratas living\r\nabout the Indra mountain. The mighty hero then, endued with abundant\r\nenergy, vanquished in battle the Submas and the Prasuhmas. And winning\r\nthem over to his side, the son of Kunti, possessed of great strength,\r\nmarched against Magadha. On his way he subjugated the monarchs known by\r\nthe names of Danda and Dandadhara, And accompanied by those monarchs, the\r\nson of Pandu marched against Girivraja. After bringing the son of\r\nJarasandha under his sway by conciliation and making him pay tribute, the\r\nhero then accompanied by the monarchs he had vanquished, marched against\r\nKansa. And making the earth tremble by means of his troops consisting of\r\nthe four kinds of forces, the foremost of the Pandavas then encountered\r\nKarna that slayer of foes. And, O Bharata, having subjugated Karna and\r\nbrought him under his sway, the mighty hero then vanquished the powerful\r\nking of the mountainous regions. And the son of Pandu then slew in a\r\nfierce encounter, by the strength of his arms, the mighty king who dwelt\r\nin Madagiri. And the Pandava then, O king, subjugated in battle those\r\nstrong and brave heroes of fierce prowess, viz., the heroic and mighty\r\nVasudeva, the king of Pundra and king Mahaujah who reigned in\r\nKausika-kachchha, and then attacked the king of Vanga. And having\r\nvanquished Samudrasena and king Chandrasena and Tamralipta, and also the\r\nking of the Karvatas and the ruler of the Suhmas, as also the kings that\r\ndwelt on the sea-shore, that bull among the Bharatas then conquered all\r\nMlechchha tribes. The mighty son of the wind-god having thus conquered\r\nvarious countries, and exacting tributes from them all advanced towards\r\nLohity. And the son of Pandu then made all the Mlechchha kings dwelling\r\nin the marshy regions on the sea-coast, pay tributes and various kinds of\r\nwealth, and sandal wood and aloes, and clothes and gems, and pearls and\r\nblankets and gold and silver and valuable corals. The Mlechchha kings\r\nshowered upon the illustrious son of Kunti a thick downpour of wealth\r\nconsisting of coins and gems counted by hundreds of millions. Then\r\nreturning to Indraprastha, Bhima of terrible prowess offered the whole of\r\nthat wealth unto king Yudhisthira the just."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"thus also Sahadeva, dismissed with affection by king\r\nYudhisthira the just, marched towards the southern direction accompanied\r\nby a mighty host. Strong in strength, that mighty prince of the Kuru\r\nrace, vanquishing completely at the outset the Surasenas, brought the\r\nking of Matsya under his sway. And the hero then, defeating Dantavakra,\r\nthe mighty king of the Adhirajas and making him pay tribute,\r\nre-established him on his throne. The prince then brought under his sway\r\nSukumara and then king Sumitra, and he next vanquished the other Matsyas\r\nand then the Patacharas. Endued with great intelligence, the Kuru warrior\r\nthen conquered soon enough the country of the Nishadas and also the high\r\nhill called Gosringa, and that lord of earth called Srenimat. And\r\nsubjugating next the country called Navarashtra, the hero marched against\r\nKuntibhoja, who with great willingness accepted the sway of the\r\nconquering hero. And marching thence to the banks of the Charmanwati, the\r\nKuru warrior met the son of king Jamvaka, who had, on account of old\r\nhostilities, been defeated before by Vasudeva. O Bharata, the son of\r\nJamvaka gave battle to Sahadeva. And Sahadeva defeating the prince\r\nmarched towards the south. The mighty warrior then vanquished the Sekas\r\nand others, and exacted tributes from them and also various kinds of gems\r\nand wealth. Allying himself with the vanquished tribes the prince then\r\nmarched towards the countries that lay on the banks of the Narmada. And\r\ndefeating there in battle the two heroic kings of Avanti, called Vinda\r\nand Anuvinda, supported by a mighty host, the mighty son of the twin gods\r\nexacted much wealth from them. After this the hero marched towards the\r\ntown of Bhojakata, and there, O king of unfading glory, a fierce\r\nencounter took place between him and the king of that city for two whole\r\ndays. But the son of Madri, vanquishing the invincible Bhismaka, then\r\ndefeated in battle the king of Kosala and the ruler of the territories\r\nlying on the banks of the Venwa, as also the Kantarakas and the kings of\r\nthe eastern Kosalas. The hero then defeating both the Natakeyas and the\r\nHeramvaks in battle, and subjugating the country of Marudha, reduced\r\nMunjagrama by sheer strength. And the son of Pandu then vanquished the\r\nmighty monarchs of the Nachinas and the Arvukas and the various forest\r\nking of that part of the country. Endued with great strength the hero\r\nthen reduced to subjection king Vatadhipa. And defeating in battle the\r\nPulindas, the hero then marched southward. And the younger brother of\r\nNakula then fought for one whole day with the king of Pandrya. The\r\nlong-armed hero having vanquished that monarch marched further to the\r\nsouth. And then he beheld the celebrated caves of Kishkindhya and in that\r\nregion fought for seven days with the monkey-kings Mainda and Dwivida.\r\nThose illustrious kings however, without being tired an the encounter,\r\nwere gratified with Sahadeva. And joyfully addressing the Kuru prince,\r\nthey said,--\'O tiger among the sons of Pandu, go hence, taking with the\r\ntribute from us all. Let the mission of the king Yudhishthira the just\r\npossessed of great intelligence, be accomplished without hindrance. And\r\ntaking jewels and gems from them all, the hero marched towards the city\r\nof Mahishmati, and there that bull of men did battle with king Nila. The\r\nbattle that took place between king Nila and the mighty Sahadeva the son\r\nof Pandu, that slayer of hostile heroes, was fierce and terrible. And the\r\nencounter was an exceedingly bloody one, and the life of the hero himself\r\nwas exposed to great risk, for the god Agni himself assisted king Nila in\r\nthat fight. Then the cars, heroes, elephants, and the soldiers in their\r\ncoats of mail of Sahadeva\'s army all appeared to be on fire. And\r\nbeholding this the prince of the Kuru race became exceedingly anxious.\r\nAnd, O Janamejaya, at sight of this the hero could not resolve upon what\r\nhe should do.\r\n\r\nJanamejaya said,--O regenerate one, why was it that the god Agni become\r\nhostile in battle unto Sahadeva, who was fighting simply for the\r\naccomplishment of a sacrifice (and therefore, for the gratification of\r\nAgni himself)?\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'It is said, O Janamejaya, that the god Agni while\r\nresiding in Mahishmati, earned the reputation of a lover. King Nila had a\r\ndaughter who was exceedingly beautiful. She used always to stay near the\r\nsacred fire of her father, causing it to blaze up with vigour. And it so\r\nhappened that king Nila\'s fire, even if fanned, would not blaze up till\r\nagitated by the gentle breath of that girl\'s fair lips. And it was said\r\nin King Nila\'s palace and in the house of all his subjects that the god\r\nAgni desired that beautiful girl for his bride. And it so happened that\r\nhe was accepted by the girl herself. One day the deity assuming the form\r\nof a Brahmana, was happily enjoying the society of the fair one, when he\r\nwas discovered by the king. And the virtuous king thereupon ordered the\r\nBrahmana to be punished according to law. At this the illustrious deity\r\nflamed up in wrath. And beholding this, the king wondered much and bent\r\nhis head low on the ground. And after some time the king bowing low\r\nbestowed the daughter of his upon the god Agni, disguised as a Brahmana.\r\nAnd the god Vibhabasu (Agni) accepting that fair-browed daughter of king\r\nNila, became gracious unto that monarch. And Agni, the illustrious\r\ngratifier of all desires also asked the monarch to beg a boon of him. And\r\nthe king begged that his troops might never be struck with panic while\r\nengaged in battle. And from that time, O king, those monarchs who from\r\nignorance of this, desire to subjugate king Nila\'s city, are consumed by\r\nHutasana (Agni). And from that time, O perpetuator of the Kuru race, the\r\ngirls of the city of Mahishmati became rather unacceptable to others (as\r\nwives). And Agni by his boon granted them sexual liberty, so that the\r\nwomen of that town always roam about at will, each unbound to a\r\nparticular husband. And, O bull of the Bharata race, from that time the\r\nmonarchs (of other countries) forsake this city for fear of Agni. And the\r\nvirtuous Sahadeva, beholding his troops afflicted with fear and\r\nsurrounded by flames of fire, himself stood there immovable as a\r\nmountain. And purifying himself and touching water, the hero (Sahadeva)\r\nthen addressed Agni, the god that sanctifieth everything, in these\r\nwords,--\r\n\r\n\'I bow unto thee, O thou whose track is always marked with smoke. These\r\nmy exertions are all for thee. O thou sanctifier of all, thou art the\r\nmouth of the gods and thou art Sacrifice personified. Thou art called\r\nPavaka because thou sanctifiest everything, and thou art Havyavahana,\r\nbecause thou carriest the clarified butter that is poured on thee. The\r\nVeda have sprung for ministering unto thee, and, therefore, thou art\r\ncalled Jataveda. Chief of the gods as thou art, thou art called\r\nChitrabhanu, Anala, Vibhavasu, Hutasana, Jvalana, Sikhi, Vaiswanara,\r\nPingesa, Plavanga, Bhuritejah. Thou art he from whom Kumara (Kartikeya)\r\nhad his origin; thou art holy; thou art called Rudragarva and\r\nHiranyakrit. Let thee, O Agni, grant me energy, let Vayu grant me life,\r\nlet Earth grant me nourishment and strength, and let Water grant me\r\nprosperity. O Agni, thou who art the first cause of the waters, thou who\r\nart of great purity, thou for ministering unto whom the Vedas have\r\nsprung, thou who art the foremost of the deities, thou who art their\r\nmouth, O purify me by thy truth. Rishis and Brahmanas, Deities and Asuras\r\npour clarified butter every day, according to the ordinance into thee\r\nduring sacrifices. Let the rays of truth emanating from thee, while thou\r\nexhibitest thyself in those sacrifices, purify me. Smoke-bannered as thou\r\nart and possessed of flames, thou great purifier from all sins born of\r\nVayu and ever present as thou art in all creatures, O purify me by the\r\nrays of thy truth. Having cleansed myself thus cheerfully, O exalted one,\r\ndo I pray unto thee. O Agni, grant me now contentment and prosperity, and\r\nknowledge and gladness.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued.--\'He that will pour clarified butter into Agni\r\nreciting these mantras, will ever be blessed with prosperity, and having\r\nhis soul under complete control will also be cleansed from all his sins.\r\n\r\n"Sahadeva, addressing Agni again, said,--\'O carrier of the sacrificial\r\nlibations, it behoveth thee not to obstruct a sacrifice!\' Having said\r\nthis, that tiger among men--the son of Madri--spreading some kusa grass\r\non earth sat down in expectation of the (approaching) fire and in front\r\nof those terrified and anxious troops of his. And Agni, too, like the\r\nocean that never transgresseth its continents, did not pass over his\r\nhead. On the other hand approaching Sahadeva quietly and addressing that\r\nprince of the Kuru race, Agni that god of men gave him every assurance\r\nand said,--\'O thou of the Kuru race, rise up from this posture. O rise\r\nup, I was only trying thee. I know all thy purpose, as also those of the\r\nson of Dharma (Yudhisthira). But, O best of the Bharata race, as long as\r\nthere is a descendant of king Nila\'s line, so long should this town be\r\nprotected by me. I will, however O son of Pandu, gratify the desires of\r\nthy heart. And at these words of Agni, O bull of the Bharata race, the\r\nson of Madri rose up with a cheerful heart, and joining his hands and\r\nbending his head worshipped that god of fire, sanctifier of all beings.\r\nAnd at last, after Agni had disappeared, king Nila came there, and at the\r\ncommand of that deity, worshipped with due rites Sahadeva, that tiger\r\namong men--that master of battle. And Sahadeva accepted that worship and\r\nmade him pay tribute. And having brought king Nila under his sway thus,\r\nthe victorious son of Madri then went further towards the south. The\r\nlong-armed hero then brought the king of Tripura of immeasurable energy\r\nunder his sway. And next turning his forces against the Paurava kingdom,\r\nhe vanquished and reduced to subjection the monarch thereof. And the\r\nprince, after this, with great efforts brought Akriti, the king of\r\nSaurashtra and preceptor of the Kausikas under his sway. The virtuous\r\nprince, while staying in the kingdom of Saurashtra sent an ambassador\r\nunto king Rukmin of Bhishmaka within the territories of Bhojakata, who,\r\nrich in possessions and intelligence, was the friend of Indra himself.\r\nAnd the monarch along with his son, remembering their relationship with\r\nKrishna, cheerfully accepted, O king, the sway of the son of Pandu. And\r\nthe master of battle then, having exacted jewels and wealth from king\r\nRukmin, marched further to the south. And, endued with great energy and\r\ngreat strength, the hero then, reduced to subjection, Surparaka and\r\nTalakata, and the Dandakas also. The Kuru warrior then vanquished and\r\nbrought under his subjection numberless kings of the Mlechchha tribe\r\nliving on the sea coast, and the Nishadas and the cannibals and even the\r\nKarnapravarnas, and those tribes also called the Kalamukhas who were a\r\ncross between human beings and Rakshasas, and the whole of the Cole\r\nmountains, and also Surabhipatna, and the island called the Copper\r\nisland, and the mountain called Ramaka. The high-souled warrior, having\r\nbrought under subjection king Timingila, conquered a wild tribe known by\r\nthe name of the Kerakas who were men with one leg. The son of Pandu also\r\nconquered the town of Sanjayanti and the country of the Pashandas and the\r\nKarahatakas by means of his messengers alone, and made all of them pay\r\ntributes to him. The hero brought under his subjection and exacted\r\ntributes from the Paundrayas and the Dravidas along with the Udrakeralas\r\nand the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas,\r\nand also the delightful city of Atavi and that of the Yavanas. And, O\r\nking of kings, that slayer of all foes, the virtuous and intelligent son\r\nof Madri having arrived at the sea-shore, then despatched with great\r\nassurance messengers unto the illustrious Vibhishana, the grandson of\r\nPulastya. And the monarch willingly accepted the sway of the son of\r\nPandu, for that intelligent and exalted king regarded it all as the act\r\nof Time. And he sent unto the son of Pandu diverse kinds of jewels and\r\ngems, and sandal and also wood, and many celestial ornaments, and much\r\ncostly apparel, and many valuable pearls. And the intelligent Sahadeva,\r\naccepting them all, returned to his own kingdom.\r\n\r\n"Thus it was, O king, that slayer of all foes, having vanquished by\r\nconciliation and war numerous kings and having also made them pay\r\ntribute, came back to his own city. The bull of the Bharata race, having\r\npresented the whole of that wealth unto king Yudhisthira the just\r\nregarded himself, O Janamejaya, as crowned with success and continued to\r\nlive happily."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"I shall now recite to you the deeds and triumphs of\r\nNakula, and how that exalted one conquered the direction that had once\r\nbeen subjugated by Vasudeva. The intelligent Nakula, surrounded by a\r\nlarge host, set out from Khandavaprastha for the west, making this earth\r\ntremble with the shouts and the leonine roars of the warriors and the\r\ndeep rattle of chariot wheels. And the hero first assailed the\r\nmountainous country called Rohitaka that was dear unto (the celestial\r\ngeneralissimo) Kartikeya and which was delightful and prosperous and full\r\nof kine and every kind of wealth and produce. And the encounter the son\r\nof Pandu had with the Mattamyurakas of that country was fierce. And the\r\nillustrious Nakula after this, subjugated the whole of the desert country\r\nand the region known as Sairishaka full of plenty, as also that other one\r\ncalled Mahetta. And the hero had a fierce encounter with the royal sage\r\nAkrosa. And the son of Pandu left that part of the country having\r\nsubjugated the Dasarnas, the Sivis, the Trigartas, the Amvashtas, the\r\nMalavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas, and those twice born classes\r\nthat were called the Madhyamakeyas and Vattadhanas. And making circuitous\r\njourney that bull among men then conquered the (Mlechcha) tribes called\r\nthe Utsava-sanketas. And the illustrious hero soon brought under\r\nsubjection the mighty Gramaniya that dwelt on the shore of the sea, and\r\nthe Sudras and the Abhiras that dwelt on the banks of the Saraswati, and\r\nall those tribes that lived upon fisheries, and those also that dwelt on\r\nthe mountains, and the whole of the country called after the five rivers,\r\nand the mountains called Amara, and the country called Uttarayotisha and\r\nthe city of Divyakutta and the tribe called Dwarapala. And the son of\r\nPandu, by sheer force, reduced to subjection the Ramathas, the Harahunas,\r\nand various kings of the west. And while staying there Nakula sent. O\r\nBharata, messengers unto Vasudeva. And Vasudeva with all the Yadavas\r\naccepted his sway. And the mighty hero, proceeding thence to Sakala, the\r\ncity of the Madras, made his uncle Salya accept from affection the sway\r\nof the Pandavas. And, O monarch, the illustrious prince deserving the\r\nhospitality and entertainment at his uncle\'s hands, was well entertained\r\nby his uncle. And skilled in war, the prince, taking from Salya a large\r\nquantity of jewels and gems, left his kingdom. And the son of Pandu then\r\nreduced to subjection the fierce Mlechchas residing on the sea coast, as\r\nalso the wild tribes of the Palhavas, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and the\r\nSakas. And having subjugated various monarchs, and making all of them pay\r\ntributes, Nakula that foremost of the Kurus, full of resources, retraced\r\nhis way towards his own city. And, O king, so great was the treasure\r\nwhich Nakula brought that ten thousand camels could carry it with\r\ndifficulty on their backs. And arriving at Indraprastha, the heroic and\r\nfortunate son of Madri presented the whole of that wealth unto\r\nYudhishthira.\r\n\r\n"Thus, O king, did Nakula subjugate the countries that lay to the\r\nwest--the direction that is presided over by the god Varuna, and that had\r\nonce before been subjugated by Vasudeva himself!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXII\r\n\r\n(Rajasuyika Parva)\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"in consequence of the protection afforded by\r\nYudhisthira the just, and of the truth which he ever cherished in his\r\nbehaviour, as also of the check under which he kept all foes, the\r\nsubjects of that virtuous monarch were all engaged in their respective\r\navocations. And by reason of the equitable taxation and the virtuous rule\r\nof the monarch, clouds in his kingdom poured as much rain as the people\r\ndesired, and the cities and the town became highly prosperous. Indeed as\r\na consequence of the monarch\'s acts; every affair of the kingdom,\r\nespecially cattle bleeding, agriculture and trade prospered highly. O\r\nking, during those days even robbers and cheats never spoke lies amongst\r\nthemselves, nor they that were the favourites of the monarch. There were\r\nno droughts and floods and plagues and fires and premature deaths in\r\nthose days of Yudhishthira devoted to virtue. And it was only for doing\r\nagreeable services, or for worshipping, or for offering tributes that\r\nwould not impoverish, that other kings used to approach Yudhisthira (and\r\nnot for hostility or battle.) The large treasure room of the king became\r\nso much filled with hoards of wealth virtuously obtained that it could\r\nnot be emptied even in a hundred years. And the son of Kunti,\r\nascertaining the state of his treasury and the extent of his possessions,\r\nfixed his heart upon the celebration of a sacrifice. His friends and\r\nofficers, each separately and all together, approaching him said,--\'The\r\ntime hath come, O exalted one, for thy sacrifice. Let arrangements,\r\ntherefore, be made without loss of time.\' While they were thus talking,\r\nHari (Krishna), that omniscient and ancient one, that soul of the Vedas,\r\nthat invincible one as described by those that have knowledge, that\r\nforemost of all lasting existences in the universe, that origin of all\r\nthings, as also that in which all things come to be dissolved, that lord\r\nof the past, the future, and the present Kesava--the slayer of Kesi, and\r\nthe bulwark of all Vrishnis and the dispeller of all fear in times of\r\ndistress and the smiter of all foes, having appointed Vasudeva to the\r\ncommand of the (Yadava) army, and bringing with him for the king\r\nYudhishthira just a large mass of treasure; entered that excellent city\r\nof cities. Khandava, himself surrounded by a mighty host and filling the\r\natmosphere with the rattle of his chariot-wheels. And Madhava, that tiger\r\namong men enhancing that limitless mass of wealth the Pandavas had by\r\nthat inexhaustible ocean of gems he had brought, enhanced the sorrows of\r\nthe enemies of the Pandavas. The capital of the Bharata was gladdened by\r\nKrishna\'s presence just as a dark region is rendered joyful by the sun or\r\na region of still air by a gentle breeze. Approaching him joyfully and\r\nreceiving him with due respect, Yudhishthira enquired of his welfare. And\r\nafter Krishna had been seated at ease, that bull among men, the son of\r\nPandu, with Dhaumya and Dwaipayana and the other sacrificial priests and\r\nwith Bhima and Arjuna and the twins, addressed Krishna thus,--\r\n\r\n\'O Krishna it is for thee that the whole earth is under my sway. And, O\r\nthou of the Vrishni race, it is through thy grace that vast wealth had\r\nbeen got by me. And, O son of Devaki, O Madhava, I desire to devote that\r\nwealth according to the ordinance, unto superior Brahmanas and the\r\ncarrier of sacrificial libations. And, O thou of the Dasarha race, it\r\nbehoveth thee, O thou of mighty arms, to grant me permission to celebrate\r\na sacrifice along with thee and my younger brothers. Therefore, O\r\nGovinda, O thou of long arms, install thyself at that sacrifice; for, O\r\nthou of the Dasarha race, if thou performed the sacrifice, I shall be\r\ncleansed of sin. Or, O exalted one, grant permission for myself being\r\ninstalled at the sacrifice along with these my younger brothers, for\r\npermitted by thee, O Krishna. I shall be able to enjoy the fruit of an\r\nexcellent sacrifice.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Unto Yudhisthira after he had said this,\r\nKrishna, extolling his virtues, said.--\'Thou, O tiger among kings,\r\ndeservest imperial dignity. Let, therefore, the great sacrifice be\r\nperformed by thee. And if thou performest that sacrifice an obtainest its\r\nfruit we all shall regard ourselves as crowned with success. I am always\r\nengaged in seeking good. Perform thou then the sacrifice thou desirest.\r\nEmploy me also in some office for that purpose, for I should obey all thy\r\ncommands. Yudhisthira replied--O Krishna, my resolve is already crowned\r\nwith fruit, and success also is surely mine, when thou, O Harishikesa,\r\nhast arrived here agreeably to my wish!\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Commanded by Krishna, the son of Pandu along\r\nwith his brothers set himself upon collecting the materials for the\r\nperformance of the Rajasuya sacrifice. And that chastiser of all foes,\r\nthe son of Pandu, then commanded Sahadeva that foremost of all warriors\r\nand all ministers also, saying,--Let persons be appointed to collect\r\nwithout loss of time, all those articles which the Brahmanas have\r\ndirected as necessary for the performance of this sacrifice, and all\r\nmaterials and auspicious necessaries that Dhaumya may order as required\r\nfor it, each of the kind needed and one after another in due order. Let\r\nIndrasena and Visoka and Puru with Arjuna for his charioteer be engaged\r\nto collect food if they are to please me. Let these foremost of the Kurus\r\nalso gather every article of agreeable taste and smell that may delight\r\nand attract the hearts of the Brahmanas.\'\r\n\r\n"Simultaneously with these words of king Yudhisthira the just, Sahadeva\r\nthat foremost of warriors, having accomplished everything, represented\r\nthe matter to the king. And Dwaipayana, O king, then appointed as\r\nsacrificial priests exalted Brahmanas that were like the Vedas themselves\r\nin embodied forms. The son of Satyavati became himself the Brahma of that\r\nsacrifice. And that bull of the Dhananjaya race, Susaman, became the\r\nchanter of the Vedic (Sama) hymns. Yajnavalkya devoted to Brahma became\r\nthe Adhyaryu, and Paila--the son of Vasu and Dhaumya became the Hotris.\r\nAnd O bull of the Bharata race, the disciples and the sons of these men,\r\nall well-acquainted with the Vedas and the branches of the Vedas, became\r\nHotragts. And all of them, having uttered benedictions and recited the\r\nobject of the sacrifice, worshipped, according to the ordinance the large\r\nsacrificial compound. Commanded by the Brahmanas, builders and artificers\r\nerected numerous edifices there that were spacious and well-perfumed like\r\nunto the temples of the gods. After these were finished, that best of\r\nkings and that bull among men Yudhishthira. commanded his chief adviser\r\nSahadeva, saying,--\'Despatch thou, without loss of time, messengers\r\nendued with speed to invite all to the sacrifice. And Sahadeva, hearing\r\nthese words of the king, despatched messengers telling them,--\'Invite ye\r\nall the Brahmanas in the kingdom and all the owners of land (Kshatriyas)\r\nand all the Vaisyas and also all the respectable Sudras, and bring them\r\nhither!\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Endued with speed, these messengers then, thus\r\ncommanded, invited everybody according to the orders of the Pandava,\r\nwithout losing any time, and brought with them many persons, both friends\r\nand strangers. Then, O Bharata, the Brahmanas at the proper time\r\ninstalled Yudhishthira the son of Kunti at the Rajasuya sacrifice. And\r\nafter the ceremony of installation was over, that foremost of men, the\r\nvirtuous king Yudhishthira the just like the god Dharma himself in human\r\nframe, entered the sacrificial compound, surrounded by thousands of\r\nBrahmanas and his brothers and the relatives and friends and counsellors,\r\nand by a large number of Kshatriya kings who had come from various\r\ncountries, and by the officers of State. Numerous Brahmanas, well-skilled\r\nin all branches of knowledge and versed in the Vedas and their several\r\nbranches, began to pour in from various countries. Thousands of\r\ncraftsmen, at the command of king Yudhishthira the just, erected for\r\nthose Brahmanas with their attendants separate habitations well-provided\r\nwith food and clothes and the fruits and flowers of every season. And, O\r\nking, duly worshipped by the monarch the Brahmanas continued to reside\r\nthere passing their time in conversation on diverse topics and beholding\r\nthe performances of actors and dancers. And the clamour of high-souled\r\nBrahmanas, cheerfully eating and talking, was heard there without\r\nintermission. \'Give,\' and \'Eat\' were the words that were heard there\r\nincessantly and every day. And, O Bharata, king Yudhishthira the just\r\ngave unto each of those Brahmanas thousands of kine and beds and gold\r\ncoins and damsels.\r\n\r\nThus commenced on earth the sacrifice of that unrivalled hero, the\r\nillustrious son of Pandu, like the sacrifice in heaven of Sakra himself.\r\nThen that bull among men, king Yudhishthira despatched Nakula the son of\r\nPandu unto Hastinapura to bring Bhishma and Drona, Dhritarashtra and\r\nVidura and Kripa and those amongst his cousins that were well-disposed\r\ntowards him."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"the ever-victorious Nakula, the son of Pandu, having\r\nreached Hastinapura, formally invited Bhishma and Dhritarashtra. The\r\nelder of the Kuru race with the preceptor at their head, invited with due\r\nceremonies, came with joyous hearts to that sacrifice, with Brahmanas\r\nwalking before them. And, O hull of the Bharata race, having heard of\r\nking Yudhishthira\'s sacrifice, hundreds of other Kshatriyas acquainted\r\nwith the nature of the sacrifice, with joyous hearts came there from\r\nvarious countries, desiring to behold king Yudhishthira the son of Pandu\r\nand his sacrificial mansion, and brought with them many costly jewels of\r\nvarious kinds. And Dhritarashtra and Bhishma and Vidura of high\r\nintelligence; and all Kaurava brothers with Duryyodhana at their head;\r\nand Suvala the king of Gandhara and Sakuni endued with great strength;\r\nand Achala, and Vrishaka, and Karna that foremost of all charioteers; and\r\nSalya endued with great might and the strong Valhika; and Somadatta, and\r\nBhuri of the Kuru race, and Bhurisravas and Sala; and Aswatthama, Kripa,\r\nDrona, and Jayadratha, the ruler of Sindhu; and Yajnasena with his sons,\r\nand Salya that lord of earth and that great car warrior king Bhagadatta\r\nof Pragjyotisha accompanied by all Mlechcha tribes inhabiting the marshy\r\nregions on the sea-shore; and many mountain kings, and king Vrihadvala;\r\nand Vasudeva the king of the Paundrayas, and the kings of Vanga and\r\nKalinga; and Akastha and Kuntala and the kings of the Malavas and the\r\nAndhrakas; and the Dravidas and the Singhalas and the king of Kashmira,\r\nand king Kuntibhoja of great energy and king Gauravahana, and all the\r\nother heroic kings of Valhika; and Virata with his two sons, and Mavella\r\nendued with great might; and various kings and princes ruling in various\r\ncountries; and, O Bharata king Sisupala endued with great energy and\r\ninvincible in battle accompanied by his son--all of them came to the\r\nsacrifice of the son of Pandu. And Rama and Aniruddha and Kanaka and\r\nSarana; and Gada, Pradyumna, Shamva, and Charudeshna of great energy; and\r\nUlmuka and Nishatha and the brave Angavaha; and innumerable other\r\nVrishnis--all mighty car-warriors--came there.\r\n\r\n"These and many other kings from the middle country came, O monarch, to\r\nthat great Rajasuya sacrifice of the son of Pandu. And, O king, at the\r\ncommand of king Yudhishthira the just, mansions were assigned to all\r\nthose monarchs, that were full of various kinds of edibles and adorned\r\nwith tanks and tall trees. And the son of Dharma worshipped all those\r\nillustrious monarchs as they deserved. Worshipped by the king they\r\nretired to mansions that were assigned to them. Those mansions were\r\n(white and high) like the cliffs of Kailasa, and delightful to behold,\r\nand furnished with every kind of furniture. They were enclosed on all\r\nsides with well-built and high white-washed walls; their windows were\r\ncovered with net-works of gold and their interiors were furnished with\r\nrows of pearls, their flights of stairs were easy of ascent and the\r\nfloors were all laid over with costly carpets. They were all hung over\r\nwith garlands of flowers and perfumed with excellent aloes. White as snow\r\nor the moon, they looked extremely handsome even from the distance of a\r\nyojana. Their doors and entrances were set uniformly and were wide enough\r\nto admit a crowd of persons. Adorned with various costly articles and\r\nbuilt with various metals, they looked like peaks of the Himavat. Having\r\nrested a while in those mansions the monarchs beheld king Yudhishthira\r\nthe just surrounded by numerous Sadasyas (sacrificial priests) and ever\r\nperforming sacrifices distinguished by large gifts to Brahmanas. That\r\nsacrificial mansion wherein were present the kings and Brahmanas and\r\ngreat Rishis looked, O king, as handsome as heaven itself crowded with\r\nthe gods!"\r\n\r\nThus ends the thirty-fourth section in the Rajasuyika Parva of the Sabha\r\nParva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIV\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"then, O king, Yudhishthira, having approached and\r\nworshipped his grandfather and his preceptor, addressed Bhishma and Drona\r\nand Kripa and the son of Drona and Duryyodhana and Vivingsati, and\r\nsaid,--\'Help me ye all in the mater of this sacrifice. This large\r\ntreasure that is here is yours. Consult ye with one another and guide me\r\nas ye desire.\r\n\r\n"The eldest of the sons of Pandu, who had been installed at the\r\nsacrifice, having said this unto all, appointed every one of them to\r\nsuitable offices. He appointed Dussasana to superintend the department of\r\nfood and other enjoyable articles. Aswatthama was asked to attend on the\r\nBrahmanas. Sanjaya was appointed to offer return-worship unto the kings.\r\nBhishma and Drona, both endued with great intelligence, were appointed to\r\nsee what was done and what was left undone. And the king appointed Kripa\r\nto look after the diamonds and gold and the pearls and gems, as also\r\nafter the distribution of gifts to Brahmanas. And so other tigers among\r\nmen were appointed to similar offices. Valhika and Dhritarashtra and\r\nSomadatta and Jayadratha, brought thither by Nakula, went about, enjoying\r\nthemselves as lords of the sacrifice. Vidura otherwise called Kshatta,\r\nconversant with every rule of morality, became the disburser. Duryyodhana\r\nbecame the receiver of the tributes that were brought by the kings.\r\nKrishna who was himself the centre of all worlds and round whom moved\r\nevery creature, desirous of acquiring excellent fruits, was engaged at\r\nhis own will in washing the feet of the Brahmanas.\r\n\r\n"And desirous of beholding that sacrificial mansion, as also king\r\nYudhishthira the just, none came there with tribute less than a thousand\r\n(in number, weight or measure). Everyone honoured the king Yudhishthira\r\nthe just with large presents of jewels. And each of the kings made a\r\npresent of his wealth, flattering himself with the proud belief that the\r\njewels he gave would enable the Kuru king Yudhisthira to complete his\r\nsacrifice. And, O monarch, the sacrificial compound of the illustrious\r\nson of Kunti looked extremely handsome--with the multitude of palaces\r\nbuilt so as to last for ever and crowded with guards and warriors. These\r\nwere so high that their tops touched the cars of the gods that came to\r\nbehold that sacrifice; as also with the cars themselves of the\r\ncelestials, and with the dwelling of the Brahmanas and the mansions made\r\nthere for the kings resembling the cars of the celestials and adorned\r\nwith gems and filled with every kind of wealth, and lastly with crowds of\r\nthe kings that came there all endued with beauty and wealth. Yudhisthira,\r\nas though vying with Varuna himself in wealth, commenced the sacrifice\r\n(of Rajasuya) distinguished by six fires and large gifts to Brahmanas.\r\nThe King gratified everybody with presents of great value and indeed with\r\nevery kind of object that one could desire. With abundance of rice and of\r\nevery kind of food, as also with a mass of jewels brought as tribute,\r\nthat vast concourse consisted of persons every one of whom was fed to the\r\nfull. The gods also were gratified at the sacrifice by the Ida, clarified\r\nbutter, Homa and libations poured by the great Rishis versed in mantras\r\nand pronunciation. Like the gods, the Brahmanas also were gratified with\r\nthe sacrificial gifts and food and great wealth. And all the other orders\r\nof men also were gratified at that sacrifice and filled with joy."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXV\r\n\r\n(Arghyaharana Parva)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--On the last day of the sacrifice when the king was\r\nto be sprinkled over with the sacred water, the great Brahmana Rishis\r\never deserving of respectful treatment, along with the invited kings,\r\nentered together the inner enclosure of the sacrificial compound. And\r\nthose illustrious Rishis with Narada as their foremost, seated at their\r\nease with those royal sages within that enclosure, looked like the gods\r\nseated in the mansion of Brahma in the company of the celestial Rishis.\r\nEndued with immeasurable energy those Rishis, having obtained leisure,\r\nstarted various topics of conversation. \'This is so,\' \'This is not so,\'\r\n\'This is even so.\' \'This cannot be otherwise,\'--thus did many of them\r\nengage in discussions with one another. Some amongst the disputants, by\r\nwell-chosen arguments made the weaker position appear the stronger and\r\nthe stronger the weaker. Some disputants endued with great intelligence\r\nfell upon the position urged by others like hawks darting at meat thrown\r\nup into the air, while some amongst them versed in the interpretations of\r\nreligious treatises and others of rigid vows, and well-acquainted with\r\nevery commentary and gloss engaged themselves in pleasant converse. And,\r\nO king, that platform crowded with gods, Brahmanas and great Rishis\r\nlooked extremely handsome like the wide expanse of the firmament studded\r\nwith stars. O monarch, there was then no Sudra near that platform of\r\nYudhisthira\'s mansion, nor anybody that was without vows.\r\n\r\n"And Narada, beholding the fortunate Yudhisthira\'s prosperity that was\r\nborn of that sacrifice, became highly gratified. Beholding that vast\r\nconcourse all the Kshatriyas, the Muni Narada, O king of men, became\r\nthoughtful. And, O bull amongst men, the Rishi began to recollect the\r\nwords he had heard of old in the mansion of Brahma regarding the\r\nincarnation on earth of portions of every deity. And knowing, O son of\r\nthe Kuru race, that that was a concourse (of incarnate) gods, Narada\r\nthought in his mind of Hari with eyes like lotus-petals. He knew that\r\nthat creator himself of every object one, that exalted of all\r\ngods--Narayana--who had formerly commanded the celestials, saying,--\'Be\r\nye born on earth and slay one another and come back to heaven\'--that\r\nslayer of all the enemies of the gods, that subjugator of all hostile\r\ntowns, in order to fulfil his own promise, had been born in the Kshatriya\r\norder. And Narada knew that the exalted and holy Narayana, also called\r\nSambhu the lord of the universe, having commanded all the celestials\r\nthus, had taken his birth in the race of Yadus and that foremost of all\r\nperpetuator of races, having sprung from the line of the Andhaka-Vrishnis\r\non earth was graced with great good fortune and was shining like the moon\r\nherself among stars. Narada knew that Hari the grinder of foes, whose\r\nstrength of arm was ever praised by all the celestials with Indra among\r\nthem, was then living in the world in human form. Oh, the Self-Create\r\nwill himself take away (from the earth) this vast concourse of Kshatriyas\r\nendued with so much strength. Such was the vision of Narada the\r\nomniscient who knew Hari or Narayana to be that Supreme Lord whom\r\neverybody worshipped with sacrifice. And Narada, gifted with great\r\nintelligence and the foremost of all persons and conversant with\r\nmorality, thinking of all this, sat at that sacrifice of the wise king\r\nYudhisthira the just with feelings of awe.\r\n\r\n"Then Bhishma, O king, addressing king Yudhisthira the just, said, "O\r\nBharata, let Arghya (an article of respect) be offered unto the kings as\r\neach of them deserveth. Listen, O Yudhishthira, the preceptor, the\r\nsacrificial priest, the relative, the Snataka, the friend, and the king,\r\nit hath been said are the six that deserve Arghya. The wise have said\r\nthat when any of these dwell with one for full one year he deserveth to\r\nbe worshipped with Arghya. These kings have been staying with us for some\r\ntime. Therefore, O king, let Arghyas be procured to be offered unto each\r\nof them. And let an Arghya be presented first of all unto him among those\r\npresent who is the foremost.\r\n\r\n"Hearing these words of Bhishma, Yudhishthira said--\'O Grandsire, O thou\r\nof the Kuru race, whom thou deemest the foremost amongst these and unto\r\nwhom the Arghya should be presented by us, O tell me.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--Then, O Bharata, Bhishma the son of Santanu,\r\njudged it by his intelligence that on earth Krishna was the foremost of\r\nall. And he said--\'As is the sun among all luminous objects, so is the\r\none (meaning Krishna) (who shines like the sun) among us all, in\r\nconsequence of his energy, strength and prowess. And this our sacrificial\r\nmansion is illuminated and gladdened by him as a sunless region by the\r\nsun, or a region of still air by a gust of breeze. Thus commanded by\r\nBhishma, Sahadeva endued with great prowess duly presented the first\r\nArghya of excellent ingredients unto Krishna of the Vrishni race. Krishna\r\nalso accepted it according to the forms of the ordinance. But Sisupala\r\ncould not bear to see that worship offered unto Vasudeva. And this mighty\r\nking of Chedi, reproving in the midst of that assembly both Bhishma and.\r\nYudhishthira, censured Vasudeva thereafter."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVI\r\n\r\n"Sisupala said--\'O thou of the Kuru race, this one of the Vrishni race\r\ndoth not deserve royal worship as if he were a king, in the midst of all\r\nthese illustrious monarchs. O son of Pandu, this conduct of thine in thus\r\nwillingly worshipping him with eyes like lotus-petals is not worthy of\r\nthe illustrious Pandavas. Ye sons of Pandu. Ye are children. Ye know not\r\nwhat morality is, for that is very subtle. Bhishma, this son also of\r\nGanga is of little knowledge and hath transgressed the rules of morality\r\n(by giving ye such counsel). And, O Bhishma, if one like thee, possessed\r\nof virtue and morality acteth from motives of interest, he is deserving\r\nof censure among the honest and the wise. How doth he of the Dasarha\r\nrace, who is not even a king, accept worship before these kings and how\r\nis it that he hath been worshipped by ye? O bull of the Kuru race, if\r\nthou regardest Krishna as the oldest in age, here is Vasudeva, and how\r\ncan his son be said so in his presence? Or, if thou regardest Vasudeva as\r\nyour well-wisher and supporter, here is Drupada; how then can Madhava\r\ndeserve the (first) worship? Or, O son of Kuru, regardest thou Krishna as\r\npreceptor? When Drona is here, how hast thou worshipped him of the\r\nVrishni race? Or, O son of Kuru, regardest thou Krishna as the Ritwija?\r\nWhen old Dwaipayana is here, how hath Krishna been worshipped by thee?\r\nAgain when old Bhishma, the son of Santanu, that foremost of men who is\r\nnot to die save at his own wish is here, why, O king, hath Krishna been\r\nworshipped by thee? When the brave Aswatthaman, versed in every branch of\r\nknowledge is here, why, O king, hath Krishna, O thou of the Kuru race,\r\nbeen worshipped by thee? When that King of kings, Duryyodhana, that\r\nforemost of men, is here, as also Kripa the preceptor of the Bharata\r\nprinces, why hath Krishna been worshipped by thee? How, O son of Pandu,\r\npassing over Druma, the preceptor of the Kimpurusas, hast thou worshipped\r\nKrishna? When the invincible Bhishmaka and king Pandya possessed of every\r\nauspicious mark, and that foremost of kings--Rukmi and Ekalavya and\r\nSalya, the king of the Madras, are here, how, O son of Pandu, hast thou\r\noffered the first worship unto Krishna? Here also is Karna ever boasting\r\nof his strength amongst all kings, and (really) endued with great might,\r\nthe favourite disciple of the Brahmana Jamadagnya, the hero who\r\nvanquished in battle all monarchs by his own strength alone. How, O\r\nBharata, hast thou, passing him over, offered the first worship unto\r\nKrishna? The slayer of Madhu is neither a sacrificial priest nor a\r\npreceptor, nor a king. That thou hast notwithstanding all these\r\nworshipped him, O chief of the Kurus, could only have been from motives\r\nof gain. If, O Bharata, it was your wish to offer the first worship unto\r\nthe slayer of Madhu, why were these monarchs brought here to be insulted\r\nthus? We have not paid tributes to the illustrious son of Kunti from\r\nfear, from desire of gain, or from having been won over by conciliation.\r\nOn the other hand, we have paid him tribute simply because he hath been\r\ndesirous of the imperial dignity from motives of virtue. And yet he it is\r\nthat thus insulteth us. O king, from what else, save motives of insult,\r\ncould it have been that thou hast worshipped Krishna, who possesseth not\r\nthe insignia of royalty, with the Arghya in the midst of the assembled\r\nmonarchs? Indeed, the reputation for virtue that the son of Dharma hath\r\nacquired, hath been acquired by him without cause, for who would offer\r\nsuch undue worship unto one that hath fallen off from virtue. This wretch\r\nborn in the race of the Vrishnis unrighteously slew of old the\r\nillustrious king Jarasandha. Righteousness hath today been abandoned by\r\nYudhishthira and meanness only hath been displayed by him in consequence\r\nof his having offered the Arghya to Krishna. If the helpless sons of\r\nKunti were affrighted and disposed to meanness, thou, O Madhava, ought to\r\nhave enlightened them as to thy claims to the first worship? Why also, O\r\nJanarddana, didst thou accept the worship of which thou art unworthy,\r\nalthough it was offered unto thee by those mean-minded princes? Thou\r\nthinkest much of the worship unworthily offered unto thee, like a dog\r\nthat lappeth in solitude a quantity of clarified butter that it hath\r\nobtained. O Janarddana, this is really no insult offered unto the\r\nmonarchs; on the other hand it is thou whom the Kurus have insulted.\r\nIndeed, O slayer of Madhu, as a wife is to one that is without virile\r\npower, as a fine show is to one that is blind, so is this royal worship\r\nto thee who art no king. What Yudhishthira is, hath been seen; what\r\nBhishma is, hath been seen; and what this Vasudeva is hath been seen.\r\nIndeed, all these have been seen as they are!"\r\n\r\n"Having spoken these words, Sisupala rose from his excellent seat, and\r\naccompanied by the kings, went out of that assembly."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVII\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--Then the king Yudhishthira hastily ran after\r\nSisupala and spoke unto him sweetly and in a conciliating tone the\r\nfollowing words,--\'O lord of earth, what thou hast said is scarcely\r\nproper for thee. O king, it is highly sinful and needlessly cruel. Insult\r\nnot Bhishma, O king, by saying that he doth not know what virtue is.\r\nBehold, these many kings, older than thou art, all approve of the worship\r\noffered unto Krishna. It behoveth thee to bear it patiently like them. O\r\nruler of Chedi, Bhishma knoweth Krishna truly. Thou knowest him not so\r\nwell as this one of the Kuru race.\'"\r\n\r\n"Bhishma also, after this, said,--He that approveth not the worship\r\noffered unto Krishna, the oldest one in the universe, deserveth neither\r\nsoft words nor conciliation. The chief of warriors of the Kshatriya rare\r\nwho having overcome a Kshatriya in battle and brought him under his\r\npower, setteth him free, becometh the guru (preceptor or master) of the\r\nvanquished one. I do not behold in this assembly of kings even one ruler\r\nof men who hath not been vanquished in battle by the energy of this son\r\nof the Satwata race. This one (meaning Krishna) here, of undefiled glory,\r\ndeserveth to be worshipped not by ourselves alone, but being of mighty\r\narms, he deserveth to be worshipped by the three worlds also. Innumerable\r\nwarriors among Kshatriyas have been vanquished in battle by Krishna. The\r\nwhole universe without limit is established in him of the Vrishni race.\r\nTherefore do we worship Krishna amongst the best and the oldest, and not\r\nothers. It behoveth thee not to say so. Let thy understanding be never\r\nso. I have, O king, waited upon many persons that are old in knowledge. I\r\nhave heard from all those wise men, while talking; of the numerous\r\nmuch-regarded attributes of the accomplished Sauri. I have also heard\r\nmany times all the acts recited by people that Krishna of great\r\nintelligence hath performed since his birth. And, O king of Chedi, we do\r\nnot from caprice, or keeping in view our relationship or the benefits he\r\nmay confer on us, worship Janarddana who is worshipped by the good on\r\nearth and who is the source of the happiness of every creature. We have\r\noffered unto him the first worship because of his fame, his heroism, his\r\nsuccess. There is none here of even tender years whom we have not taken\r\ninto consideration. Passing over many persons that are foremost for their\r\nvirtues, we have regarded Hari as deserving of the first worship. Amongst\r\nthe Brahmanas one that is superior in knowledge, amongst the Kshatriyas\r\none that is superior in strength, amongst the Vaisyas one that is\r\nsuperior in possessions and wealth, and amongst the Sudras one that is\r\nsuperior in years, deserveth to be worshipped. In the matter of the\r\nworship offered unto Govinda, there are two reason, viz., knowledge of\r\nthe Vedas and their branches, and also excess of strength. Who else is\r\nthere in the world of men save Kesava that is so distinguished? Indeed,\r\nliberality, cleverness, knowledge of the Vedas, bravery, modesty,\r\nachievements, excellent intelligence, humility, beauty, firmness,\r\ncontentment and prosperity--all dwell for ever in Achyuta. Therefore, ye\r\nkings; it behoveth ye to approve of the worship that hath been offered\r\nunto Krishna who is of great accomplishments, who as the preceptor, the\r\nfather, the guru, is worthy of the Arghya and deserving of (everybody\'s)\r\nworship. Hrishikesa is the sacrificial priest, the guru, worthy of being\r\nsolicited to accept one\'s daughter in marriage, the Snataka, the king,\r\nthe friend: therefore hath Achyuta been worshipped by us. Krishna is the\r\norigin of the universe and that in which the universe is to dissolve.\r\nIndeed, this universe of mobile and immobile creatures hath sprung into\r\nexistence from Krishna only. He is the unmanifest primal cause (Avyakta\r\nPrakriti), the creator, the eternal, and beyond the ken of all creatures.\r\nTherefore doth he of unfading glory deserve highest worship. The\r\nintellect, the seat of sensibility, the five elements, air, heat, water,\r\nether, earth, and the four species of beings (oviparous, viviparous, born\r\nof filthy damp and vegetal) are all established in Krishna. The sun, the\r\nmoon, the constellations, the planets, all the principal directions, the\r\nintermediate directions, are all established in Krishna. As the Agnihotra\r\nis the foremost among all Vedic sacrifices, as the Gayatri is the\r\nforemost among metres, as the king is the foremost among men, as the\r\nocean is the foremost among all rivers, as the moon is the foremost among\r\nall constellations, as the sun is the foremost among all luminous bodies,\r\nas the Meru is the foremost among all mountains, as Garuda is the\r\nforemost among all birds, so as long as the upward, downward, and sideway\r\ncourse of the universe lasteth, Kesava is the foremost in all the worlds\r\nincluding the regions of the celestials. This Sisupala is a mere boy and\r\nhence he knoweth not Krishna, and ever and everywhere speaketh of Krishna\r\nthus. This ruler of Chedi will never see virtue in that light in which\r\none that is desirous of acquiring high merit will see it. Who is there\r\namong the old and the young or among these illustrious lords of earth\r\nthat doth not regard Krishna as deserving of worship or that doth not\r\nworship Krishna? If Sisupala regardeth this worship as undeserved, it\r\nbehoveth him to do what is proper in this matter.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVIII\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--The mighty Bhishma ceased, having said this.\r\nSahadeva then answered (Sisupala) in words of grave import, saying,--\'If\r\namongst ye there be any king that cannot bear to see Kesava of dark hue,\r\nthe slayer of Kesi, the possessor of immeasurable energy, worshipped by\r\nme, this my foot is placed on the heads of all mighty ones (like him).\r\nWhen I say this, let that one give me an adequate reply. And let those\r\nkings that possess intelligence approve the worship of Krishna who is the\r\npreceptor, the father, the guru, and deserveth the Arghya and the worship\r\n(already offered unto him).\'\r\n\r\n"When Sahadeva thus showed his foot, no one among those intelligent and\r\nwise and proud and mighty monarchs said anything. And a shower of flowers\r\nfell on Sahadeva\'s head, and an incorporeal voice said--\'Excellent,\r\nexcellent.\' Then Narada clad in black deer-skin, speaking of both the\r\nfuture and the past, that dispeller of all doubts, fully acquainted with\r\nall the worlds, said in the midst of innumerable creatures, these words\r\nof the clearest import,--\'Those men that will not worship the lotus-eyed\r\nKrishna should be regarded as dead though moving, and should never be\r\ntalked to on any occasion.\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--Then that god among men, Sahadeva cognisant of\r\nthe distinction between a Brahmana and a Kshatriya, having worshipped\r\nthose that deserved worship, completed that ceremony. But upon Krishna\r\nhaving received the first worship, Sunitha (Sisupala) that mower of\r\nfoes--with eyes red as copper from anger, addressed those rulers of men\r\nand said,--\'When I am here to head ye all, what are ye thinking of now?\r\nArrayed let us stand in battle against the assembled Vrishnis and the\r\nPandavas?\' And the bull of the Chedis, having thus stirred the kings up,\r\nbegan to consult with them how to obstruct the completion of the\r\nsacrifice. All the invited monarchs who had come to the sacrifice, with\r\nSunitha as their chief, looked angry and their faces became pale. They\r\nall said, \'We must so act that the final sacrificial rite performed by\r\nYudhishthira and the worship of Krishna may not be regarded as having\r\nbeen acquiesced in by us. And impelled by a belief in their power and\r\ngreat assurance, the kings, deprived of reason through anger, began to\r\nsay this. And being moved by self-confidence and smarting under the\r\ninsult offered unto them, the monarchs repeatedly exclaimed thus. Though\r\ntheir friends sought to appease them, their faces glowed with anger like\r\nthose of roaring lions driven away from their preys. Krishna then\r\nunderstood that the vast sea of monarchs with its countless waves of\r\ntroops was preparing for a terrific rush."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIX\r\n\r\n(Sisupala-badha Parva)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--Beholding that vast assembly of kings agitated with\r\nwrath, even like the terrific sea agitated by the winds that blow at the\r\ntime of the universal dissolution, Yudhishthira addressing the aged\r\nBhishma, that chief of intelligent men and the grandsire of the Kurus,\r\neven like Puruhita (Indra) that slayer of foes, of abundant energy\r\naddressing Vrihaspati, said,--\'This vast ocean of kings, hath been\r\nagitated by wrath. Tell me, O Grandsire, what I should do in view of\r\nthis. O Grandsire, now what I should do that my sacrifice may not be\r\nobstructed and my subjects may not be injured.\'\r\n\r\n"When king Yudhishthira the just, conversant with morality, said this,\r\nBhishma the grandsire of the Kurus, spoke these words in reply,--\'Fear\r\nnot, O tiger of the Kurus. Can the dog slay the lion? I have before this\r\nfound out a way that is both beneficial and comfortable to practise. As\r\ndogs in a pack approaching the lion that is asleep bark together, so are\r\nall these lords of earth. Indeed, O child, like dogs before the lion,\r\nthese (monarchs) are barking in rage before the sleeping lion of the\r\nVrishni race. Achyuta now is like a lion that is asleep. Until he waketh\r\nup, this chief of the Chedis--this lion among men--maketh these monarchs\r\nlook like lions. O child, O thou foremost of all monarchs, this Sisupala\r\npossessed of little intelligence is desirous of taking along with him all\r\nthese kings, through the agency of him who is the soul of the universe,\r\nto the regions of Yama. Assuredly, O Bharata Vishnu hath been desirous of\r\ntaking back unto himself the energy that existeth in this Sisupala. O\r\nChief of all intelligent men, O son of Kunti, the intelligence of this\r\nwicked-minded king of the Chedis, as also of all these monarchs, hath\r\nbecome perverse. Indeed, the intelligence of all those whom this tiger\r\namong men desireth to take unto himself, becometh perverse even like that\r\nof this king of the Chedis. O Yudhishthira, Madhava is the progenitor as\r\nalso the destroyer of all created beings of the four species, (oviparous,\r\netc.,) existing in the three worlds.\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued--Then the ruler of Chedis, having heard these\r\nwords of Bhishma, addressed the latter, O Bharata, in words that were\r\nstern and rough."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XL\r\n\r\n\'Sisupala said,--\'Old and infamous wretch of thy race, art thou not\r\nashamed of affrighting all these monarchs with these numerous false\r\nterrors! Thou art the foremost of the Kurus, and living as thou dost in\r\nthe third state (celibacy) it is but fit for thee that thou shouldst give\r\nsuch counsel that is so wide of morality. Like a boat tied to another\r\nboat or the blind following the blind, are the Kurus who have thee for\r\ntheir guide. Thou hast once more simply pained our hearts by reciting\r\nparticularly the deeds of this one (Krishna), such as the slaying of\r\nPutana and others. Arrogant and ignorant as thou art, and desirous of\r\npraising Kesava, why doth not this tongue of thine split up into a\r\nhundred parts? How dost thou, superior as thou art in knowledge, desire\r\nto praise that cow-boy in respect of whom even men of little intelligence\r\nmay address invectives? If Krishna in his infancy slew a vulture, what is\r\nthere remarkable in that, or in that other feat of his, O Bhishma, viz.,\r\nin his slaughter of Aswa and Vrishava, both of whom were unskilled in\r\nbattle? If this one threw drown by a kick an inanimate piece of wood,\r\nviz., a car, what is there, O Bhishma, wonderful in that? O Bhishma, what\r\nis there remarkable in this one\'s having supported for a week the\r\nGovardhan mount which is like an anthill? \'While sporting on the top of a\r\nmountain this one ate a large quantity of food,\'--hearing these words of\r\nthine many have wondered exceedingly. But, O thou who art conversant with\r\nthe rules of morality, is not this still more wrongful that that great\r\nperson, viz., Kansa, whose food this one ate, hath been slain by him?\r\nThou infamous one of the Kuru race, thou art ignorant of the rules of\r\nmorality. Hast thou not ever heard, from wise men speaking unto thee,\r\nwhat I would now tell thee? The virtuous and the wise always instruct the\r\nhonest that weapons must never be made to descend upon women and kine and\r\nBrahmanas and upon those whose food hath been taken, as also upon those\r\nwhose shelter hath been enjoyed. It seemeth, O Bhishma, that all these\r\nteachings hath been thrown away by thee. O infamous one of the Kuru race,\r\ndesiring to praise Kesava, thou describest him before me as great and\r\nsuperior in knowledge and in age, as if I knew nothing. If at thy word, O\r\nBhishma, one that hath slain women (meaning Putana) and kine be\r\nworshipped, then what is to become of this great lesson? How can one who\r\nis such, deserve praise, O Bhishma? \'This one is the foremost of all wise\r\nmen,--\'This one is the lord of the universe\'--hearing these words of\r\nthine, Janarddana believeth that these are all true. But surely, they are\r\nall false. The verses that a chanter sings, even if he sings them often,\r\nproduce no impression on him. And every creature acts according to his\r\ndisposition, even like the bird Bhulinga (that picks the particles of\r\nflesh from between the lion\'s teeth, though preaching against rashness).\r\nAssuredly thy disposition is very mean. There is not the least doubt\r\nabout it. And so also, it seemeth, that the sons of Pandu who regard\r\nKrishna as deserving of worship and who have thee for their guide, are\r\npossessed of a sinful disposition. Possessing a knowledge of virtue, thou\r\nhast fallen off from the path of the wise. Therefore thou art sinful.\r\nWho, O Bhishma, knowing himself to be virtuous and superior in knowledge,\r\nwill so act as thou hast done from motives of virtue? If thou knowest the\r\nways of the morality, if thy mind is guided by wisdom, blessed be thou.\r\nWhy then, O Bhishma, was that virtuous girl Amva, who had set her heart\r\nupon another, carried off by thee, so proud of wisdom and virtue? Thy\r\nbrother Vichitravirya conformably to the ways of the honest and the\r\nvirtuous, knowing that girl\'s condition, did not marry her though brought\r\nby thee. Boasting as thou dost of virtue, in thy very sight, upon the\r\nwidow of thy brother were sons begotten by another according to the ways\r\nof the honest. Where is thy virtue, O Bhishma? This thy celebacy, which\r\nthou leadest either from ignorance or from impotence, is fruitless. O\r\nthou who art conversant with virtue, I do not behold thy well-being. Thou\r\nwho expoundest morality in this way dost not seem to have ever waited\r\nupon the old. Worship, gift, study,--sacrifices distinguished by large\r\ngifts to the Brahmanas,--these all equal not in merit even one-sixteenth\r\npart of that which is obtainable by the possession of a son. The merit, O\r\nBhishma, that is acquired by numberless vows and fasts assuredly becomes\r\nfruitless in the case of one that is childless. Thou art childless and\r\nold and the expounder of false morality. Like the swan in the story, thou\r\nshalt now die at the hands of thy relatives. Other men possessed of\r\nknowledge have said this of old. I will presently recite it fully in thy\r\nhearing.\r\n\r\n"There lived of yore an old swan on the sea-coast. Ever speaking of\r\nmorality, but otherwise in his conduct, he used to instruct the feathery\r\ntribe. Practise ye virtue and forego sin,--these were the words that\r\nother truthful birds, O Bhishma, constantly heard him utter And the other\r\noviparous creatures ranging the sea, it hath been heard by us, O Bhishma\r\nuse for virtue\'s sake to bring him food. And, O Bhishma, all those other\r\nbirds, keeping their eggs, with him, ranged and dived in the waters of\r\nthe sea. And the sinful old swan, attentive to his own pursuits, used to\r\neat up the eggs of all those birds that foolishly trusted in him. After a\r\nwhile when the eggs were decreasing in number, a bird of great wisdom had\r\nhis suspicions roused and he even witnessed (the affair) one day. And\r\nhaving witnessed the sinful act of the old swan, that bird in great\r\nsorrow spoke unto all the other birds. Then, O thou best of the Kurus,\r\nall those birds witnessing with their own eyes the act of the old swan,\r\napproached that wretch of false conduct and slew him.\r\n\r\n"Thy behaviour, O Bhishma, is even like that of the old swan. These lords\r\nof earth might slay thee in anger like those creatures of the feathery\r\ntribe slaying the old swan. Persons conversant with the Puranas recite a\r\nproverb, O Bhishma, as regards this occurrence, I shall, O Bharata,\r\nrepeat it to thee fully. It is even this: O thou that supportest thyself\r\non thy wings, though thy heart is affected (by the passions), thou\r\npreachest yet (of virtue); but this thy sinful act of eating up the eggs\r\ntransgresseth thy speech!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLI\r\n\r\n"Sisupala said,--"That mighty king Jarasandha who desired not to fight\r\nwith Krishna, saying \'He is a slave,\' was worthy of my greatest esteem.\r\nWho will regard as praiseworthy the act which was done by Kesava, as also\r\nby Bhima and Arjuna, in the matter of Jarasandha\'s death? Entering by an\r\nimproper gate, disguised as a Brahmana, thus Krishna observed the\r\nstrength of king Jarasandha. And when that monarch offered at first unto\r\nthis wretch water to wash his feet, it was then that he denied his\r\nBrahmanahood from seeming motives of virtue. And when Jarasandha, O thou\r\nof the Kuru race, asked Krishna and Bhima and Dhananjaya to eat, it was\r\nthis Krishna that refused that monarch\'s request. If this one is the lord\r\nof the universe, as this fool representeth him to be, why doth he not\r\nregard himself as a Brahmana? This, however, surpriseth me greatly that\r\nthough thou leadest the Pandavas away from the path of the wise, they yet\r\nregard thee as honest. Or, perhaps, this is scarcely a matter of surprise\r\nin respect of those that have thee, O Bharata, womanish in disposition\r\nand bent down with age, for their counsellor in everything."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--Hearing these words of Sisupala, harsh both in\r\nimport and sound, that foremost of mighty men, Bhimasena endued with\r\nenergy became angry. And his eyes, naturally large and expanding and like\r\nunto lotus leaves became still more extended and red as copper under the\r\ninfluence of that rage. And the assembled monarchs beheld on his forehead\r\nthree lines of wrinkles like the Ganga of treble currents on the\r\ntreble-peaked mountain. When Bhimasena began to grind his teeth in rage,\r\nthe monarchs beheld his face resembling that of Death himself, at the end\r\nof the Yuga, prepared to swallow every creature. And as the hero endued\r\nwith great energy of mind was about to leap up impetuously, the\r\nmighty-armed Bhishma caught him like Mahadeva seizing Mahasena (the\r\ncelestial generalissimo). And, O Bharata, Bhima\'s wrath was soon appeased\r\nby Bhishma, the grand-sire of the Kurus, with various kinds of counsel.\r\nAnd Bhima, that chastiser of foes, could not disobey Bhishma\'s words,\r\nlike the ocean that never transgresseth (even when swollen with the\r\nwaters of the rainy season) its continents. But, O king, even though\r\nBhima was angry, the brave Sisupala depending on his own manhood, did not\r\ntremble in fear. And though Bhima was leaping up impetuously every\r\nmoment, Sisupala bestowed not a single thought on him, like a lion that\r\nrecks not a little animal in rage. The powerful king of Chedi, beholding\r\nBhima of terrible prowess in such rage, laughingly said,--\'Release him, O\r\nBhishma! Let all the monarchs behold him scorched by my prowess like an\r\ninsect in fire.\' Hearing these words of the ruler of the Chedis, Bhishma,\r\nthat foremost of the Kurus and chief of all intelligent men, spoke unto\r\nBhima these words."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLII\r\n\r\n"Bhishma said,--This Sisupala was born in the line of the king of Chedi\r\nwith three eyes and four hands. As soon as he was born, he screamed and\r\nbrayed like an ass. On that account, his father and mother along with\r\ntheir relatives, were struck with fear. And beholding these extraordinary\r\nomens, his parents resolved to abandon him. But an incorporeal voice,\r\nabout this time, said unto the king and his wife with their ministers and\r\npriest, all with hearts paralysed by anxiety, those words,--\'This thy\r\nson, O king, that hath been born will become both fortunate and superior\r\nin strength. Therefore thou hast no fear from him. Indeed cherish the\r\nchild without anxiety. He will not die (in childhood). His time is not\r\nyet come. He that will slay him with weapons hath also been born.\'\r\nHearing these words, the mother, rendered anxious by affection for her\r\nson, addressed the invisible Being and said,--I bow with joined hands\r\nunto him that hath uttered these words respecting my son; whether he be\r\nan exalted divinity or any other being, let him tell me another word, I\r\ndesire to hear who will be the slayer of this my son. The invisible Being\r\nthen said,--\'He upon whose lap this child being placed the superfluous\r\narms of his will fall down upon the ground like a pair of five-headed\r\nsnakes, and at the sight of whom his third eye on the forehead will\r\ndisappear, will be his slayer?\' Hearing of the child\'s three eyes and\r\nfour arms as also of the words of the invisible Being, all the kings of\r\nthe earth went to Chedi to behold him. The king of Chedi worshipping, as\r\neach deserved, the monarchs that came, gave his child upon their laps one\r\nafter another. And though the child was placed upon the laps of a\r\nthousand kings, one after another, yet that which the incorporeal voice\r\nhad said came not to pass. And having heard of all this at Dwaravati, the\r\nmighty Yadava heroes Sankarshana and Janarddana also went to the capital\r\nof the Chedis, to see their father\'s sister--that daughter of the Yadavas\r\n(the queen of Chedi) And saluting everybody according to his rank and the\r\nking and queen also, and enquiring after every body\'s welfare, both Rama\r\nand Kesava took their seats. And after those heroes had been worshipped,\r\nthe queen with great pleasure herself placed the child on the lap of\r\nDamodara. As soon as the child was placed on his lap, those superfluous\r\narms of his fell down and the eye on his forehead also disappeared. And\r\nbeholding this, the queen in alarm and anxiety begged of Krishna a boon.\r\nAnd she said,--\'O mighty-armed Krishna, I am afflicted with fear; grant\r\nme a boon. Thou art the assurer of all afflicted ones and that the\r\ndispeller of everybody\'s fear. Thus addressed by her. Krishna, that son\r\nof the Yadu race, said--\'Fear not, O respected one. Thou art acquainted\r\nwith morality. Thou needest have no fear from me. What boon shall I give\r\nthee? What shall I do, O aunt? Whether able or not, I shall do thy\r\nbidding.\'--Thus spoken to by Krishna, the queen said, \'O thou of great\r\nstrength, thou wilt have to pardon the offences of Sisupala for my sake.\r\nO tiger of the Yadu race. Know O lord, even this is the boon that I ask.\'\r\nKrishna then said, \'O aunt, even when he will deserve to be slain, I will\r\npardon an hundred offences of his. Grieve thou not.\'\r\n\r\n"Bhishma continued,--\'Even thus, O Bhima, is this wretch of a\r\nking--Sisupala of wicked heart, who, proud of the boon granted by\r\nGovinda, summons thee to battle!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIII\r\n\r\n"Bhishma said,--The will under which the ruler of Chedi summoneth thee to\r\nfight though thou art of strength that knoweth no deterioration, is\r\nscarcely his own intention. Assuredly, this is the purpose of Krishna\r\nhimself, the lord of the universe. O Bhima, what king is there on earth\r\nthat would dare abuse me thus, as this wretch of his race, already\r\npossessed by Death, hath done to-day? This mighty-armed one is, without\r\ndoubt, a portion of Hari\'s energy. And surely, the Lord desireth to take\r\nback unto himself that energy of his own. In consequence of this, O tiger\r\nof the Kuru race, this tiger-like king of Chedi, so wicked of heart,\r\nroareth in such a way caring little for us all."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of Bhishma, the king of\r\nChedi could bear no more, He then replied in rage unto Bhishma in these\r\nwords.--\r\n\r\n\'Let our foes, O Bhishma, be endued with that prowess which this Kesava\r\nhath, whom thou like a professional chanter of hymns praisest, rising\r\nrepeatedly from thy seat. If thy mind, O Bhishma, delighteth so in\r\npraising others, then praise thou these kings, leaving off Krishna.\r\nPraise thou this excellent of kings, Darada, the ruler of Valhika, who\r\nrent this earth as soon as he was born. Praise thou, O Bhishma, this\r\nKarna, the ruler of the territories of Anga and Vanga, who is equal in\r\nstrength unto him of a thousand eyes, who draweth a large bow, who endued\r\nwith mighty arms owneth celestial ear-rings of heavenly make with which\r\nhe was born and this coat of mail possessing the splendour of the rising\r\nsun, who vanquished in a wrestling encounter the invincible Jarasandha\r\nequal unto Vasava himself, and who tore and mangled that monarch. O\r\nBhishma, praise Drona and Aswatthaman, who both father and son, are\r\nmighty warriors, worthy of praise, and the best of Brahmanas, and either\r\nof whom, O Bhishma, if enraged could annihilate this earth with its\r\nmobile and immobile creatures, as I believe. I do not behold, O Bhishma,\r\nthe king that is equal in battle unto Drona or Aswatthaman. Why wishest\r\nthou not to praise them? Passing over Duryyodhana, that mighty-armed king\r\nof kings, who is unequalled in whole earth girt with her seas and king\r\nJayadratha accomplished in weapons and endued with great prowess, and\r\nDruma the preceptor of the Kimpurushas and celebrated over the world for\r\nprowess, and Saradwata\'s son, old Kripa, the preceptor of the Bharata\r\nprinces and endued with great energy, why dost thou praise Kesava?\r\nPassing over that foremost of bowmen--that excellent of kings, Rukmin of\r\ngreat energy, why praisest thou Kesava? Passing over Bhishmaka of\r\nabundant energy, and king Dantavakra, and Bhagadatta known for his\r\ninnumerable sacrificial stakes, and Jayatsena the king of the Magadha,\r\nand Virata and Drupada, and Sakuni and Vrihadvala, and Vinda and Anuvinda\r\nof Avant Pandya, Sweta Uttama Sankhya of great prosperity, the proud\r\nVrishasena, the powerful Ekalavya, and the great charioteer Kalinga of\r\nabundant energy, why dost thou praise Kesava? And, O Bhishma, if thy mind\r\nis always inclined to sing the praises of others, why dost thou not\r\npraise Salya and other rulers of the earth? O king, what can be done by\r\nme when (it seemeth) thou hast not heard anything before from virtuous\r\nold men giving lessons in morality? Hast thou never heard, O Bhishma,\r\nthat reproach and glorification, both of self and others, are not\r\npractices of those that are respectable? There is no one that approveth\r\nthy conduct, O Bhishma, in unceasingly praising with devotion, from\r\nignorance alone, Kesava so unworthy of praise. How dost thou, from thy\r\nwish alone, establish the whole universe in the servitor and cowherd of\r\nBhoja (Kansa)? Perhaps, O Bharata, this thy inclination is not\r\nconformable to thy true nature, like to what may be in the bird Bhulinga,\r\nas hath already been said by me. There is a bird called Bhulinga living\r\non the other side of the Himavat. O Bhishma, that bird ever uttereth\r\nwords of adverse import. Never do anything rash,--this is what she always\r\nsayeth, but never understandeth that she herself always acteth very\r\nrashly. Possessed of little intelligence that bird picketh from the\r\nlion\'s mouth the pieces of flesh sticking between the teeth, and at a\r\ntime when the lion is employed in eating. Assuredly, O Bhishma, that bird\r\nliveth at the pleasure of the lion. O sinful wretch, thou always speakest\r\nlike that bird. And assuredly, O Bhishma, thou art alive at the pleasure\r\nonly of these kings. Employed in acts contrary to the opinions of all,\r\nthere is none else like thee!"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--Hearing these harsh words of the ruler of\r\nChedi, Bhishma, O king, said in the hearing of the king of Chedi,--\'Truly\r\nam I alive at the pleasure of these rulers of earth. But I do regard\r\nthese kings as not equal to even a straw.\' As soon as these words were\r\nspoken by Bhishma, the kings became inflamed with wrath. And the down of\r\nsome amongst them stood erect and some began to reprove Bhishma. And\r\nhearing those words of Bhishma, some amongst them, that were wielders of\r\nlarge bows exclaimed, \'This wretched Bhishma, though old, is exceedingly\r\nboastful. He deserveth not our pardon. Therefore, ye kings, incensed with\r\nrage as this Bhishma is, it is well that this wretch were slain like an\r\nanimal, or, mustering together, let us burn him in a fire of grass or\r\nstraw.\' Hearing these words of the monarchs, Bhishma the grand-sire of\r\nthe Kurus, endued with great intelligence, addressing those lords of\r\nearth, said,--\'I do not see the end of our speeches, for words may be\r\nanswered with words. Therefore, ye lords of earth, listen ye all unto\r\nwhat I say. Whether I be slain like an animal or burnt in a fire of grass\r\nand straw, thus do I distinctly place my foot on the heads of ye all.\r\nHere is Govinda, that knoweth no deterioration. Him have we worshipped.\r\nLet him who wisheth for speedy death, summon to battle Madhava of dark\r\nhue and the wielder of the discus and the mace; and falling enter into\r\nand mingle with the body of this god!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIV\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--Hearing these words of Bhishma, the ruler of Chedi\r\nendued with exceeding prowess, desirous of combating with Vasudeva\r\naddressed him and said,--O Janarddana, I challenge thee. Come, fight with\r\nme until I slay thee today with all the Pandavas. For, O Krishna, the\r\nsons of Pandu also, who disregarding the claims of all these kings, have\r\nworshipped thee who art no king, deserve to be slain by me along with\r\nthee. Even this is my opinion, O Krishna, that they who from childishness\r\nhave worshipped thee, as if thou deservest it, although thou art unworthy\r\nof worship, being only a slave and a wretch and no king, deserve to be\r\nslain by me.\' Having said this, that tiger among kings stood there\r\nroaring in anger. And after Sisupala had ceased, Krishna addressing all\r\nthe kings in the presence of the Pandavas, spoke these words in a soft\r\nvoice.--\'Ye kings, this wicked-minded one, who is the son of a daughter\r\nof the Satwata race, is a great enemy of us of the Satwata race; and\r\nthough we never seek to injure him, he ever seeketh our evil. This wretch\r\nof cruel deeds, ye kings, hearing that we had gone to the city of\r\nPragjyotisha, came and burnt Dwaraka, although he is the son of my\r\nfather\'s sister. While king Bhoja was sporting on the Raivataka hill,\r\nthis one fell upon the attendants of that king and slew and led away many\r\nof them in chains to his own city. Sinful in all his purpose, this\r\nwretch, in order to obstruct the sacrifice of my father, stole the\r\nsacrificial horse of the horse-sacrifice that had been let loose under\r\nthe guard of armed men. Prompted by sinful motives, this one ravished the\r\nreluctant wife of the innocent Vabhru (Akrura) on her way from Dwaraka to\r\nthe country of the Sauviras. This injurer of his maternal uncle,\r\ndisguising himself in the attire of the king of Karusha, ravished also\r\nthe innocent Bhadra, the princess of Visala, the intended bride of king\r\nKarusha. I have patiently borne all these sorrows for the sake of my\r\nfather\'s sister. It is, however, very fortunate that all this hath\r\noccurred today in the presence of all the kings. Behold ye all today the\r\nhostility this one beareth towards me. And know ye also all that he hath\r\ndone me at my back. For the excess of that pride in which he hath\r\nindulged in the presence of all these monarchs, he deserveth to be slain\r\nby me. I am ill able to pardon today the injuries that he hath done me.\r\nDesirous of speedy death, this fool had desired Rukmini. But the fool\r\nobtained her not, like a Sudra failing to obtain the audition of the\r\nVedas."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of Vasudeva, all the\r\nassembled monarchs began to reprove the ruler of Chedi. But the powerful\r\nSisupala, having heard these words, laughed aloud and spoke thus,--\'O\r\nKrishna, art thou not ashamed in saying in this assembly, especially\r\nbefore all these kings that Rukmini (thy wife) had been coveted by me? O\r\nslayer of Madhu, who else is there than thee, who regarding himself a man\r\nwould say in the midst of respectable men that his wife had been intended\r\nfor some body else? O Krishna, pardon me if thou pleasest, or pardon me\r\nnot. But angry or friendly, what canst thou do unto me?\'\r\n\r\n"And while Sisupala was speaking thus, the exalted slayer of Madhu\r\nthought in his mind of the discus that humbleth the pride of the Asuras.\r\nAnd as soon as the discus came into his hands, skilled in speech the\r\nillustrious one loudly uttered these words,--\'Listen ye lords of earth,\r\nwhy this one had hitherto been pardoned by me. As asked by his mother, a\r\nhundred offences (of his) were to be pardoned by me. Even this was the\r\nboon she had asked, and even this I granted her. That number, ye kings,\r\nhath become full. I shall now slay him in your presence, ye monarchs.\'\r\nHaving said this, the chief of the Yadus, that slayer of all foes, in\r\nanger, instantly cut off the head of the ruler of Chedi by means of his\r\ndiscus. And the mighty-armed one fell down like a cliff struck with\r\nthunder. And, O monarch, the assembled kings then beheld a fierce energy,\r\nlike unto the sun in the sky, issue out of the body of the king of Chedi,\r\nand O king, that energy then adored Krishna, possessed of eyes like lotus\r\nleaves and worshipped by all the worlds, and entered his body. And all\r\nthe kings beholding the energy which entered that mighty-armed chief of\r\nmen regarded it as wonderful. And when Krishna had slain the king of\r\nChedi, the sky, though cloudless, poured showers of rain, and blasting\r\nthunders were hurled, and the earth itself began to tremble. There were\r\nsome among the kings who spoke not a word during those unspeakable\r\nmoments but merely sat gazing at Janarddana. And some there were that\r\nrubbed in rage their palms with their forefingers. And there were others\r\nwho deprived of reason by rage bit their lips with their teeth. And some\r\namongst the kings applauded him of the Vrishni race in private. And some\r\nthere were that became excited with anger; while others became mediators.\r\nThe great Rishis with pleased hearts praised Kesava and went away. And\r\nall the high-souled Brahmanas and the mighty kings that were there,\r\nbeholding Krishna\'s prowess, became glad at heart and praised him.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira then commanded his brothers to perform without delay the\r\nfuneral rites of king Sisupala, the brave son of Damaghosha, with proper\r\nrespect. The sons of Pandu obeyed the behest of their brother. And\r\nYudhishthira then, with all the kings, installed the son of king Sisupala\r\nin the sovereignty of the Chedis.\r\n\r\n"Then that sacrifice, O monarch, of the king of the Kurus possessed of\r\ngreat energy, blessed with every kind of prosperity, became exceedingly\r\nhandsome and pleasing unto all young men. And commenced auspiciously, and\r\nall impediments removed, and furnished with abundance of wealth and corn,\r\nas also with plenty of rice and every kind of food, it was properly\r\nwatched by Kesava. And Yudhishthira in due time completed the great\r\nsacrifice. And the mighty-armed Janarddana, the exalted Sauri, with his\r\nbow called Saranga and his discus and mace, guarded that sacrifice till\r\nits completion. And all the Kshatriya monarchs, having approached the\r\nvirtuous Yudhishthira who had bathed after the conclusion of the\r\nsacrifice, said these words: \'By good fortune thou hast come out\r\nsuccessful. O virtuous one, thou hast obtained the imperial dignity. O\r\nthou of the Ajamida race, by thee hath been spread the fame of thy whole\r\nrace. And, O king of kings, by this act of thine, thou hast also acquired\r\ngreat religious merit. We have been worshipped by thee to the full extent\r\nof our desires. We now tell thee that we are desirous of returning to our\r\nown kingdoms. It behoveth thee to grant us permission.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing these words of the monarchs, king Yudhishthira the just,\r\nworshipping each as he deserved, commanded his brothers, saying, \'These\r\nmonarchs had all come to us at their own pleasure. These chastisers of\r\nfoes are now desirous of returning to their own kingdoms, bidding me\r\nfarewell. Blest be ye, follow ye these excellent kings to the confines of\r\nour own dominions.\' Hearing these words of their brother, the virtuous\r\nPandava princes followed the kings, one after another as each deserved.\r\nThe powerful Dhrishtadyumna followed without loss of time king Virata:\r\nand Dhananjaya followed the illustrious and mighty charioteer Yajnasena;\r\nand the mighty Bhimasena followed Bhishma and Dhritarashtra: and\r\nSahadeva, that master of battle, followed the brave Drona and his son;\r\nand Nakula, O king, followed Suvala with his son; and the sons of\r\nDraupadi with the son of Subhadra followed those mighty warriors--the\r\nkings of the mountainous countries. And other bulls among Kshatriyas\r\nfollowed other Kshatriyas. And the Brahmanas by thousands also went away,\r\nduly worshipped.\r\n\r\n"After all the Kings and the Brahmanas had gone away, the powerful\r\nVasudeva addressing Yudhishthira said,--\'O son of the Kuru race, with thy\r\nleave, I also desire to go to Dwaraka. By great good fortune, thou hast\r\naccomplished the foremost of sacrifices--Rajasuya!\' Thus addressed by\r\nJanarddana, Yudhishthira replied, \'Owing to thy grace, O Govinda. I have\r\naccomplished the great sacrifice. And it is owing to thy grace that the\r\nwhole Kshatriya world having accepted my sway, had come hither with\r\nvaluable tribute. O hero, without thee, my heart never feeleth any\r\ndelight. How can I, therefore, O hero, give thee, O sinless one, leave to\r\ngo? But thou must have to go to the city of Dwaraka.\' The virtuous Hari\r\nof worldwide fame, thus addressed by Yudhishthira, cheerfully went with\r\nhis cousin to Pritha and said,--\'O aunt, thy sons have now obtained the\r\nimperial dignity. They have obtained vast wealth and been also crowned\r\nwith success. Be pleased with all this. Commanded by thee, O aunt, I\r\ndesire to go to Dwaraka.\' After this, Kesava bade farewell to Draupadi\r\nand Subhadra. Coming out then of the inner apartments accompanied by\r\nYudhishthira, he performed his ablutions and went through the daily rites\r\nof worship, and then made the Brahmanas utter benedictions. Then the\r\nmighty armed Daruka came there with a car of excellent design and body\r\nresembling the clouds. And beholding that Garuda-bannered car arrived\r\nthither, the high-souled one, with eyes like lotus leaves, walked round\r\nit respectfully and ascending on it set out for Dwaravati. And king\r\nYudhishthira the just, blessed with prosperity, accompanied by his\r\nbrothers, followed on foot the mighty Vasudeva. Then Hari with eyes like\r\nlotus leaves, stopping that best of cars for a moment, addressing\r\nYudhishthira the son of Kunti, said,--\'O king of kings, cherishest thou\r\nthy subjects with ceaseless vigilance and patience. And as the clouds are\r\nunto all creatures, as the large tree of spreading bough is unto birds,\r\nas he of a thousand eyes is unto the immortals, be thou the refuge and\r\nsupport of thy relatives. And Krishna and Yudhishthira having thus talked\r\nunto each other took each other\'s leave and returned to their respective\r\nhomes. And, O king, after the chief of the Satwata race had gone to\r\nDwaravati, king Duryodhana alone, with king Suvala\'s son, Sakuni,--these\r\nbulls among men,--continued to live in that celestial assembly house.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLV\r\n\r\n(Dyuta Parva)\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"when that foremost of sacrifices, the Rajasuya so\r\ndifficult of accomplishment, was completed, Vyasa surrounded by his\r\ndisciples presented himself before Yudhishthira. And Yudhishthira, upon\r\nbeholding him quickly rose from his seat, surrounded by his brothers, and\r\nworshipped the Rishi who was his grand-father, with water to wash his\r\nfeet and the offer of a seat. The illustrious one having taken his seat\r\non a costly carpet inlaid with gold, addressed king Yudhishthira the just\r\nand said.--\'Take thy seat\'. And after the king had taken his seat\r\nsurrounded by his brothers, the illustrious Vyasa, truthful in speech\r\nsaid,--\'O son of Kunti, thou growest from good fortune. Thou hast\r\nobtained imperial sway so difficult of acquisition. And O perpetuator of\r\nthe Kuru race, all the Kauravas have prospered in consequence of thee. O\r\nEmperor, I have been duly worshipped. I desire now to go with thy leave!\r\nKing Yudhishthira the just, thus addressed by the Rishi of dark hue,\r\nsaluted (him) his grandfather and touching his feet said,--\'O chief of\r\nmen, a doubt difficult of being dispelled, hath risen within me. O bull\r\namong regenerate ones, save thee there is none to remove it. The\r\nillustrious Rishi Narada said that (as a consequence of the Rajasuya\r\nsacrifice) three kinds of portents, viz., celestial, atmospherical and\r\nterrestrial ones happen. O grandsire, have those portents been ended by\r\nthe fall of the kind of the Chedis?\'\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of the king, the exalted\r\nson of Parasara, the island-born Vyasa of dark hue, spoke these\r\nwords,--\'For thirteen years, O king, those portents will bear mighty\r\nconsequences ending in destruction, O king of kings, of all the\r\nKshatriyas. In course of time, O bull of the Bharata race, making thee\r\nthe sole cause, the assembled Kshatriyas of the world will be destroyed,\r\nO Bharata, for the sins of Duryodhana and through the might of Bhima and\r\nArjuna. In thy dream, O king of kings thou wilt behold towards the end of\r\nthis might the blue throated Bhava, the slayer of Tripura, ever absorbed\r\nin meditation, having the bull for his mark, drinking off the human\r\nskull, and fierce and terrible, that lord of all creatures, that god of\r\ngods, the husband of Uma, otherwise called Hara and Sarva, and Vrisha,\r\narmed with the trident and the bow called Pinaka, and attired in tiger\r\nskin. And thou wilt behold Siva, tall and white as the Kailasa cliff and\r\nseated on his bull, gazing unceasingly towards the direction (south)\r\npresided over by the king of the Pitris. Even this will be the dream thou\r\nwilt dream today, O king of kings. Do not grieve for dreaming such a\r\ndream. None can rise superior to the influence of Time. Blest be thou! I\r\nwill now proceed towards the Kailasa mountain. Rule thou the earth with\r\nvigilance and steadiness, patiently bearing every privation!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Having said this, the illustrious and\r\nisland-born Vyasa of dark hue, accompanied by his disciples ever\r\nfollowing the dictates of the Vedas, proceeded towards Kailasa. And after\r\nthe grand-father had thus gone away, the king afflicted with anxiety and\r\ngrief, began to think continuously upon what the Rishi hath said. And he\r\nsaid to himself, \'Indeed what the Rishi hath said must come to pass. We\r\nwill succeed in warding off the fates by exertion alone?\' Then\r\nYudhishthira endued with great energy addressing all his brothers, said,\r\n\'Ye tigers among men, ye have heard what the island-born Rishi hath told\r\nme. Having heard the words of the Rishi, I have arrived at this firm\r\nresolution viz., that I should die, as I am ordained to be the cause of\r\nthe destruction of all Kshatriyas. Ye my dear ones, if Time hath intended\r\nso what need is there for me to live?\' Hearing these words of the king,\r\nArjuna replied, \'O king, yield not thyself to this terrible depression\r\nthat is destructive of reason. Mustering fortitude, O great king, do what\r\nwould be beneficial.\' Yudhishthira then, firm in truth, thinking all the\r\nwhile of Dwaipayana\'s words answered his brothers thus,--\'Blest be ye.\r\nListen to my vow from this day. For thirteen years, what ever purpose\r\nhave I to live for, I shall not speak a hard word to my brothers or to\r\nany of the kings of the earth. Living under the command of my relatives,\r\nI shall practise virtue, exemplifying my vow. If I live in this way,\r\nmaking no distinction between my own children and others, there will be\r\nno disagreement (between me and others). It is disagreement that is the\r\ncause of war in the world. Keeping war at a distance, and ever doing what\r\nis agreeable to others, evil reputation will not be mine in the world, ye\r\nbulls among men. Hearing these words of their eldest brother, the\r\nPandavas, always engaged in doing what was agreeable to him, approved of\r\nthem. And Yudhishthira the just, having pledged so, along with his\r\nbrothers in the midst of that assembly, gratified his priests as also the\r\ngods with due ceremonies. And, O bull of the Bharata race, after all the\r\nmonarchs had gone away, Yudhishthira along with his brothers, having\r\nperformed the usual auspicious rites, accompanied by his ministers\r\nentered his own palace. And, O ruler of men, king Duryodhana and Sakuni,\r\nthe son of Suvala, continued to dwell in that delightful assembly house.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"That bull among men, Duryodhana, continued to dwell\r\nin that, assembly house (of the Pandavas). And with Sakuni, the Kuru\r\nprince slowly examined the whole of that mansion, and the Kuru prince\r\nbeheld in it many celestial designs, which he had never seen before in\r\nthe city called after the elephant (Hastinapore). And one day king\r\nDuryodhana in going round that mansion came upon a crystal surface. And\r\nthe king, from ignorance, mistaking it for a pool of water, drew up his\r\nclothes. And afterwards finding out his mistake the king wandered about\r\nthe mansion in great sorrow. And sometime after, the king, mistaking a\r\nlake of crystal water adorned with lotuses of crystal petals for land,\r\nfell into it with all his clothes on. Beholding Duryodhana fallen into\r\nthe lake, the mighty Bhima laughed aloud as also the menials of the\r\npalace. And the servants, at the command of the king, soon brought him\r\ndry and handsome clothes. Beholding the plight of Duryodhana, the mighty\r\nBhima and Arjuna and both the twins--all laughed aloud. Being unused to\r\nputting up with insults, Duryodhana could not bear that laugh of theirs.\r\nConcealing his emotions he even did not cast his looks on them. And\r\nbeholding the monarch once more draw up his clothes to cross a piece of\r\ndry land which he had mistaken for water, they all laughed again. And the\r\nking sometime after mistook a closed door made of crystal as open. And as\r\nhe was about to pass through it his head struck against it, and he stood\r\nwith his brain reeling. And mistaking as closed another door made of\r\ncrystal that was really open, the king in attempting to open it with\r\nstretched hands, tumbled down. And coming upon another door that was\r\nreally open, the king thinking it as closed, went away from it. And, O\r\nmonarch, king Duryodhana beholding that vast wealth in the Rajasuya\r\nsacrifice and having become the victim of those numerous errors within\r\nthe assembly house at last returned, with the leave of the Pandavas, to\r\nHastinapore.\r\n\r\nAnd the heart of king Duryodhana, afflicted at sight of the prosperity of\r\nthe Pandavas, became inclined to sin, as he proceeded towards his city\r\nreflecting on all he had seen and suffered. And beholding the Pandavas\r\nhappy and all the kings of the earth paying homage to them, as also\r\neverybody, young and old, engaged in doing good unto them, and reflecting\r\nalso on the splendour and prosperity of the illustrious sons of Pandu,\r\nDuryodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, became pale. In proceeding (to his\r\ncity) with an efflicted heart, the prince thought of nothing else but\r\nthat assembly house and that unrivalled prosperity of the wise\r\nYudhishthira. And Duryodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, was so taken up\r\nwith his thoughts then that he spoke not a word to Suvala\'s son even\r\nthough the latter addressed him repeatedly. And Sakuni, beholding him\r\nabsent-minded, said,--\'O Duryodhana, why art thou proceeding thus\'?\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana replied,--O uncle, beholding this whole earth owning the sway\r\nof Yudhishthira in consequence of the might of the illustrious Arjuna\'s\r\nweapons and beholding also that sacrifice of the son of Pritha like unto\r\nthe sacrifice of Sakra himself of great glory among the celestials, I,\r\nbeing filled with jealousy and burning day and night, am being dried up\r\nlike a shallow tank in the summer season. Behold, when Sisupala was slain\r\nby the chief of the Satwatas, there was no man to take the side of\r\nSisupala. Consumed by the fire of the Pandava, they all forgave that\r\noffence; otherwise who is there that could forgive it? That highly\r\nimproper act of grave consequence done by Vasudeva succeeded in\r\nconsequence of the power of the illustrious son of Pandu. And so many\r\nmonarchs also brought with them various kinds of wealth for king\r\nYudhishthira, the son of Kunti, like tribute-paying Vaisyas! Beholding\r\nYudhishthira\'s prosperity of such splendour, my heart burneth, efflicted\r\nwith jealously, although it behoveth me not to be jealous.\'\r\n\r\n"Having reflected in this way, Duryodhana, as if burnt by fire, addressed\r\nthe king of Gandhara again and said,--\'I shall throw myself upon a\r\nflaming fire or swallow poison or drown myself in water. I cannot live.\r\nWhat man is there in the world possessed of vigour who can bear to see\r\nhis foes in the enjoyment of prosperity and himself in destitution?\r\nTherefore I who bear to see that accession of prosperity and fortune (in\r\nmy foes) am neither a woman nor one that is not a woman, neither also a\r\nman nor one that is not a man. Beholding their sovereignty over the world\r\nand vast affluence, as also that sacrifice, who is there like me that\r\nwould not smart under all that? Alone I am incapable of acquiring such\r\nroyal prosperity; nor do I behold allies that could help me in the\r\nmatter. It is for this that I am thinking of self-destruction. Beholding\r\nthat great and serene prosperity of the son of Kunti, I regard Fate as\r\nsupreme and exertions fruitless. O son of Suvala, formerly I strove to\r\ncompass his destruction. But baffling all my efforts he hath grown in\r\nprosperity even like the lotus from within a pool of water. It is for\r\nthis that I regard Fate as supreme and exertions fruitless. Behold, the\r\nsons of Dhritarashtra are decaying and the sons of Pritha are growing day\r\nby day. Beholding that prosperity of the Pandavas, and that assembly\r\nhouse of theirs, and those menials laughing at me, my heart burneth as if\r\nit were on fire. Therefore, O uncle, know me now as deeply grieved and\r\nfilled with jealousy, and speak of it to Dhritarashtra.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVII\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said.--\'O Duryodhana, thou shouldst not be jealous of\r\nYudhishthira. The sons of Pandu are enjoying what they deserve in\r\nconsequence of their own good fortune. O slayer of foes, O great king,\r\nthou couldst not destroy them by repeatedly devising numberless plans,\r\nmany of which thou hadst even put to practice. Those tigers among men out\r\nof sheer luck escaped all those machinations. They have obtained Draupadi\r\nfor wife and Drupada with his sons as also Vasudeva of great prowess as\r\nallies, capable of helping them in subjugating the whole world. And O\r\nking, having inherited the paternal share of the kingdom without being\r\ndeprived of it they have grown in consequence of their own energy. What\r\nis there to make thee sorry for this? Having gratified Hustasana,\r\nDhananjaya hath obtained the bow Gandiva and the couple of inexhaustible\r\nquivers and many celestial weapons. With that unique bow and by the\r\nstrength of his own arms also he hath brought all the kings of the world\r\nunder his sway. What is there to make thee sorry for this? Having saved\r\nthe Asura Maya from a conflagration, Arjuna, that slayer of foes, using\r\nboth his hands with equal skill, caused him to build that assembly house.\r\nAnd it is for this also that commanded by Maya, those grim Rakshasas\r\ncalled Kinkaras supported that assembly house. What is there in this to\r\nmake thee sorry? Thou hast said, O king, that thou art without allies.\r\nThis, O Bharata, is not true. These thy brothers are obedient to thee.\r\nDrona of great prowess and wielding the large bow along with his son,\r\nRadha\'s son Karna, the great warrior Gautama (Kripa), myself with my\r\nbrothers and king Saumadatti--these are thy allies. Uniting thyself with\r\nthese, conquer thou the whole of the earth.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'O king, with thee, as also with these great warriors,\r\nI shall subjugate the Pandavas, if it pleases thee. If I can now\r\nsubjugate them, the world will be mine and all the monarchs, and that\r\nassembly house so full of wealth.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni replied,--\'Dhananjaya and Vasudeva, Bhimasena and Yudhishthira,\r\nNakula and Sahadeva and Drupada with his sons,--these cannot be\r\nvanquished in battle by even the celestials, for they are all great\r\nwarriors wielding the largest bows, accomplished in weapons, and\r\ndelighting in battle. But, O king, I know the means by which Yudhishthira\r\nhimself may be vanquished. Listen to me and adopt it.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'without danger to our friends and other illustrious\r\nmen, O uncle, tell me if there is any way by which I may vanquish him.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said,--\'The son of Kunti is very fond of dice-play although he\r\ndoth not know how to play. That king if asked to play, is ill able to\r\nrefuse. I am skillful at dice. There is none equal to me in this respect\r\non earth, no, not even in the three worlds, O son of Kuru. Therefore, ask\r\nhim to play at dice. Skilled at dice, I will win his kingdom, and that\r\nsplendid prosperity of his for thee, O bull among men. But, O Duryodhana,\r\nrepresent all this unto the king (Dhritarashtra). Commanded by thy father\r\nI will win without doubt the whole of Yudhishthira\'s possessions.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said \'O son of Suvala, thou thyself represent properly all\r\nthis to Dhritarashtra, the chief of the Kurus. I shall not be able to do\r\nso.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said--"O king, impressed with the great Rajasuya sacrifice\r\nof king Yudhishthira, Sakuni, the son of Suvala, having learnt before the\r\nintentions of Duryodhana, while accompanying him in the way from the\r\nassembly house, and desirous of saying what was agreeable to him,\r\napproached Dhritarashtra endued with great wisdom, and finding the\r\nmonarch deprived of his eye seated (in his throne), told him these\r\nwords,--\'Know, O great king, O bull of the Bharata race, that Duryodhana,\r\nhaving lost colour, hath become pale and emaciated and depressed and a\r\nprey to anxiety. Why dost thou not, after due enquiry, ascertain the\r\ngrief that is in the heart of thy eldest son, the grief that is caused by\r\nthe foe?\'\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said,--\'Duryodhana, what is the reason of thy great\r\naffliction. O son of the Kuru race? If it is fit for me to hear it, then\r\ntell me the reason. This Sakuni here says that thou hast lost colour,\r\nbecome pale and emaciated, and a prey to anxiety. I do not know what can\r\nbe the reason of the sorrow. This vast wealth of mine is at thy control.\r\nThy brothers and all our relations never do anything that is disagreeable\r\nto thee. Thou wearest the best apparel and eatest the best food that is\r\nprepared with meat. The best of horse carries thee. What it is,\r\ntherefore, that hath made thee pale and emaciated? Costly beds, beautiful\r\ndamsels, mansions decked with excellent furniture, and sport of the\r\ndelightful kind, without doubt these all wait but at thy command, as in\r\nthe case of the gods themselves Therefore, O proud one, why dost thou\r\ngrieve, O son, as if thou wert destitute.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'I eat and dress myself like a wretch and pass my time\r\nall the while a prey to fierce jealousy. He indeed is a man, who\r\nincapable of bearing the pride of the foe, liveth having vanquished that\r\nfoe with the desire of liberating his own subjects from the tyranny of\r\nthe foe. Contentment, as also pride, O Bharata, are destructive of\r\nprosperity; and those other two qualities also, viz., compassion and\r\nfear. One who acteth under the influence of these, never obtaineth\r\nanything high. Having beheld Yudhishthira\'s prosperity, whatever I enjoy\r\nbrings me no gratification. The prosperity of Kunti\'s son that is\r\npossessed of such splendour maketh me pale. Knowing the affluence of the\r\nfoe and my own destitution, even though that affluence is not before me,\r\nI yet see it before me. Therefore, have I lost colour and become\r\nmelancholy, pale and emaciated. Yudhishthira supporteth eighty-eight\r\nthousand Snataka Brahmanas leading domestic lives, giving unto each of\r\nthem thirty slave-girls. Beside this, thousand other Brahmanas daily eat\r\nat his palace the best of food on golden plates. The king of Kambhoja\r\nsent unto him (as tribute) innumerable skins, black, darkish, and red, of\r\nthe deer Kadali, as also numberless blankets of excellent textures. And\r\nhundreds and thousands and thousands of she-elephants and thirty thousand\r\nshe-camels wander within the palace, for the kings of the earth brought\r\nthem all as tribute to the capital of the Pandavas. And, O lord of earth,\r\nthe kings also brought unto this foremost of sacrifices heaps upon heaps\r\nof jewels and gems for the son of Kunti. Never before did I see or hear\r\nof such enormous wealth as was brought unto the sacrifice of the\r\nintelligent sons of Pandu. And, O king, beholding that enormous\r\ncollection of wealth belonging to the foe, I can not enjoy peace of mind.\r\nHundreds of Brahmanas supported by the grants that Yudhishthira hath\r\ngiven them and possessing wealth of kine, waited at the palace gate with\r\nthree thousands of millions of tribute but were prevented by the keepers\r\nfrom entering the mansion. Bringing with them clarified butter in\r\nhandsome Kamandalus made of gold, they did not obtain admission into the\r\npalace, and Ocean himself brought unto him in vessels of white copper the\r\nnectar that is generated within his waters and which is much superior to\r\nthat which flowers and annual plants produce for Sakra. And Vasudeva (at\r\nthe conclusion of the sacrifice) having brought an excellent conch bathed\r\nthe Sun of Pritha with sea water brought in thousand jars of gold, all\r\nwell adorned with numerous gems. Beholding all this I became feverish\r\nwith jealousy. Those jars had been taken to the Eastern and the Southern\r\noceans. And they had also been taken on the shoulders of men to the\r\nWestern ocean, O bull among men. And, O father, although none but birds\r\nonly can go to the Northern region Arjuna, having gone thither, exacted\r\nas tribute a vast quantity of wealth. There is another wonderful incident\r\nalso which I will relate to thee. O listen to me. When a hundred thousand\r\nBrahmanas were fed, it had been arranged that to notify this act every\r\nday conches would be blown in a chorus. But, O Bharata, I continually\r\nheard conches blown there almost repeatedly. And hearing those notes my\r\nhair stood on end. And, O great king, that palatial compound, filled with\r\ninnumerable monarchs that came there as spectators, looked exceedingly\r\nhandsome like the cloudless firmament with stars. And, O king of men, the\r\nmonarchs came into that sacrifice of the wise son of Pandu bringing with\r\nthem every kind of wealth. And the kings that came there became like\r\nVaisyas the distributors of food unto the Brahmanas that were fed. And O\r\nking, the prosperity that I beheld of Yudhishthira was such that neither\r\nthe chief himself of the celestials, nor Yama or Varuna, nor the lord of\r\nthe Guhyakas owneth the same. And beholding that great prosperity of the\r\nson of Pandu, my heart burneth and I cannot enjoy peace.\r\n\r\n"Hearing these words of Duryodhana, Sakuni replied,--\'Hear how thou\r\nmayest obtain this unrivalled prosperity that thou beholdest in the son\r\nof Pandu, O thou that hast truth for thy prowess. O Bharata, I am an\r\nadept at dice, superior to all in the world. I can ascertain the success\r\nor otherwise of every throw, and when to stake and when not. I have\r\nspecial knowledge of the game. The Son of Kunti also is fond of dice\r\nplaying though he possesseth little skill in it. Summoned to play or\r\nbattle, he is sure to come forward, and I will defeat him repeatedly at\r\nevery throw by practising deception. I promise to win all that wealth of\r\nhis, and thou, O Duryodhana, shalt then enjoy the same.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"King Duryodhana, thus addressed by Sakuni,\r\nwithout allowing a moment to elapse, said unto Dhritarashtra,--\'This,\r\nSakuni, an adept at dice, is ready to win at dice, O king, the wealth of\r\nthe sons of Pandu. It behoveth thee to grant him permission to do so.\'\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra replied,--\'I always follow the counsels of Kshatta, my\r\nminister possessed of great wisdom. Having consulted with him, I will\r\ninform thee what my judgment is in respect of this affair. Endued with\r\ngreat foresight, he will, keeping morality before his eyes, tell us what\r\nis good and what is proper for both parties, and what should be done in\r\nthis matter.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'If thou consultest with Kshatta he will make thee\r\ndesist. And if thou desist, O king, I will certainly kill myself. And\r\nwhen I am dead, O king, thou wilt become happy with Vidura. Thou wilt\r\nthen enjoy the whole earth; what need hast thou with me?\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Dhritarashtra, hearing these words of\r\naffliction uttered by Duryodhana from mixed feeling, himself ready to\r\nwhat Duryodhana had dictated, commanded his servant, saying,--\'Let\r\nartificers be employed to erect without delay a delightful and handsome\r\nand spacious palace with an hundred doors and a thousand columns. And\r\nhaving brought carpenters and joiners, set ye jewels and precious stones\r\nall over the walls. And making it handsome and easy of access, report to\r\nme when everything is complete. And, O monarch, king Dhritarashtra having\r\nmade this resolution for the pacification of Duryodhana, sent messengers\r\nunto Vidura for summoning him. For without taking counsel with Vidura\r\nnever did the monarch form any resolution. But as regards the matter at\r\nhand, the king although he knew the evils of gambling, was yet attracted\r\ntowards it. The intelligent Vidura, however, as soon as he heard of it,\r\nknew that the arrival of Kali was at hand. And seeing that the way to\r\ndestruction was about to open, he quickly came to Dhritarashtra. And\r\nVidura approaching his illustrious eldest brother and bowing down unto\r\nhis feet, said these words:\r\n\r\n\'O exalted king, I do not approve of this resolution that thou hast\r\nformed. It behave thee, O king, to act in such a way that no dispute may\r\narise between thy children on account of this gambling match.\'\r\n\r\nDhritarashtra replied,--\'O Kshatta, if the gods be merciful unto us,\r\nassuredly no dispute will ever arise amongst my sons. Therefore,\r\nauspicious or otherwise, beneficial or otherwise, let this friendly\r\nchallenge at dice proceed. Even this without doubt is what fate hath\r\nordained for us. And, O son of the Bharata race, when I am near, and\r\nDrona and Bhishma and thou too, nothing evil that even Fate might have\r\nordained is likely to happen. Therefore, go thou on a car yoking thereto\r\nhorses endued with the speed of the wind, so that thou mayest reach\r\nKhandavaprastha even today and bring thou Yudhishthira with thee. And, O\r\nVidura, I tell that even this is my resolution. Tell me nothing. I regard\r\nFate as supreme which bringeth all this.\' Hearing these words of\r\nDhritarashtra and concluding that his race was doomed, Vidura in great\r\nsorrow went unto Bhishma with great wisdom."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIX\r\n\r\nJanamejaya said,--"O thou foremost of all conversant with the Vedas, how\r\ndid that game at dice take place, fraught with such evil to the cousins\r\nand through which my grand-sires, the son of Pandu, were plunged into\r\nsuch sorrow? What kings also were present in that assembly, and who\r\namongst them approved of the gambling match and who amongst them forbade\r\nit? O sinless one, O chief of regenerate ones, I desire thee to recite in\r\ndetail all about this, which, indeed, was the cause of the destruction of\r\nthe world."\r\n\r\nSanti said,--"Thus addressed by the king, the disciple of Vyasa, endued\r\nwith great energy and conversant with the entire Vedas, narrated\r\neverything that had happened."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"O best of the Bharatas, O great king, if thou\r\ndesirest to hear, then listen to me as I narrate to thee everything again\r\nin detail.\r\n\r\n"Ascertaining the opinion of Vidura, Dhritarashtra the son of Amvika,\r\ncalling Duryodhana told him again in private--\'O son of Gandhari, have\r\nnothing to do with dice. Vidura doth not speak well of it. Possessed of\r\ngreat wisdom, he will never give me advice that is not for my good. I\r\nalso regard what Vidura sayeth as exceedingly beneficial for me. Do that,\r\nO son, for I regard it all as for thy good also. Indeed, Vidura knoweth\r\nwith all its mysteries the science (of political morality) that the\r\nillustrious and learned and wise Vrihaspati, the celestial Rishi who is\r\nthe spiritual guide of Vasava--had unfolded unto the wise chief of the\r\nimmortals. And O son, I always accept what Vidura adviseth. O king, as\r\nthe wise Uddhava is ever regarded amongst the Vrishnis, so is Vidura\r\npossessed of great intelligence esteemed as the foremost of the Kurus.\r\nTherefore, O son, have nothing to do with dice. It is evident that dice\r\nsoweth dissensions. And dissensions are the ruin of the kingdom.\r\nTherefore, O son, abandon this idea of gambling. O son, thou hast\r\nobtained from us what, it hath been ordained, a father and a mother\r\nshould give unto their son, viz., ancestral rank and possessions. Thou\r\nart educated and clever in every branch of knowledge, and hast been\r\nbrought up with affection in thy paternal dwelling. Born the eldest among\r\nall thy brothers, living within thy own kingdom, why regardest thou\r\nthyself as unhappy? O thou of mighty arms, thou obtainest food and attire\r\nof the very best kind and which is not obtainable by ordinary men. Why\r\ndost thou grieve yet. O son, O mighty-armed one, ruling thy large\r\nancestral kingdom swelling with people and wealth, thou shinest as\r\nsplendidly as the chief of the celestials in heaven. Thou art possessed\r\nof wisdom. It behoveth thee to tell me what can be the root of this grief\r\nthat hath made thee so melancholy.\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana replied,--\'I am a sinful wretch, O king, because I eat and\r\ndress beholding (the prosperity of the foes). It hath been said that man\r\nis a wretch who is not filled with jealousy at the sight of his enemy\'s\r\nprosperity. O exalted one, this kind of prosperity of mine doth not\r\ngratify me. Beholding that blazing prosperity of the son of Kunti, I am\r\nvery much pained. I tell thee strong must be my vitality, in as much as I\r\nam living even at the sight of the whole earth owning the sway of\r\nYudhishthira. The Nipas, the Chitrakas, the Kukkuras, the Karaskaras, and\r\nthe Lauha-janghas are living in the palace of Yudhishthira like bondsmen.\r\nThe Himavat, the ocean, the regions on the sea-shore, and the numberless\r\nother regions that yield jewels and gems, have all acknowledged\r\nsuperiority of the mansion of Yudhishthira in respect of wealth it\r\ncontaineth. And, O Monarch, regarding me as the eldest and entitled to\r\nrespect, Yudhishthira having received me respectfully, appointed me in\r\nreceiving the jewels and gems (that were brought as tribute). O Bharata,\r\nthe limit and the like of the excellent and invaluable jewels that were\r\nbrought there have not been seen. And O king, my hands were fatigued in\r\nreceiving that wealth. And when I was tired, they that brought those\r\nvaluable articles from distant regions used to wait till I was able to\r\nresume my labour. Bringing jewels from the lake Vindu, the Asura\r\narchitect Maya constructed (for the Pandavas) a lake-like surface made of\r\ncrystal. Beholding the (artificial) lotuses with which it was filled, I\r\nmistook it, O king for water. And seeing me draw up my clothes (while\r\nabout to cross it), Vrikodara (Bhima) laughed at me, regarding me as\r\nwanting in jewels and having lost my head at the sight of the affluence\r\nof my enemy. If I had the ability, I would, O king, without the loss of a\r\nmoment, slay Vrikodara for that. But, O monarch, if we endeavour to slay\r\nBhima now, without doubt, ours will be the fate of Sisupala. O Bharata,\r\nthat insult by the foe burneth me. Once again, O king, beholding a\r\nsimilar lake that is really full of water but which I mistook for a\r\ncrystal surface, I fell into it. At that, Bhima with Arjuna once more\r\nlaughed derisively, and Draupadi also accompanied by other females joined\r\nin the laughter. That paineth my heart exceedingly. My apparel having\r\nbeen wet, the menials at the command of the king gave me other clothes.\r\nThat also is my great sorrow. And O king, hear now of another mistake\r\nthat I speak of. In attempting to pass through what is exactly of the\r\nshape of a door but through which there was really no passage, I struck\r\nmy forehead against stone and injured myself. The twins Nakula and\r\nSahadeva beholding from a distance that I was so hit at the head came and\r\nsupported me in their arms, expressing great concern for me. And Sahadeva\r\nrepeatedly told me, as if with a smile,--\'This O king, is the door. Go\r\nthis way!\' And Bhimasena, laughing aloud, addressed me and said,--\'O son\r\nof Dhritarashtra, this is the door. And, O king I had not even heard of\r\nthe names of those gems that I saw in that mansion. And it is for these\r\nreasons that my heart so acheth."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION L\r\n\r\nDuryodhana said,--\'Listen now, O Bharata, about all the most costly\r\narticles I saw, belonging unto the sons of Pandu, and brought one after\r\nanother by the kings of the earth. Beholding that wealth of the foe, I\r\nlost my reason and scarcely knew myself. And, O Bharata, listen as I\r\ndescribe that wealth consisting of both manufactures and the produce of\r\nthe land. The king of Kamboja gave innumerable skins of the best king,\r\nand blankets made of wool, of the soft fur of rodents and other\r\nburroughers, and of the hair of cats,--all inlaid with threads of gold.\r\nAnd he also gave three hundred horses of the Titteti and the Kalmasha\r\nspecies possessing noses like parrots. And he also gave three hundred\r\ncamels and an equal number of she-asses, all fattened with the olives and\r\nthe Pilusha. And innumerable Brahmanas engaged in rearing cattle and\r\noccupied in low offices for the gratification of the illustrious king\r\nYudhishthira the just waited at the gate with three hundred millions of\r\ntribute but they were denied admission into the palace. And hundred upon\r\nhundreds of Brahmanas possessing wealth of kine and living upon the lands\r\nthat Yudhishthira had given them, came there with their handsome golden\r\nKamandalus filled with clarified butter. And though they had brought such\r\ntribute, they were refused admission into the palace. And the Sudra kings\r\nthat dwelt in the regions on the seacoast, brought with them, O king,\r\nhundred thousands of serving girls of the Karpasika country, all of\r\nbeautiful features and slender waist and luxuriant hair and decked in\r\ngolden ornaments; and also many skins of the Ranku deer worthy even of\r\nBrahmanas as tribute unto king Yudhishthira. And the tribes Vairamas,\r\nParadas, Tungas, with the Kitavas who lived upon crops that depended on\r\nwater from the sky or of the river and also they who were born in regions\r\non the sea-shore, in woodlands, or countries on the other side of the\r\nocean waited at the gate, being refused permission to enter, with goats\r\nand kine and asses and camels and vegetable, honey and blankets and\r\njewels and gems of various kinds. And that great warrior king Bhagadatta,\r\nthe brave ruler of Pragjyotisha and the mighty sovereign of the\r\nmlechchas, at the head of a large number of Yavanas waited at the gate\r\nunable to enter, with a considerable tribute comprising of horses of the\r\nbest breed and possessing the speed of the wind. And king Bhagadatta\r\n(beholding the concourse) had to go away from the gate, making over a\r\nnumber of swords with handles made of the purest ivory and well-adorned\r\nwith diamonds and every kind of gems. And many tribes coming from\r\ndifferent regions, of whom some possess two eyes, some three and some had\r\neyes on their foreheads, and those also called Aushmikas, and Nishadas,\r\nand Romakas, some cannibals and many possessing only one leg. I say, O\r\nking, standing at the gate, being refused permission to enter. And these\r\ndiverse rulers brought as tribute ten thousand asses of diverse hues and\r\nblack necks and huge bodies and great speed and much docility and\r\ncelebrated all over the world. And these asses were all of goodly size\r\nand delightful colour. And they were all bred on the coast of Vankhu. And\r\nthere were many kings that gave unto Yudhishthira much gold and silver.\r\nAnd having given much tribute they obtained admission into the palace of\r\nYudhishthira. The people that came there possessing only one leg gave\r\nunto Yudhishthira many wild horses, some of which were as red as the\r\ncochineal, and some white, and some possessing the hues of the rainbow\r\nand some looking like evening clouds, and some that were of variegated\r\ncolour. And they were all endued with the speed of the mind. And they\r\nalso gave unto the king enough gold of superior quality. I also saw\r\nnumberless Chins and Sakas and Uddras and many barbarous tribes living in\r\nthe woods, and many Vrishnis and Harahunas, and dusky tribes of the\r\nHimavat, and many Nipas and people residing in regions on the sea-coast,\r\nwaiting at the gate being refused permission to enter. And the people of\r\nValhika gave unto him as tribute ten thousand asses, of goodly size and\r\nblack necks and daily running two hundred miles, And those asses were of\r\nmany shapes. And they were well-trained and celebrated all over the\r\nworld. And possessed of symmetrical proportion and excellent colour,\r\ntheir skins were pleasant to the touch. And the Valhikas also presented\r\nnumerous blankets of woollen texture manufactured in Chin and numerous\r\nskins of the Ranku deer, and clothes manufactured from jute, and others\r\nwoven with the threads spun by insects. And they also gave thousands of\r\nother clothes not made of cotton, possessing the colour of the lotus. And\r\nthese were all of smooth texture. And they also gave soft sheep-skins by\r\nthousands. And they also gave many sharp and long swords and scimitars,\r\nand hatchets and fine-edged battle-axes manufactured in the western\r\ncountries. And having presented perfumes and jewels and gems of various\r\nkinds by thousands as tribute, they waited at the gate, being refused\r\nadmission into the palace. And the Sakas and Tukhatas and Tukharas and\r\nKankas and Romakas and men with horns bringing with them as tribute\r\nnumerous large elephants and ten thousand horses, and hundreds and\r\nhundreds of millions of gold waited at the gate, being refused permission\r\nto enter. And the kings of the eastern countries having presented\r\nnumerous valuable articles including many costly carpets and vehicles and\r\nbeds, and armours of diverse hues decked with jewels and gold and ivory,\r\nand weapons of various kinds, and cars of various shapes and handsome\r\nmake and adorned with gold, with well-trained horses trimmed with tiger\r\nskins, and rich and variegated blankets for caprisoning elephants, and\r\nvarious kinds of jewels and gems, arrows long and short and various other\r\nkinds of weapons, obtained permission to enter the sacrificial palace of\r\nthe illustrious Pandava!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LI\r\n\r\nDuryodhana said,--\'O sinless one, listen to me as I describe that large\r\nmass of wealth consisting of various kinds of tribute presented unto\r\nYudhishthira by the kings of the earth. They that dwell by the side of\r\nthe river Sailoda flowing between the mountains of Mer and Mandara and\r\nenjoy the delicious shade of topes of the Kichaka bamboo, viz., the\r\nKhashas, Ekasanas, the Arhas, the Pradaras, the Dirghavenus, the Paradas,\r\nthe Kulindas, the Tanganas, and the other Tanganas, brought as tribute\r\nheaps of gold measured in dronas (jars) and raised from underneath the\r\nearth by ants and therefore called after these creatures. The mountain\r\ntribes endued with great strength having brought as tribute numerous\r\nChamaras (long brushes) soft and black and others white as moon-beam and\r\nsweet honey extracted from the flowers growing on the Himavat as also\r\nfrom the Mishali champaka and garlands of flowers brought from the region\r\nof the northern Kurus, and diverse kinds of plants from the north even\r\nfrom Kailasa, waited with their heads bent down at the gate of king\r\nYudhishthira, being refused permission to enter. I also beheld there\r\nnumberless chiefs of the Kiratas armed with cruel weapons and ever\r\nengaged in cruel deeds, eating of fruits and roots and attired in skins\r\nand living on the northern slopes of the Himavat and on the mountain from\r\nbehind which the sun rises and in the region of Karusha on the sea-coast\r\nand on both sides of the Lohitya mountains. And, O king, having brought\r\nwith them as tribute loads upon loads of sandal and aloe as also black\r\naloe, and heaps upon heaps of valuable skins and gold and perfumes, and\r\nten thousand serving-girls of their own race, and many beautiful animals\r\nand birds of remote countries, and much gold of great splendour procured\r\nfrom mountains, the Kiratas waited at the gate, being refused permission\r\nto enter. The Kairatas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Suras, the\r\nVaiamakas, the Audumvaras, the Durvibhagas, the Kumaras, the Paradas\r\nalong with the Vahlikas, the Kashmiras, the Ghorakas, the Hansakayanas,\r\nthe Sivis, the Trigartas, the Yauddheyas, the ruler of Madras and the\r\nKaikeyas, the Amvashtas, the Kaukuras, the Tarkshyas, the Vastrapas along\r\nwith the Palhavas, the Vashatayas, the Mauleyas along with the\r\nKshudrakas, and the Malavas, the Paundrayas, the Kukkuras, the Sakas, the\r\nAngas, the Vangas, the Punras, the Sanavatyas, and the Gayas--these good\r\nand well-born Kshatriyas distributed into regular clans and trained to\r\nthe use of arms, brought tribute unto king Yudhishthira by hundreds and\r\nthousands. And the Vangas, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptas,\r\nthe Supundrakas, the Dauvalikas, the Sagarakas, the Patrornas, the\r\nSaisavas, and innumerable Karnapravaranas, who presented themselves at\r\nthe gate, were told by the gate-keepers at the command of the king, that\r\nif they could wait and bring good tribute they could obtain admission.\r\nThen the kings of those nations each gave a thousand elephants furnished\r\nwith tusks like unto the shafts of ploughs and decked with girdles made\r\nof gold, and covered with fine blankets and therefore, resembling the\r\nlotus in hue. And they were all darkish as rocks and always musty, and\r\nprocured from the sides of the Kamyaka lake, and covered with defensive\r\narmour. And they were also exceedingly patient and of the best breed. And\r\nhaving made these presents, those kings were permitted to enter. O king,\r\nthese and many others, coming from various regions, and numberless other\r\nillustrious kings, brought jewels and gems unto this sacrifice. And\r\nChitraratha, also the king of Gandharvas, the friend of Indra, gave four\r\nhundred horses gifted with the speed of the wind. And the Gandharva\r\nTumvuru gladly gave a hundred horses of the colour of mango leaf and\r\ndecked in gold. And, O thou of the Kuru race, the celebrated king of the\r\nMlechcha tribe, called the Sukaras, gave many hundreds of excellent\r\nelephants. And Virata, the king of Matsya, gave as tribute two thousand\r\nelephants decked in gold. And king Vasudana from the kingdom of Pansu\r\npresented unto the son of Pandu six and twenty elephants and two thousand\r\nhorses. O king, all decked in gold and endued with speed and strength and\r\nin full vigour of youth, and diverse other kinds of wealth. And Yajnasena\r\npresented unto the sons of Pandu for the sacrifice, fourteen thousand\r\nserving-girls and ten thousand serving-men with their wives, many\r\nhundreds of excellent elephants, six and twenty cars with elephants yoked\r\nunto them, and also his whole kingdom. And Vasudeva of the Vrishni race,\r\nin order to enhance the dignity of Arjuna, gave fourteen thousands of\r\nexcellent elephants. Indeed, Krishna is the soul of Arjuna and Arjuna is\r\nthe soul of Krishna, and whatever Arjuna may say Krishna is certain to\r\naccomplish. And Krishna is capable of abandoning heaven itself for the\r\nsake of Arjuna. and Arjuna also is capable of sacrificing his life for\r\nthe sake of Krishna. And the Kings of Chola and Pandya, though they\r\nbrought numberless jars of gold filled with fragrant sandal juice from\r\nthe hills of Malaya, and loads of sandal and aloe wood from the Dardduras\r\nhills, and many gems of great brilliancy and fine cloths inlaid with\r\ngold, did not obtain permission (to enter). And the king of the Singhalas\r\ngave those best of sea-born gems called the lapis lazuli, and heaps of\r\npearls also, and hundreds of coverlets for elephants. And numberless\r\ndark-coloured men with the ends of their, eyes red as copper, attired in\r\nclothes decked with gems, waited at the gate with those presents. And\r\nnumberless Brahmanas and Kshatriyas who had been vanquished, and Vaisyas\r\nand serving Sudras, from love of Yudhishthira, brought tribute unto the\r\nson of Pandu. And even all the Mlechchas, from love and respect, came\r\nunto Yudhishthira. And all orders of men, good, indifferent and low,\r\nbelonging to numberless races, coming from diverse lands made\r\nYudhishthira\'s habitation the epitome of the world.\r\n\r\n"And beholding the kings of the earth to present unto the foes such\r\nexcellent and valuable presents, I wished for death out of grief. And O\r\nking, I will now tell thee of the servants of the Pandavas, people for\r\nwhom Yudhishthira supplieth food, both cooked and uncooked. There are a\r\nhundred thousand billions of mounted elephants and cavalry and a hundred\r\nmillions of cars and countless foot soldiers. At one place raw provisions\r\nare being measured out; at another they are being cooked; and at another\r\nplace the foods are being distributed. And the notes of festivity are\r\nbeing heard everywhere. And amongst men of all orders I beheld not a\r\nsingle one in the mansion of Yudhishthira that had not food and drink and\r\nornaments. And eighty-eight thousands of Snataka Brahmanas leading\r\ndomestic lives, all supported by Yudhishthira, with thirty serving-girls\r\ngiven unto each, gratified by the king, always pray with complacent\r\nhearts for the destruction of his foes. And ten thousands of other\r\nascetics with vital seed drawn up, daily eat of golden plates in\r\nYudhishthira\'s palace. And, O king, Yajnaseni, without having eaten\r\nherself, daily seeth whether everybody, including even the deformed and\r\nthe dwarfs, hath eaten or not. And, O Bharata, only two do not pay\r\ntribute unto the son of Kunti, viz., the Panchalas in consequence of\r\ntheir relationship by marriage, and the Andhakas and Vrishnis in\r\nconsequence of their friendship.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LII\r\n\r\nDuryodhana said,--"Those king that are revered over all the world, who\r\nare devoted to truth and who are pledged to the observance of rigid vows,\r\nwho are possessed of great learning and eloquence, who are fully\r\nconversant with the Vedas and their branches as also with sacrifices, who\r\nhave piety and modesty, whose souls are devoted to virtue, who possess\r\nfame, and who have enjoyed the grand rites of coronation, all wait upon\r\nand worship Yudhishthira. And, O king, I beheld there many thousands of\r\nwild kine with as many vessels of white copper for milking them, brought\r\nthither by the kings of the earth as sacrificial presents to be given\r\naway by Yudhishthira unto the Brahmana. And, O Bharata, for bathing\r\nYudhishthira at the conclusion of the sacrifice, many kings with the\r\ngreatest alacrity, themselves brought there in a state of purity many\r\nexcellent jars (containing water). And king Vahlika brought there a car\r\ndecked with pure gold. And king Sudakshina himself yoked thereto four\r\nwhite horses of Kamboja breed, and Sunitha of great might fitted the\r\nlower pole and the ruler of Chedi with his own hands took up and fitted\r\nthe flag-staff. And the king of the Southern country stood ready with the\r\ncoat of mail; the ruler of Magadha, with garlands of flowers and the\r\nhead-gear; the great warrior Vasudana with a sixty years old elephant,\r\nthe king of Matsya, with the side-fittings of the car, all encased in\r\ngold; king Ekalavya, with the shoes; the king of Avanti, with diverse\r\nkinds of water for the final bath; king Chekitana, with the quiver; the\r\nking of Kasi, with the bow; and Salya; with a sword whose hilt and straps\r\nwere adorned with gold. Then Dhaumya and Vyasa, of great ascetic merit,\r\nwith Narada and Asita\'s son Devala, standing before performed the\r\nceremony of sprinkling the sacred water over the king. And the great\r\nRishis with cheerful hearts sat where the sprinkling ceremony was\r\nperformed. And other illustrious Rishis conversant with the Vedas, with\r\nJamadagni\'s son among them, approached Yudhishthira, the giver of large\r\nsacrificial presents, uttering mantras all the while, like the seven\r\nRishis, approaching the great India in heaven. And Satyaki of unbaffled\r\nprowess held the umbrella (over the king\'s head). And Dhananjaya and\r\nBhima were engaged in tanning the king; while the twins held a couple of\r\nchamaras in their hands. And the Ocean himself brought in a sling that\r\nbig conch of Varuna which the celestial artificer Viswakarman had\r\nconstructed with a thousand Nishkas of gold, and which Prajapati had in a\r\nformer Kalpa, presented unto India. It was with that conch that Krishna\r\nbathed Yudhishthira after the conclusion of the sacrifice, and beholding\r\nit, I swooned away. People go to the Eastern or the Western seas and also\r\nto the Southern one. But, O father, none except birds can ever go to the\r\nNorthern sea. But the Pandavas have spread their dominion even there, for\r\nI heard hundreds of conches that had been brought thence blown (in the\r\nsacrificial mansion) indicative of auspicious rejoicing. And while those\r\nconches blew simultaneously, my hair stood on end. And those among the\r\nkings, who were weak in strength fell down. And Dhrishtadyumna and\r\nSatyaki and the sons of Pandu and Kesava,--those eight, endued with\r\nstrength and prowess and handsome in person, beholding the kings deprived\r\nof consciousness and myself in that plight, laughed outright. Then\r\nVibhatsu (Arjuna) with a cheerful heart gave, O Bharata, unto the\r\nprincipal Brahmanas five hundred bullocks with horns plated with gold.\r\nAnd king Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, having completed the Rajasuya\r\nsacrifice, obtained like the exalted Harishchandra such prosperity that\r\nneither Rantideva nor Nabhaga, nor Jauvanaswa, nor Manu, nor king Prithu\r\nthe son of Vena, nor Bhagiratha, Yayati, nor Nahusha, had obtained its\r\nlike. And beholding, O exalted one, such prosperity, in the son of Pritha\r\nwhich is even like that which Harishchandra had, I do not see the least\r\ngood in continuing to live, O Bharata! O ruler of men, a yoke that is\r\ntied (to the bullock\'s shoulders) by a blind man becomes loosened. Even\r\nsuch is the case with us. The younger ones are growing while the elder\r\nones are decaying. And beholding all this, O chief of the Kurus, I cannot\r\nenjoy peace even with the aid of reflection. And it is for this, O king,\r\nthat I am plunged into grief and becoming pale and emaciated."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIII\r\n\r\n"Dhritrashtra said,--Thou art my eldest son and born also of my eldest\r\nwife. Therefore, O son, be not jealous of the Pandavas. He that is\r\njealous is always unhappy and suffereth the pangs of death. O bull of the\r\nBharata race, Yudhishthira knoweth not deception, possesseth wealth equal\r\nunto thine, hath thy friends for his, and is not jealous of thee. Why\r\nshouldst thou, therefore, be jealous of him? O king, in respect of\r\nfriends and allies thou art equal unto Yudhishthira. Why shouldst thou,\r\ntherefore, covet, from folly, the property of thy brother? Be not so.\r\nCease to be jealous. Do not grieve. O bull of the Bharata race, it thou\r\ncovetest the dignity attaching to the performance of a sacrifice, let the\r\npriests arrange for thee the great sacrifice, called the Saptatantu. The\r\nkings of the earth will then, cheerfully and with great respect, bring\r\nfor thee also much wealth and gems and ornaments. O child, coveting\r\nother\'s possessions is exceedingly mean. He, on the other hand, enjoyeth\r\nhappiness, who is content with his own being engaged in the practices of\r\nhis own order. Never striving to obtain the wealth of others, persevering\r\nin one\'s own affairs, and protecting what hath been earned,--these are\r\nthe indications of true greatness. He that is unmoved in calamity,\r\nskilled in his own business, ever exerting vigilant and humble, always\r\nbeholdeth prosperity. The sons of Pandu are as thy arms. Do not lop off\r\nthose arms of thine. Plunge not into internal dissensions for the sake of\r\nthat wealth of thy brothers. O king, be not jealous of the sons of Pandu.\r\nThy wealth is equal unto that of thy brothers in his entirety. There is\r\ngreat sin in quarrelling with friends. They that are thy grandsires are\r\ntheirs also. Give away in charity on occasions of sacrifices, gratify\r\nevery dear object of thy desire, disport in the company of women freely,\r\nand enjoy thou peace.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIV\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'He that is devoid of intellect but hath merely heard\r\nof many things, can scarcely understand the real import of the\r\nscriptures, like the spoon that hath no perception of the taste of the\r\nsoup it toucheth. Thou knowest everything, but yet confoundest me. Like a\r\nboat fastened to another, thou and I are tied to each other. Art thou\r\nunmindful of thy own interests? Or, dost thou entertain hostile feeling\r\ntowards me? These thy sons and allies are doomed to destruction, inasmuch\r\nas they have thee for their ruler, for thou describest as attainable in\r\nthe future what is to be done at the present moment. He often trippeth\r\nwhose guide acts under the instructions of others. How then can his\r\nfollowers expect to come across a right path? O king, thou art of mature\r\nwisdom; thou hast the opportunity to listen to the words of old, and thy\r\nsenses also are under thy control. It behoveth thee not to confound us\r\nwho are ready to seek our own interests. Vrihaspati hath said that the\r\nusage of kings are different from those of common people. Therefore kings\r\nshould always attend to their own interests with vigilance. The\r\nattainment of success is the sole criterion that should guide the conduct\r\nof a Kshatriya. Whether, therefore, the means is virtuous or sinful, what\r\nscruples can there be in the duties of one\'s own order? He that is\r\ndesirous of snatching the blazing prosperity of his foe, should, O bull\r\nof the Bharata race, bring every direction under his subjection like the\r\ncharioteer taming the steeds with his whip. Those used to handling\r\nweapons say that, a weapon is not simply an instrument that cuts but is a\r\nmeans, whether covert or overt, that can defeat a foe. Who is to be\r\nreckoned a foe and who a friend, doth not depend on one\'s figure or\r\ndimensions. He that paineth another is, O king, to be regarded a foe by\r\nhim that is pained. Discontent is the root of prosperity. Therefore, O\r\nking, I desire to be discontented. He that striveth after the acquisition\r\nof prosperity is, O king, a truly politic person. Nobody should be\r\nattached to wealth and affluence, for the wealth that hath been earned\r\nand hoarded may be plundered. The usages of kings are even such. It was\r\nduring a period of peace that Sakra cut off the head of Namuchi after\r\nhaving given a pledge to the contrary, and it was because he approved of\r\nthis eternal usage towards the enemy that he did so. Like a snake that\r\nswalloweth up frogs and other creatures living in holes, the earth\r\nswalloweth up a king that is peaceful and a Brahmana that stirreth not\r\nout of home. O king, none can by nature be any person\'s foe. He is one\'s\r\nfoe, and not anybody else, who hath common pursuits with one. He that\r\nfrom folly neglecteth a growing foe, hath his vitals cut off as by a\r\ndisease that he cherished without treatment. A foe, however\r\ninsignificant, if suffered to grow in prowess, swalloweth one like the\r\nwhite ants at the root of a tree eating off the tree itself. O Bharata, O\r\nAjamida, let not the prosperity of the foe be acceptable to thee. This\r\npolicy (of neglecting the foe) should always be borne on their heads by\r\nthe wise even like a load. He that always wisheth for the increase of his\r\nwealth, ever groweth in the midst of his relatives even like the body\r\nnaturally growing from the moment of birth. Prowess conferreth speedy\r\ngrowth. Coveting as I do the prosperity of the Pandavas. I have not yet\r\nmade it my own. At present I am a prey to doubts in respect of my\r\nability. I am determined to resolve those doubts of mine. I will either\r\nobtain that prosperity of theirs, or lie down having perished in battle.\r\nO king when the state of my mind is such, what do I care now for life,\r\nfor the Pandavas are daily growing while our possessions know no\r\nincrease?\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LV\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said,--O thou foremost of victorious persons, I will snatch (for\r\nthee) this prosperity of Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu, at the sight of\r\nwhich thou grievest so. Therefore, O king, let Yudhishthira the son of\r\nKunti be summoned. By throwing dice a skilful man, himself uninjured, may\r\nvanquish one that hath no skill. Know, O Bharata, that betting is my bow,\r\nthe dice are my arrows, the marks on them my bow-string, and the\r\ndice-board my car.\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'This Sukuni skilled at dice, is ready, O king, to\r\nsnatch the prosperity of the son of Pandu by means of dice. It behoveth\r\nthee to give him permission.\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said,--\'I am obedient to the counsels of my brother, the\r\nillustrious Vidura. Consulting with him, I shall tell what should be done\r\nin this matter.\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'Vidura is always engaged in doing good to the sons of\r\nPandu. O Kaurava, his feelings towards us are otherwise. He will,\r\ntherefore, without doubt, withdraw thy heart from the proposed act. No\r\nman should set himself to any task depending upon the counsels of\r\nanother, for, O son of Kuru\'s race, the minds of two persons seldom agree\r\nin any particular act. The fool that liveth shunning all causes of fear\r\nwasteth himself like an insect in the rainy season. Neither sickness nor\r\nYama waiteth till one is in prosperity. So long, therefore, as there is\r\nlife and health, one should (without waiting for prosperity) accomplish\r\nhis purpose.\'\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said,--\'O son, hostility with those that are strong, is\r\nwhat never recommendeth itself to me. Hostility bringeth about a change\r\nof feelings, and that itself is a weapon though not made of steel. Thou\r\nregardest, O Prince, as a great blessing what will bring in its train the\r\nterrible consequences of war. What is really fraught with mischief. If\r\nonce it beginneth, it will create sharp swords and pointed arrows.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana replied,--\'Men of the most ancient times invented the use of\r\ndice. There is no destruction in it, nor is there any striking with,\r\nweapons. Let the words of Sakuni, therefore, be acceptable to thee, and\r\nlet thy command be issued for the speedy construction of the assembly\r\nhouse. The door of heaven, leading us to such happiness, will be opened\r\nto us by gambling. Indeed, they that betake to gambling (with such aid)\r\ndeserve such good fortune. The Pandavas then will become thy equals\r\n(instead of, as now, superiors); therefore, gamble thou with the Pandavas.\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said.--\'The words uttered by thee do not recommend\r\nthemselves to me. Do what may be agreeable to thee, O ruler of men. But\r\nthou shall have to repent for acting according to these words; for, words\r\nthat are fraught with such immorality can never bring prosperity in the\r\nfuture. Even this was foreseen by the learned Vidura ever treading the\r\npath of truth and wisdom. Even the great calamity, destructive of the\r\nlives of the Kshatriyas, cometh as destined by fate.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued--"Having said this, the weak-minded Dhritarashtra\r\nregarded fate as supreme and unavoidable. And the king deprived of reason\r\nby Fate, and obedient to the counsels of his son, commanded his men in\r\nloud voice, saying--\'Carefully construct, without loss of time, an\r\nassembly house of the most beautiful description, to be called the\r\ncrystal-arched palace with a thousand columns, decked with gold and lapis\r\nlazuli, furnished with a hundred gates, and full two miles in length and\r\nin breadth the same.\' Hearing those words of his, thousands of artificers\r\nendued with intelligence and skill soon erected the palace with the\r\ngreatest alacrity, and having erected it brought thither every kind of\r\narticle. And soon after they cheerfully represented unto the king that\r\nthe palace had been finished, and that it as delightful and handsome and\r\nfurnished with every kind of gems and covered with many-coloured carpets\r\ninlaid with gold. Then king Dhritarashtra, possessed of learning,\r\nsummoning Vidura the chief of his ministers, said:--\'Repairing, (to\r\nKhandavaprastha), bring prince Yudhishthira here without loss of time.\r\nLet him come hither with his brothers, and behold his handsome assembly\r\nhouse of mine, furnished with countless jewels and gems, and costly beds\r\nand carpets, and let a friendly match at dice commence here.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"King Dhritarashtra, ascertaining the inclinations of\r\nhis son and knowing that Fate is inevitable, did what I have said.\r\nVidura, however, that foremost of intelligent men, approved not his\r\nbrother\'s words and spoke thus, \'I approve not, O king, of this command\r\nof thine. Do not act so. I fear, this will bring about the destruction of\r\nour race. When thy sons lose their unity, dissension will certainly ensue\r\namongst them. This I apprehend, O king, from this match at dice.\'\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said,--\'If Fate be not hostile, this quarrel will not\r\ncertainly grieve me. The whole universe moveth at the will of its\r\nCreator, under the controlling influence of Fate. It is not free.\r\nTherefore, O Vidura, going unto king Yudhishthira at my command, bring\r\nthou soon that invincible son of Kunti.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Vidura then, thus commanded against his will by king\r\nDhritarashtra, set out, with the help of horses of high mettle and endued\r\nwith great speed and strength, and quiet and patient, for the abode of\r\nthe wise sons of Pandu. Possessed of great intelligence, Vidura proceeded\r\nby the way leading to the capital of the Pandavas. And having arrived at\r\nthe city of king Yudhishthira, he entered it and proceeded towards the\r\npalace, worshipped by numberless Brahmanas. And coming to the palace\r\nwhich was even like unto the mansion of Kuvera himself, the virtuous\r\nVidura approached Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma. Then the illustrious\r\nAjamida devoted to truth and having no enemy on earth, reverentially\r\nsaluted Vidura, and asked him about Dhritarashtra and his sons. And\r\nYudhishthira said, "O Kshatta, thy mind seemeth to be cheerless. Dost\r\nthou come here in happiness and peace? The sons of Dhritarashtra, I hope,\r\nare obedient to their old father. The people also, I hope, are obedient\r\nto Dhritarashtra\'s rule.\'\r\n\r\n"Vidura said,--\'The illustrious king, with his sons, is well and happy,\r\nand surrounded by his relatives he reigneth even like Indra himself. The\r\nking is happy with his sons who are all obedient to him and hath no\r\ngrief. The illustrious monarch is bent on his own aggrandisement. The\r\nking of the Kurus hath commanded me to enquire after thy peace and\r\nprosperity, and to ask thee to repair to Hastinapore with thy brothers\r\nand to say, after beholding king Dhritarashtra\'s newly erected palace,\r\nwhether that one is equal to thy own. Repairing thither, O son of Pritha,\r\nwith thy brothers, enjoy ye in that mansion and sit to a friendly match\r\nat dice. We shall be glad if thou goest, as the Kurus have already\r\narrived there. And thou wilt see there those gamblers and cheats that the\r\nillustrious king Dhritarashtra hath already brought thither. It is for\r\nthis, O king, that I have come hither. Let the king\'s command be approved\r\nby thee.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'O Kshatta, if we sit to a match at dice, we may\r\nquarrel. What man is there, who knowing all this, will consent to gamble?\r\nWhat dost thou think fit for us? We all are obedient to thy counsels.\'\r\n\r\n"Vidura said,--\'I know that gambling is the root of misery, and I strove\r\nto dissuade the king from it. The king, however, hath sent me to thee.\r\nHaving known all this, O learned one, do what is beneficial.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'Besides the sons of Dhritarashtra what other\r\ndishonest gamblers are there ready for play? Tell us, O Vidura, who they\r\nare and with whom we shall have to play, staking hundreds upon hundreds\r\nof our possessions.\'\r\n\r\n"Vidura said,--\'O monarch, Sakuni, the king of Gandhara, an adept at\r\ndice, having great skill of hand and desperate in stakes, Vivingati, king\r\nChitrasena, Satyavrata, Purumitra and Jaya, these, O king, are there.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'It would seem then that some of the most desperate\r\nand terrible gamblers always depending upon deceit are there. This whole\r\nuniverse, however, is at the will of its Maker, under the control of\r\nfate. It is not free. O learned one, I do not desire, at the command of\r\nking Dhritarashtra to engage myself in gambling. The father always\r\nwisheth to benefit his son. Thou art our master, O Vidura. Tell me what\r\nis proper for us. Unwilling as I am to gamble, I will not do so, if the\r\nwicked Sakuni doth not summon me to it in the Sabha? If, however, he\r\nchallengeth me, I will never refuse. For that, as settled, is my eternal\r\nvow."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"King Yudhishthira the just having said this\r\nunto Vidura, commanded that preparations for his journey might be made\r\nwithout loss of time. And the next day, the king accompanied by his\r\nrelatives and attendants and taking with him also the women of the\r\nhousehold with Draupadi in their midst, set out for the capital of the\r\nKurus. \'Like some brilliant body falling before the eyes, Fate depriveth\r\nus of reason, and man, tied as it were with a cord, submitteth to the\r\nsway of Providence,\' saying this, king Yudhishthira, that chastiser of\r\nthe foe, set out with Kshatta, without deliberating upon that summons\r\nfrom Dhritarashtra. And that slayer of hostile heroes, the son of Pandu\r\nand Pritha, riding upon the car that had been given him by the king of\r\nValhika, and attired also in royal robes, set out with his brothers. And\r\nthe king, blazing as it were with royal splendour, with Brahmanas walking\r\nbefore him, set out from his city, summoned by Dhritarashtra and impelled\r\nby what hath been ordained by Kala (Time). And arriving at Hastinapore he\r\nwent to the palace of Dhritarashtra. And going there, the son of Pandu\r\napproached the king. And the exalted one then approached Bhishma and\r\nDrona and Karna, and Kripa, and the son of Drona, and embraced and was\r\nembraced by them all. And the mighty-armed one, endued with great\r\nprowess, then approached Somadatta, and then Duryodhana and Salya, and\r\nthe son of Suvala, and those other kings also that had arrived there\r\nbefore him. The king then went to the brave Dusshasana and then to all\r\nhis (other) brothers and then to Jayadratha and next to all the Kurus one\r\nafter another. And the mighty-armed one, then surrounded by all his\r\nbrothers, entered the apartment of the wise king Dhritarashtra. And then\r\nYudhishthira beheld the reverend Gandhari, ever obedient to her lord, and\r\nsurrounded by her daughters-in-law like Rohini by the stars. And saluting\r\nGandhari and blessed by her in return, the king then beheld his old\r\nuncle, that illustrious monarch whose wisdom was his eye. King\r\nDhritarashtra then, O monarch, smelt his head as also the heads of those\r\nfour other princes of the Kuru race, viz., the sons of Pandu with\r\nBhimasena as their eldest. And, O king, beholding--the handsome Pandava\r\nthose tigers among men, all the Kurus became exceedingly glad. And\r\ncommanded by the king, the Pandavas then retired to the chambers allotted\r\nto them and which were all furnished with jewels and gems. And when they\r\nhad retired into the chambers, the women of Dhritarashtra\'s household\r\nwith Dussala taking the lead visited them. And the daughters-in-law of\r\nDhritarashtra beholding the blazing and splendid beauty and prosperity of\r\nYajnaseni, became cheerless and filled with jealousy. And those tigers\r\namong men, having conversed with the ladies went through their daily\r\nphysical exercises and then performed the religious rites of the day. And\r\nhaving finished their daily devotions, they decked their persons with\r\nsandal paste of the most fragrant kind. And desiring to secure good luck\r\nand prosperity they caused (by gifts) the Brahmanas to utter\r\nbenedictions. And then eating food that was of the best taste they\r\nretired to their chambers for the night. And those bulls among the Kurus\r\nthen were put to sleep with music by handsome females. And obtaining from\r\nthem what came in due succession, those subjugators of hostile towns\r\npassed with cheerful hearts that delightful night in pleasure and sport.\r\nAnd waked by the bards with sweet music, they rose from their beds, and\r\nhaving passed the night thus in happiness, they rose at dawn and having\r\ngone through the usual rites, they entered into the assembly house and\r\nwere saluted by those that were ready there for gambling."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"The sons of Pritha with Yudhishthira at their head,\r\nhaving entered that assembly house, approached all the kings that were\r\npresent there. And worshipping all those that deserved to be worshipped,\r\nand saluting others as each deserved according to age, they seated\r\nthemselves on seats that were clean and furnished with costly carpets.\r\nAfter they had taken their seats, as also all the kings, Sakuni the son\r\nof Suvala addressed Yudhishthira and said, \'O king, the assembly is full.\r\nAll had been waiting for thee. Let, therefore, the dice be cast and the\r\nrules of play be fixed, O Yudhishthira.\'\r\n\r\n\'Yudhishthira replied, \'Deceitful gambling is sinful. There is no\r\nKshatriya prowess in it. There is certainly no morality in it. Why, then,\r\nO king, dost thou praise gambling so? The wise applaud not the pride that\r\ngamesters feel in deceitful play. O Sakuni, vanquish us, not like a\r\nwretch, by deceitful means.\'\r\n\r\nSakuni said,--\'That high-souled player who knoweth the secrets of winning\r\nand losing, who is skilled in baffling the deceitful arts of his\r\nconfrere, who is united in all the diverse operations of which gambling\r\nconsisteth, truly knoweth the play, and he suffereth all in course of it.\r\nO son of Pritha, it is the staking at dice, which may be lost or won that\r\nmay injure us. And it is for that reason that gambling is regarded as a\r\nfault. Let us, therefore, O king, begin the play. Fear not. Let the\r\nstakes be fixed. Delay not!\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'That best of Munis, Devala, the son of Asita, who\r\nalways instructeth us about all those acts that may lead to heaven, hell,\r\nor the other regions, hath said, that it is sinful to play deceitfully\r\nwith a gamester. To obtain victory in battle without cunning or stratagem\r\nis the best sport. Gambling, however, as a sport, is not so. Those that\r\nare respectable never use the language of the Mlechchas, nor do they\r\nadopt deceitfulness in their behaviour. War carried on without\r\ncrookedness and cunning, this is the act of men that are honest. Do not,\r\nO Sakuni, playing desperately, win of us that wealth with which according\r\nto our abilities, we strive to learn how to benefit the Brahmanas. Even\r\nenemies should not be vanquished by desperate stakes in deceitful play. I\r\ndo not desire either happiness or wealth by means of cunning. The conduct\r\nof one that is a gamester, even if it be without deceitfulness, should\r\nnot be applauded.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said,--\'O Yudhishthira, it is from a desire of winning, which is\r\nnot a very honest motive, that one high-born person approacheth another\r\n(in a contest of race superiority). So also it is from a desire of\r\ndefeating, which is not a very honest motive, that one learned person\r\napproacheth another (in a contest of learning). Such motives, however,\r\nare scarcely regarded as really dishonest. So also, O Yudhishthira, a\r\nperson skilled at dice approacheth one that is not so skilled from a\r\ndesire of vanquishing him. One also who is conversant with the truths of\r\nscience approacheth another that is not from desire of victory, which is\r\nscarcely an honest motive. But (as I have already said) such a motive is\r\nnot really dishonest. And, O Yudhishthira, so also one that is skilled in\r\nweapons approacheth one that is not so skilled; the strong approacheth\r\nthe weak. This is the practice in every contest. The motive is victory, O\r\nYudhishthira. If, therefore, thou, in approaching me, regardest me to be\r\nactuated by motives that are dishonest, if thou art under any fear,\r\ndesist then from play.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'Summoned, I do not withdraw. This is my established\r\nvow. And, O king, Fate is all powerful. We all are under the control of\r\nDestiny. With whom in this assembly am I to play? Who is there that can\r\nstake equally with me? Let the play begin.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'O monarch, I shall supply jewels and gems and every\r\nkind of wealth. And it is for me that this Sakuni, my uncle, will play.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'Gambling for one\'s sake by the agency of another\r\nseemeth to me to be contrary to rule. Thou also, O learned one, will\r\nadmit this. If, however, thou art still bent on it, let the play begin.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"When the play commenced, all those kings with\r\nDhritarashtra at their head took their seats in that assembly. And, O\r\nBharata, Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and the high-souled Vidura with\r\ncheerless hearts sat behind. And those kings with leonine necks and\r\nendued with great energy took their seats separately and in pairs upon\r\nmany elevated seats of beautiful make and colour. And, O king, that\r\nmansion looked resplendent with those assembled kings like heaven itself\r\nwith a conclave of the celestials of great good fortune. And they were\r\nall conversant with the Vedas and brave and of resplendent countenances.\r\nAnd, O great king, the friendly match at dice then commenced.\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--"O king, this excellent wealth of pearls of great\r\nvalue, procured from the ocean by churning it (of old), so beautiful and\r\ndecked with pure gold, this, O king, is my stake. What is thy counter\r\nstake, O great king,--the wealth with which thou wishest to play with me?"\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana said,--\'I have many jewels and much wealth. But I am not vain\r\nof them. Win thou this stake.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Then Sakuni, well-skilled at dice, took up the\r\ndice and (casting them) said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LX\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--"Thou hast won this stake of me by unfair means. But\r\nbe not so proud, O Sakuni. Let us play staking thousands upon thousands.\r\nI have many beautiful jars each full of a thousand Nishkas in my\r\ntreasury, inexhaustible gold, and much silver and other minerals. This, O\r\nking, is the wealth with which I will stake with thee!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Thus addressed, Sakuni said unto the chief of\r\nthe perpetuators of the Kuru race, the eldest of the sons of Pandu, king\r\nYudhishthira, of glory incapable of sustaining any diminution. \'Lo, I\r\nhave won!\'"\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'This my sacred and victorious and royal car which\r\ngladdeneth the heart and hath carried us hither, which is equal unto a\r\nthousand cars, which is of symmetrical proportions and covered with\r\ntiger-skin, and furnished with excellent wheels and flag-staffs which is\r\nhandsome, and decked with strings of little bells, whose clatter is even\r\nlike the roar of the clouds or of the ocean, and which is drawn by eight\r\nnoble steeds known all over the kingdom and which are white as the\r\nmoon-beam and from whose hoofs no terrestrial creature can escape--this,\r\nO king, is my wealth with which I will stake with thee!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words, Sakuni ready with the\r\ndice, and adopting unfair means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'I have a hundred thousand serving-girls, all young,\r\nand decked with golden bracelets on their wrists and upper arms, and with\r\nnishkas round their necks and other ornaments, adorned with costly\r\ngarlands and attired in rich robes, daubed with the sandal paste, wearing\r\njewels and gold, and well-skilled in the four and sixty elegant arts,\r\nespecially versed in dancing and singing, and who wait upon and serve at\r\nmy command the celestials, the Snataka Brahmanas, and kings. With this\r\nwealth, O king, I will stake with thee!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--\'Hearing these words, Sakuni ready with the\r\ndice, adopting unfair means, said unto Yudhishthira. \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--"I have thousands of serving-men, skilled in waiting\r\nupon guests, always attired in silken robes, endued with wisdom and\r\nintelligence, their senses under control though young, and decked with\r\near-rings, and who serve all guests night and day with plates and dishes\r\nin hand. With this wealth, O king, I will stake with thee!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words, Sakuni, ready with the\r\ndice, adopting unfair means said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'I have, O son of Suvala, one thousand musty\r\nelephants with golden girdles, decked with ornaments, with the mark of\r\nthe lotus on their temples and necks and other parts, adorned with golden\r\ngarlands, with fine white tusks long and thick as plough-shafts, worthy\r\nof carrying kings on their backs, capable of bearing every kind of noise\r\non the field of battle, with huge bodies, capable of battering down the\r\nwalls of hostile towns, of the colour of new-formed clouds, and each\r\npossessing eight she-elephants. With this wealth, O king, I will stake\r\nwith thee.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Unto Yudhishthira who had said so, Sakuni, the\r\nson of Suvala, laughingly said, \'Lo, I have won it!\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'I have as many cars as elephants, all furnished with\r\ngolden poles and flag-staffs and well-trained horses and warriors that\r\nfight wonderfully and each of whom receiveth a thousand coins as his\r\nmonthly pay whether he fighteth or not. With this wealth, O king, I will\r\nstake with thee!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"When these words had been spoken, the wretch\r\nSakuni, pledged to enmity, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won it.\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said.--\'The steeds of the Tittiri, Kalmasha, and Gandharva\r\nbreeds, decked with ornaments, which Chitraratha having been vanquished\r\nin battle and subdued cheerfully gave unto Arjuna, the wielder of the\r\nGandiva. With this wealth, O king, I will stake with thee."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued, "Hearing this, Sakuni, ready at dice, adopting\r\nunfair means, said unto Yudhishthira: \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'I have ten thousand cars and vehicles unto which are\r\nyoked draught animals of the foremost breed. And I have also sixty\r\nthousand warriors picked from each order by thousands, who are all brave\r\nand endued with prowess like heroes, who drink milk and eat good rice,\r\nand all of whom have broad chests. With this wealth, O king, I will stake\r\nwith thee.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing this, Sakuni ready at dice, adopting\r\nunfair means said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'I have four hundred Nidis (jewels of great value)\r\nencased in sheets of copper and iron. Each one of them is equal to five\r\ndraunikas of the costliest and purest leaf gold of the Jatarupa kind.\r\nWith this wealth, O king, I will stake with thee.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing this, Sakuni ready at dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won it!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"During the course of this gambling, certain to bring\r\nabout utter ruin (on Yudhishthira), Vidura, that dispeller of all doubts,\r\n(addressing Dhritarashtra) said, \'O great king, O thou of the Bharata\r\nrace, attend to what I say, although my words may not be agreeable to\r\nthee, like medicine to one that is ill and about to breathe his last.\r\nWhen this Duryodhana of sinful mind had, immediately after his birth,\r\ncried discordantly like a jackal, it was well known that he had been\r\nordained to bring about the destruction of the Bharata race. Know, O\r\nking, that he will be the cause of death of ye all. A jackal is living in\r\nthy house, O king, in the form of Duryodhana. Thou knowest it not in\r\nconsequence of thy folly. Listen now to the words of the Poet (Sukra)\r\nwhich I will quote. They that collect honey (in mountains), having\r\nreceived what they seek, do not notice that they are about to fall.\r\nAscending dangerous heights, abstracted in the pursuit of what they seek,\r\nthey fall down and meet with destruction. This Duryodhana also, maddened\r\nwith the play at dice, like the collector of honey, abstracted in what he\r\nseeketh, marketh not the consequences. Making enemies of these great\r\nwarriors, he beholdeth not the fall that is before him. It is known to\r\nthee, O thou of great wisdom, that amongst the Bhojas, they abandoned,\r\nfor the good of the citizens a son that was unworthy of their race. The\r\nAndhakas, the Yadavas, and the Bhojas uniting together, abandoned Kansa.\r\nAnd afterwards, when at the command of the whole tribe, the same Kansa\r\nhad been slain by Krishna that slayer of foes, all the men of the tribe\r\nbecame exceedingly happy for a hundred years. So at thy command, let\r\nArjuna slay this Suyodhana. And in consequence of the slaying of this\r\nwretch, let the Kurus be glad and pass their days in happiness. In\r\nexchange of a crow, O great king, buy these peacocks--the Pandavas; and\r\nin exchange of a jackal, buy these tigers. For the sake of a family a\r\nmember may be sacrificed; for the sake of a village a family may be\r\nsacrificed, for the sake of a province a village may be sacrificed and\r\nfor the sake of one\'s own soul the whole earth may be sacrificed. Even\r\nthis was what the omniscient Kavya himself, acquainted with the thoughts\r\nof every creature, and a source of terror unto all foes, said unto the\r\ngreat Asuras to induce them to abandon Jambha at the moment of his birth.\r\nIt is said that a certain king, having caused a number of wild birds that\r\nvomited gold to take up their quarters in his own house, afterwards\r\nkilled them from temptation. O slayer of foes, blinded by temptation and\r\nthe desire of enjoyment, for the sake of gold, the king destroyed at the\r\nsame time both his present and future gains. Therefore, O king, prosecute\r\nnot the Pandavas from desire of profit, even like the king in story. For\r\nthen, blinded by folly thou wilt have to repent afterwards, even like the\r\nperson that killed the birds. Like a flower-seller that plucketh (many\r\nflowers) in the garden from trees that he cherisheth with affection from\r\nday to day, continue, O Bharata, to pluck flowers day by day from the\r\nPandavas. Do not scorch them to their roots like a fire-producing breeze\r\nthat reduceth everything to black charcoal. Go not, O king, unto the\r\nregion of Yama, with thy sons and troops, for who is there that is\r\ncapable of fighting with the sons of Pritha, together? Not to speak of\r\nothers, is the chief of the celestials at the head of the celestials\r\nthemselves, capable of doing so?"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXII\r\n\r\n"Vidura said,--"Gambling is the root of dissensions. It bringeth about\r\ndisunion. Its consequences are frightful. Yet having recourse to this,\r\nDhritarashtra\'s son Duryodhana createth for himself fierce enmity. The\r\ndescendants of Pratipa and Santanu, with their fierce troops and their\r\nallies the Vahlikas, will, for the sins of Duryodhana meet with\r\ndestruction. Duryodhana, in consequence of this intoxication, forcibly\r\ndriveth away luck and prosperity from his kingdom, even like an infuriate\r\nbull breaking his own horns himself. That brave and learned person who\r\ndisregarding his own foresight, followeth, O king, (the bent of) another\r\nman\'s heart, sinketh in terrible affliction even like one that goeth into\r\nthe sea in a boat guided by a child. Duryodhana is gambling with the son\r\nof Pandu, and thou art in raptures that he is winning. And it is such\r\nsuccess that begeteth war, which endeth in the destruction of men. This\r\nfascination (of gambling) that thou has well-devised only leadeth to dire\r\nresults. Thus hast thou simply brought on by these counsels great\r\naffliction to thy heart. And this thy quarrel with Yudhishthira, who is\r\nso closely related to thee, even if thou hadst not foreseen it, is still\r\napproved by thee. Listen, ye sons of Santanu, ye descendants of Pratipa,\r\nwho are now in this assembly of the Kauravas, to these words of wisdom.\r\nEnter ye not into the terrible fire that hath blazed forth following the\r\nwretch. When Ajatasatru, the son of Pandu, intoxicated with dice, giveth\r\nway to his wrath, and Vrikodara and Arjuna and the twins (do the same),\r\nwho, in that hour of confusion, will prove your refuge? O great king,\r\nthou art thyself a mine of wealth. Thou canst earn (by other means) as\r\nmuch wealth as thou seekest to earn by gambling. What dost thou gain by\r\nwinning from the Pandavas their vast wealth? Win the Pandavas themselves,\r\nwho will be to thee more than all the wealth they have. We all know the\r\nskill of Suvala in play. This hill-king knoweth many nefarious methods in\r\ngambling. Let Sakuni return whence he came. War not, O Bharata, with the\r\nsons of Pandu!\'\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXIII\r\n\r\nDuryodhana said,--\'O Kshatta, thou art always boasting of the fame of our\r\nenemies, deprecating the sons of Dhritarashtra. We know, O Vidura, of\r\nwhom thou art really fond. Thou always disregardest us as children, That\r\nman standeth confest, who wisheth for success unto those that are near to\r\nhim and defeat unto those that are not his favourites. His praise and\r\nblame are applied accordingly. Thy tongue and mind betray thy heart. But\r\nthe hostility thou showeth in speech is even greater than what is in thy\r\nheart. Thou hast been cherished by us like a serpent on our lap. Like a\r\ncat thou wishest evil unto him that cherisheth thee. The wise have said\r\nthat there is no sin graver than that of injuring one\'s master. How is\r\nit, O Kshatta, that thou dost not fear this sin? Having vanquished our\r\nenemies we have obtained great advantages. Use not harsh words in respect\r\nof us. Thou art always willing to make peace with the foes. And it is for\r\nthis reason that thou hatest us always. A man becometh a foe by speaking\r\nwords that are unpardonable. Then again in praising the enemy, the\r\nsecrets of one\'s own party should not be divulged. (Thou however,\r\ntransgressest this rule). Therefore, O thou parasite, why dost thou\r\nobstruct us so? Thou sayest whatever thou wishest. Insult us not. We know\r\nthy mind. Go and learn sitting at the feet of the old. Keen up the\r\nreputation that thou hast won. Meddle not with the affairs of other men.\r\nDo not imagine that thou art our chief. Tell us not harsh words always, O\r\nVidura. We do not ask thee what is for our good. Cease, irritate not\r\nthose that have already borne too much at thy hands. There is only one\r\nController, no second. He controlleth even the child that is in the\r\nmother\'s womb. I am controlled by Him. Like water that always floweth in\r\na downward course, I am acting precisely in the way in which He is\r\ndirecting me. He that breaketh his head against a stone-wall, and he that\r\nfeedeth a serpent, are guided in those acts of theirs by their own\r\nintellect. (Therefore, in this matter I am guided by my own\r\nintelligence). He becometh a foe who seeketh to control others by force.\r\nWhen advice, however, is offered in a friendly spirit, the learned bear\r\nwith it. He again that hath set fire to such a highly inflammable object\r\nas camphor, beholdeth not its ashes. If he runneth immediately to\r\nextinguish it. One should not give shelter to another who is the friend\r\nof his foes, or to another who is ever jealous of his protector or to\r\nanother who is evil-minded. Therefore, O Vidura, go whither-so-ever thou\r\npleasest. A wife that is unchaste, however well-treated, forsaketh her\r\nhusband yet.\'\r\n\r\n"Vidura addressing Dhritarashtra, said, \'O monarch, tell us (impartially)\r\nlike a witness what thou thinkest of the conduct of those who abandon\r\ntheir serving-men thus for giving instruction to them. The hearts of\r\nkings are, indeed, very fickle. Granting protection at first, they strike\r\nwith clubs at last. O prince (Duryodhana), thou regardest thyself as\r\nmature in intellect, and, O thou of bad heart, thou regardest me as a\r\nchild. But consider that he is a child who having first accepted one for\r\na friend, subsequently findeth fault with him. An evil-hearted man can\r\nnever be brought to the path of rectitude, like an unchaste wife in the\r\nhouse of a well-born person. Assuredly, instruction is not agreeable to\r\nthis bull of the Bharata race like a husband of sixty years to a damsel\r\nthat is young. After this, O king, if thou wishest to hear words that are\r\nagreeable to thee, in respect of all acts good or bad, ask thou women and\r\nidiots and cripples or persons of that description. A sinful man speaking\r\nwords that are agreeable may be had in this world. But a speaker of words\r\nthat are disagreeable though sound as regimen, or a hearer of the same,\r\nis very rare. He indeed, is a king\'s true ally who disregarding what is\r\nagreeable or disagreeable to his master beareth himself virtuously and\r\nuttereth what may be disagreeable but necessary as regimen. O great king,\r\ndrink thou that which the honest drink and the dishonest shun, even\r\nhumility, which is like a medicine that is bitter, pungent, burning,\r\nunintoxicating, disagreeable, and revolting. And drinking it, O king,\r\nregain thou thy sobriety. I always wish Dhritarashtra and his sons\r\naffluence and fame. Happen what may unto thee, here I bow to thee (and\r\ntake my leave). Let the Brahmanas wish me well. O son of Kuru, this is\r\nthe lesson I carefully inculcate, that the wise should never enrage such\r\nas adders as have venom in their very glances!"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXIV\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said,--\'Thou hast, O Yudhishthira, lost much wealth of the\r\nPandavas. If thou hast still anything that thou hast not yet lost to us,\r\nO son of Kunti, tell us what it is!"\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--O son of Suvala, I know that I have untold wealth.\r\nBut why is it, O Sakuni, that thou askest me of my wealth? Let tens of\r\nthousands and millions and millions and tens of millions and hundreds of\r\nmillions and tens of billions and hundreds of billions and trillions and\r\ntens of trillions and hundreds of trillions and tens of quadrillions and\r\nhundreds of quadrillions and even more wealth be staked by thee. I have\r\nas much. With that wealth, O king, I will play with thee."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nunfair means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\n\'Yudhishthira said,--\'I have, O son of Suvala, immeasurable kine and\r\nhorses and milch cows with calves and goats and sheep in the country\r\nextending from the Parnasa to the eastern bank of the Sindu. With this\r\nwealth, O king, I will play with thee.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nunfair means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo, I have won!\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'I have my city, the country, land, the wealth of all\r\ndwelling therein except of the Brahmanas, and all those persons\r\nthemselves except Brahmanas still remaining to me. With this wealth, O\r\nking, I will play with thee.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo! I have won.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--These princes here, O king, who look resplendent in\r\ntheir ornaments and their ear-rings and Nishkas and all the royal\r\nornaments on their persons are now my wealth. With this wealth, O king, I\r\nplay with thee.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with his dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo! I have won them.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'This Nakula here, of mighty arms and leonine neck,\r\nof red eyes and endued with youth, is now my one stake. Know that he is\r\nmy wealth.\'\r\n\r\nSakuni said,--\'O king Yudhishthira, prince Nakula is dear to thee. He is\r\nalready under our subjection. With whom (as stake) wilt thou now play?"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Saying this, Sakuni cast those dice, and said unto\r\nYudhishthira, \'Lo! He hath been won by us.\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--"This Sahadeva administereth justice. He hath also\r\nacquired a reputation for learning in this world. However undeserving he\r\nmay be to be staked in play, with him as stake I will play, with such a\r\ndear object as it, indeed, he were not so!"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo! I have won.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni continued,--\'O king, the sons of Madri, dear unto thee, have both\r\nbeen won by me. It would seem, however, that Bhimasena and Dhananjaya are\r\nregarded very much by thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'Wretch! thou actest sinfully in thus seeking to\r\ncreate disunion amongst us who are all of one heart, disregarding\r\nmorality.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni said,--\'One that is intoxicated falleth into a pit (hell) and\r\nstayeth there deprived of the power of motion. Thou art, O king, senior\r\nto us in age, and possessed of the highest accomplishments. O bull of the\r\nBharata race, I (beg my pardon and) bow to thee. Thou knowest, O\r\nYudhishthira, that gamesters, while excited with play, utter such ravings\r\nthat they never indulge in the like of them in their waking moments nor\r\neven in dream.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--He that taketh us like a boat to the other shore of\r\nthe sea of battle, he that is ever victorious over foes, the prince who\r\nis endued with great activity, he who is the one hero in this world, (is\r\nhere). With that Falguna as stake, however, undeserving of being made so,\r\nI will now play with thee.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo! I have won.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuni continued,--\'This foremost of all wielders of the bow, this son\r\nof Pandu capable of using both his hands with equal activity hath now\r\nbeen won by me. O play now with the wealth that is still left unto thee,\r\neven with Bhima thy dear brother, as thy stake, O son of Pandu.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'O king, however, undeserving he may be of being\r\nmade a stake, I will now play with thee by staking Bhimasena, that prince\r\nwho is our leader, who is the foremost in fight,--even like the wielder\r\nof the thunder-bolt--the one enemy of the Danavas,--the high-souled one\r\nwith leonine neck and arched eye-brows and eyes looking askance, who is\r\nincapable of putting up with an insult, who hath no equal in might in the\r\nworld, who is the foremost of all wielders of the mace, and who grindeth\r\nall foes,\'"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said,--"Hearing this, Sakuni, ready with the dice adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira. \'Lo! I have won.\'\r\n\r\nSakuni continued,--Thou hast, O son of Kunti, lost much wealth, horses\r\nand elephants and thy brothers as well. Say, if thou hast anything which\r\nthou hast not lost.\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira, said--\'I alone, the eldest of all my brothers and dear unto\r\nthem, am still unwon. Won by thee, I will do what he that is won will\r\nhave to do.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Hearing this Sakuni, ready with the dice, adopting\r\nfoul means, said unto Yudhishthira, \'Lo! I have won.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sakuni continued,--\'Thou hast permitted thyself to be won. This is very\r\nsinful. There is wealth still left to thee, O king. Therefore, thy having\r\nlost thyself is certainly sinful.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Having said this, Sakuni, well-skilled at dice,\r\nspoke unto all the brave kings present there of his having won, one after\r\nanother, all the Pandavas. The son of Suvala then, addressing\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'O king, there is still one stake dear to thee that\r\nis still unwon. Stake thou Krishna, the princess of Panchala. By her, win\r\nthyself back.\'\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'With Draupadi as stake, who is neither short nor\r\ntall, neither spare nor corpulent, and who is possessed of blue curly\r\nlocks, I will now play with thee. Possessed of eyes like the leaves of\r\nthe autumn lotus, and fragrant also as the autumn lotus, equal in beauty\r\nunto her (Lakshmi) who delighteth in autumn lotuses, and unto Sree\r\nherself in symmetry and every grace she is such a woman as a man may\r\ndesire for wife in respect of softness of heart, and wealth of beauty and\r\nof virtues. Possessed of every accomplishment and compassionate and\r\nsweet-speeched, she is such a woman as a man may desire for wife in\r\nrespect of her fitness for the acquisition of virtue and pleasure and\r\nwealth. Retiring to bed last and waking up first, she looketh after all\r\ndown to the cowherds and the shepherds. Her face too, when covered with\r\nsweat, looketh as the lotus or the jasmine. Of slender waist like that of\r\nthe wasp, of long flowing locks, of red lips, and body without down, is\r\nthe princess of Panchala. O king, making the slender-waisted Draupadi,\r\nwho is even such as my stake, I will play with thee, O son of Suvala.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--\'When the intelligent king Yudhishthira the just\r\nhas spoken thus,--\'Fie!\' \'Fie!\' were the words that were uttered by all\r\nthe aged persons that were in the assembly. And the whole conclave was\r\nagitated, and the kings who were present there all gave way to grief. And\r\nBhishma and Drona and Kripa were covered with perspiration. And Vidura\r\nholding his head between his hands sat like one that had lost his reason.\r\nHe sat with face downwards giving way to his reflections and sighing like\r\na snake. But Dhritarashtra glad, at heart, asked repeatedly, \'Hath the\r\nstake been won?\' \'Hath the stake been won?\' and could not conceal his\r\nemotions. Karna with Dussassana and others laughed aloud, while tears\r\nbegan to flow from the eyes of all other present in the assembly. And the\r\nson of Suvala, proud of success and flurried with excitement and\r\nrepeating. Thou hast one stake, dear to thee, etc. said,--\'Lo! I have\r\nwon\' and took up the dice that had been cast."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXV\r\n\r\nDuryodhana said,--\'Come, Kshatta, bring hither Draupadi the dear and\r\nloved wife of the Pandavas. Let her sweep the chambers, force her\r\nthereto, and let the unfortunate one stay where our serving-women are.\'\r\n\r\n"Vidura said,--\'Dost thou not know, O wretch, that by uttering such harsh\r\nwords thou art tying thyself with cords? Dost thou not understand that\r\nthou art hanging on the edge of a precipice? Dost thou not know that\r\nbeing a deer thou provokest so many tigers to rage? Snakes of deadly\r\nvenom, provoked to ire, are on thy head! Wretch, do not further provoke\r\nthem lest thou goest to the region of Yama. In my judgement, slavery does\r\nnot attach to Krishna, in as much as she was staked by the King after he\r\nhad lost himself and ceased to be his own master. Like the bamboo that\r\nbeareth fruit only when it is about to die, the son of Dhritarashtra\r\nwinneth this treasure at play. Intoxicated, he perceiveth nor in these\r\nhis last moments that dice bring about enmity and frightful terrors. No\r\nman should utter harsh speeches and pierce the hearts of the others. No\r\nman should subjugate his enemies by dice and such other foul means. No\r\none should utter such words as are disapproved by the Vedas and lead to\r\nhell and annoy others. Some one uttereth from his lips words that are\r\nharsh. Stung by them another burneth day and night. These words pierce\r\nthe very heart of another. The learned, therefore, should never utter\r\nthem, pointing them at others. A goat had once swallowed a hook, and when\r\nit was pierced with it, the hunter placing the head of the animal on the\r\nground tore its throat frightfully in drawing it out. Therefore, O\r\nDuryodhana, swallow not the wealth of the Pandavas. Make them not thy\r\nenemies. The sons of Pritha never use words such as these. It is only low\r\nmen that are like dogs who use harsh words towards all classes of people,\r\nviz., those that have retired to the woods, those leading domestic lives,\r\nthose employed in ascetic devotions and those that are of great learning.\r\nAlas! the son of Dhritarashtra knoweth not that dishonesty is one of the\r\nfrightful doors of hell. Alas! many of the Kurus with Dussasana amongst\r\nthem have followed him in the path of dishonesty in the matter of this\r\nplay at dice. Even gourds may sink and stones may float, and boats also\r\nmay always sink in water, still this foolish king, the son of\r\nDhritarashtra, listeneth not to my words that are even as regimen unto\r\nhim. Without doubt, he will be the cause of the destruction of the Kurus.\r\nWhen the words of wisdom spoken by friends and which are even as fit\r\nregimen are not listened to, but on the other hand temptation is on the\r\nincrease, a frightful and universal destruction is sure to overtake all\r\nthe Kurus."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXVI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Intoxicated with pride, the son of Dhritarashtra\r\nspake,--\'Fie on Kshatta! and casting his eyes upon the Pratikamin in\r\nattendance, commanded him, in the midst of all those reverend seniors,\r\nsaying,--\'Go Pratikamin, and bring thou Draupadi hither. Thou hast no\r\nfear from the sons of Pandu. It is Vidura alone that raveth in fear.\r\nBesides, he never wisheth our prosperity!\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Thus commanded, the Pratikamin, who was of the\r\nSuta caste, hearing the words of the king, proceeded with haste, and\r\nentering the abode of the Pandavas, like a dog in a lion\'s den,\r\napproached the queen of the sons of Pandu. And he said,--\'Yudhishthira\r\nhaving been intoxicated with dice, Duryodhana, O Draupadi, hath won thee.\r\nCome now, therefore, to the abode of Dhritarashtra. I will take thee, O\r\nYajnaseni, and put thee in some menial work.\'\r\n\r\nDraupadi said,--\'Why, O Pratikamin, dost thou say so? What prince is\r\nthere who playeth staking his wife? The king was certainly intoxicated\r\nwith dice. Else, could he not find any other object to stake?\'\r\n\r\n"The Pratikamin said,--\'When he had nothing else to stake, it was then\r\nthat Ajatasatru, the son of Pandu, staked thee. The king had first staked\r\nhis brothers, then himself, and then thee, O princess.\'\r\n\r\n"Draupadi said,--\'O son of the Suta race, go, and ask that gambler\r\npresent in the assembly, whom he hath lost first, himself, or me.\r\nAscertaining this, come hither, and then take me with thee, O son of the\r\nSuta race.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"The messenger coming back to the assembly told\r\nall present the words of Draupadi. And he spoke unto Yudhishthira sitting\r\nin the midst of the kings, these words,--Draupadi hath asked thee, Whose\r\nlord wert thou at the time thou lost me in play? Didst thou lose thyself\r\nfirst or me? Yudhishthira, however sat there like one demented and\r\ndeprived of reason and gave no answer good or ill to the Suta.\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana then said,--\'Let the princess of Panchala come hither and put\r\nher question. Let every one hear in this assembly the words that pass\r\nbetween her and Yudhishthira.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"The messenger, obedient to the command of\r\nDuryodhana, going once again to the palace, himself much distressed, said\r\nunto Draupadi,--\'O princess, they that are in the assembly are summoning\r\nthee. It seemeth that the end of the Kauravas is at hand. When\r\nDuryodhana, O princess, is for taking thee before the assembly, this\r\nweak-brained king will no longer be able to protect his prosperity.\'\r\n\r\n"Draupadi said,--\'The great ordainer of the world hath, indeed, ordained\r\nso. Happiness and misery pay their court to both the wise and unwise.\r\nMorality, however, it hath been said, is the one highest object in the\r\nworld. If cherished, that will certainly dispense blessings to us. Let\r\nnot that morality now abandon the Kauravas. Going back to those that are\r\npresent in that assembly, repeat these my words consonant with morality.\r\nI am ready to do what those elderly and virtuous persons conversant with\r\nmorality will definitely tell me.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"The Suta, hearing these words of Yajnaseni,\r\ncame back to the assembly and repeated the words of Draupadi. But all sat\r\nwith faces downwards, uttering not a word, knowing the eagerness and\r\nresolution of Dhritarashtra\'s son.\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira, however, O bull of the Bharata race, hearing of\r\nDuryodhana\'s intentions, sent a trusted messenger unto Draupadi,\r\ndirecting that although she was attired in one piece of cloth with her\r\nnavel itself exposed, in consequence of her season having come, she\r\nshould come before her father-in-law weeping bitterly. And that\r\nintelligent messenger, O king, having gone to Draupadi\'s abode with\r\nspeed, informed her of the intentions of Yudhishthira. The illustrious\r\nPandavas, meanwhile, distressed and sorrowful, and bound by promise,\r\ncould not settle what they should do. And casting his eyes upon them,\r\nking Duryodhana, glad at heart, addressed the Suta and said,--\'O\r\nPratikamin, bring her hither. Let the Kauravas answer her question before\r\nher face. The Suta, then, obedient to his commands, but terrified at the\r\n(possible) wrath of the daughter of Drupada, disregarding his reputation\r\nfor intelligence, once again said to those that were in the\r\nassembly,--what shall I say unto Krishna?\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana, hearing this, said,--\'O Dussasana, this son of my Suta, of\r\nlittle intelligence, feareth Vrikodara. Therefore, go thou thyself and\r\nforcibly bring hither the daughter of Yajnasena, Our enemies at present\r\nare dependent on our will. What can they do thee?\' Hearing the command of\r\nhis brother, prince Dussasana rose with blood-red eyes, and entering the\r\nabode of those great warriors, spake these words unto the princess,\r\n\'Come, come, O Krishna, princess of Panchala, thou hast been won by us.\r\nAnd O thou of eyes large as lotus leaves, come now and accept the Kurus\r\nfor thy lords. Thou hast been won virtuously, come to the assembly.\' At\r\nthese words, Draupadi, rising up in great affliction, rubbed her pale\r\nface with her hands, and distressed she ran to the place where the ladies\r\nof Dhritarashtra\'s household were. At this, Dussasana roaring in anger,\r\nran after her and seized the queen by her locks, so long and blue and\r\nwavy. Alas! those locks that had been sprinkled with water sanctified\r\nwith mantras in the great Rajasuya sacrifice, were now forcibly seized by\r\nthe son of Dhritarashtra disregarding the prowess of the Pandavas. And\r\nDussasana dragging Krishna of long long locks unto the presence of the\r\nassembly--as if she were helpless though having powerful protectors--and\r\npulling at her, made her tremble like the banana plant in a storm. And\r\ndragged by him, with body bent, she faintly cried--\'Wretch! it ill\r\nbehoveth thee to take me before the assembly. My season hath come, and I\r\nam now clad in one piece of attire. But Dussasana dragging Draupadi\r\nforcibly by her black locks while she was praying piteously unto Krishna\r\nand Vishnu who were Narayana and Nara (on earth), said unto her--\'Whether\r\nthy season hath come or not, whether thou art attired in one piece of\r\ncloth or entirely naked, when thou hast been won at dice and made our\r\nslave, thou art to live amongst our serving-women as thou pleasest."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"With hair dishevelled and half her attire\r\nloosened, all the while dragged by Dussasana, the modest Krishna consumed\r\nwith anger, faintly said--"In this assembly are persons conversant with\r\nall the branches of learning devoted to the performance of sacrifices and\r\nother rites, and all equal unto Indra, persons some of whom are really my\r\nsuperiors and others who deserve to be respected as such. I can not stay\r\nbefore them in this state. O wretch! O thou of cruel deeds, drag me not\r\nso. Uncover me not so. The princes (my lords) will not pardon thee, even\r\nif thou hast the gods themselves with Indra as thy allies. The\r\nillustrious son of Dharma is now bound by the obligations of morality.\r\nMorality, however, is subtle. Those only that are possessed of great\r\nclearness of vision can ascertain it. In speech even I am unwilling to\r\nadmit an atom of fault in my lord forgetting his virtues. Thou draggest\r\nme who am in my season before these Kuru heroes. This is truly an\r\nunworthy act. But no one here rebuketh thee. Assuredly, all these are of\r\nthe same mind with thee. O fie! Truly hath the virtue of the Bharata\r\ngone! Truly also hath the usage of those acquainted with the Kshatriya\r\npractice disappeared! Else these Kurus in this assembly would never have\r\nlooked silently on this act that transgresseth the limits of their\r\npractices. Oh! both Drona and Bhishma have lost their energy, and so also\r\nhath the high-souled Kshatta, and so also this king. Else, why do these\r\nforemost of the Kuru elders look silently on this great crime?"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Thus did Krishna of slender waist cry in\r\ndistress in that assembly. And casting a glance upon her enraged\r\nlords--the Pandavas--who were filled with terrible wrath, she inflamed\r\nthem further with that glance of hers. And they were not so distressed at\r\nhaving been robbed of their kingdom, of their wealth, of their costliest\r\ngems, as with that glance of Krishna moved by modesty and anger. And\r\nDussasana, beholding Krishna looking at her helpless lords, dragging her\r\nstill more forcibly, and addressed her, \'Slave, Slave\' and laughed aloud.\r\nAnd at those words Karna became very glad and approved of them by\r\nlaughing aloud. And Sakuni, the son of Suvala, the Gandhara king,\r\nsimilarly applauded Dussasana. And amongst all those that were in the\r\nassembly except these three and Duryodhana, every one was filled with\r\nsorrow at beholding Krishna thus dragged in sight of that assembly. And\r\nbeholding it all, Bhishma said, \'O blessed one, morality is subtle. I\r\ntherefore am unable to duly decide this point that thou hast put,\r\nbeholding that on the one hand one that hath no wealth cannot stake the\r\nwealth belonging to others, while on the other hand wives are always\r\nunder the orders and at the disposal of their lords. Yudhishthira can\r\nabandon the whole world full of wealth, but he will never sacrifice\r\nmorality. The son of Pandu hath said--\'I am won.\' Therefore, I am unable\r\nto decide this matter. Sakuni hath not his equal among men at dice-play.\r\nThe son of Kunti still voluntarily staked with him. The illustrious\r\nYudhishthira doth not himself regard that Sakuni hath played with him\r\ndeceitfully. Therefore, I can not decide this point."\r\n\r\n"Draupadi said,--"The king was summoned to this assembly and though\r\npossessing no skill at dice, he was made to play with skilful, wicked,\r\ndeceitful and desperate gamblers. How can he be said then to have staked\r\nvoluntarily? The chief of the Pandavas was deprived of his senses by\r\nwretches of deceitful conduct and unholy instincts, acting together, and\r\nthen vanquished. He could not understand their tricks, but he hath now\r\ndone so. Here, in this assembly, there are Kurus who are the lords of\r\nboth their sons and their daughters-in-law! Let all of them, reflecting\r\nwell upon my words, duly decide the point that I have put.\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--\'Unto Krishna who was thus weeping and crying\r\npiteously, looking at times upon her helpless lord, Dussasana spake many\r\ndisagreeable and harsh words. And beholding her who was then in her\r\nseason thus dragged, and her upper garments loosened, beholding her in\r\nthat condition which she little deserved, Vrikodara afflicted beyond\r\nendurance, his eyes fixed upon Yudhishthira, gave way to wrath."\r\n\r\n"Bhima said,--\'O Yudhishthira, gamblers have in their houses many women\r\nof loose character. They do not yet stake those women having kindness for\r\nthem even. Whatever wealth and other excellent articles the king of Kasi\r\ngave, whatever, gems, animals, wealth, coats of mail and weapons that\r\nother kings of the earth gave, our kingdom, thyself and ourselves, have\r\nall been won by the foes. At all this my wrath was not excited for thou\r\nart our lord. This, however, I regard as a highly improper act--this act\r\nof staking Draupadi. This innocent girl deserveth not this treatment.\r\nHaving obtained the Pandavas as her lords, it is for thee alone that she\r\nis being thus persecuted by the low, despicable, cruel, and mean-minded\r\nKauravas. It is for her sake, O king, that my anger falleth on thee. I\r\nshall burn those hands of thine. Sahadeva, bring some fire."\r\n\r\n\'Arjuna hearing this, said,--\'Thou hast never, O Bhimasena, before this\r\nuttered such words as these. Assuredly thy high morality hath been\r\ndestroyed by these cruel foes. Thou shouldst not fulfil the wishes of the\r\nenemy. Practise thou the highest morality. Whom doth it behave to\r\ntransgress his virtuous eldest brother? The king was summoned by the foe,\r\nand remembering the usage of the Kshatriyas, he played at dice against\r\nhis will. That is certainly conducive to our great fame.\r\n\r\n\'Bhima said,--\'If I had not known, O Dhananjaya, that the king had acted\r\naccording to Kshatriya usage, then I would have, taking his hands\r\ntogether by sheer force, burnt them in a blazing fire."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Beholding the Pandavas thus distressed and the\r\nprincess of Panchala also thus afflicted, Vikarna the son of\r\nDhritarashtra said--\'Ye kings, answer ye the question that hath been\r\nasked by Yajnaseni. If we do not judge a matter referred to us, all of us\r\nwill assuredly have to go to hell without delay. How is that Bhishma and\r\nDhritarashtra, both of whom are the oldest of the Kurus, as also the\r\nhigh-souled Vidura, do not say anything! The son of Bharadwaja who is the\r\npreceptor of us, as also Kripa, is here. Why do not these best of\r\nregenerate ones answer the question? Let also those other kings assembled\r\nhere from all directions answer according to their judgment this\r\nquestion, leaving aside all motives of gain and anger. Ye kings, answer\r\nye the question that hath been asked by this blessed daughter of king\r\nDrupada, and declare after reflection on which side each of ye is.\' Thus\r\ndid Vikarna repeatedly appeal to those that were in that assembly. But\r\nthose kings answered him not one word, good or ill. And Vikarna having\r\nrepeatedly appealed to all the kings began to rub his hands and sigh like\r\na snake. And at last the prince said--\'Ye kings of the earth, ye\r\nKauravas, whether ye answer this question or not, I will say what I\r\nregard as just and proper. Ye foremost of men, it hath been said that\r\nhunting, drinking, gambling, and too much enjoyment of women, are the\r\nfour vices of kings. The man, that is addicted to these, liveth forsaking\r\nvirtue. And people do not regard the acts done by a person who is thus\r\nimproperly engaged, as of any authority. This son of Pandu, while deeply\r\nengaged in one of these vicious acts, urged thereto by deceitful\r\ngamblers, made Draupadi a stake. The innocent Draupadi is, besides, the\r\ncommon wife of all the sons of Pandu. And the king, having first lost\r\nhimself offered her as a stake. And Suvala himself desirous of a stake,\r\nindeed prevailed upon the king to stake this Krishna. Reflecting upon all\r\nthese circumstances, I regard Draupadi as not won."\r\n\r\n"Hearing these words, a loud uproar rose from among those present in that\r\nassembly. And they all applauded Vikarna and censured the son of Suvala.\r\nAnd at that sound, the son of Radha, deprived of his senses by anger,\r\nwaving his well-shaped arms, said these words,--\'O Vikarna, many opposite\r\nand inconsistent conditions are noticeable in this assembly. Like fire\r\nproduced from a faggot, consuming the faggot itself, this thy ire will\r\nconsume thee. These personages here, though urged by Krishna, have not\r\nuttered a word. They all regard the daughter of Drupada to have been\r\nproperly won. Thou alone, O son of Dhritarashtra in consequence of thy\r\nimmature years, art bursting with wrath, for though but a boy thou\r\nspeakest in the assembly as if thou wert old. O younger brother of\r\nDuryodhana, thou dost not know what morality truly is, for thou sayest\r\nlike a fool that this Krishna who hath been (justly) won as not won at\r\nall. O son of Dhritarashtra, how dost thou regard Krishna as not won,\r\nwhen the eldest of the Pandavas before this assembly staked all his\r\npossessions? O bull of the Bharata race, Draupadi is included in all the\r\npossessions (of Yudhishthira). Therefore, why regardest thou Krishna who\r\nhath been justly won as not won? Draupadi had been mentioned (by Suvala)\r\nand approved of as a stake by the Pandavas. For what reason then dost\r\nthou yet regard her as not won? Or, if thou thinkest that bringing her\r\nhither attired in a single piece of cloth, is an action of impropriety,\r\nlisten to certain excellent reasons I will give. O son of the Kuru race,\r\nthe gods have ordained only one husband for one woman. This Draupadi,\r\nhowever, hath many husbands. Therefore, certain it is that she is an\r\nunchaste woman. To bring her, therefore, into this assembly attired\r\nthough she be in one piece of cloth--even to uncover her is not at all an\r\nact that may cause surprise. Whatever wealth the Pandavas had--she\r\nherself and these Pandavas themselves,--have all been justly won by the\r\nson of Suvala. O Dussasana, this Vikarna speaking words of (apparent)\r\nwisdom is but a boy. Take off the robes of the Pandavas as also the\r\nattire of Draupadi. Hearing these words the Pandavas, O Bharata, took of\r\ntheir upper garments and throwing them down sat in that assembly. Then\r\nDussasana, O king, forcibly seizing Draupadi\'s attire before the eyes of\r\nall, began to drag it off her person."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"When the attire of Draupadi was being thus\r\ndragged, the thought of Hari, (And she herself cried aloud, saying), \'O\r\nGovinda, O thou who dwellest in Dwaraka, O Krishna, O thou who art fond\r\nof cow-herdesses (of Vrindavana). O Kesava, seest thou not that the\r\nKauravas are humiliating me. O Lord, O husband of Lakshmi, O Lord of\r\nVraja (Vrindavana), O destroyer of all afflictions, O Janarddana, rescue\r\nme who am sinking in the Kaurava Ocean. O Krishna, O Krishna, O thou\r\ngreat yogin, thou soul of the universe, Thou creator of all things, O\r\nGovinda, save me who am distressed,--who am losing my senses in the midst\r\nof the Kurus.\' Thus did that afflicted lady resplendent still in her\r\nbeauty, O king covering her face cried aloud, thinking of Krishna, of\r\nHari, of the lord of the three worlds. Hearing the words of Draupadi,\r\nKrishna was deeply moved. And leaving his seat, the benevolent one from\r\ncompassion, arrived there on foot. And while Yajnaseni was crying aloud\r\nto Krishna, also called Vishnu and Hari and Nara for protection, the\r\nillustrious Dharma, remaining unseen, covered her with excellent clothes\r\nof many hues. And, O monarch as the attire of Draupadi was being dragged,\r\nafter one was taken off, another of the same kind, appeared covering her.\r\nAnd thus did it continue till many clothes were seen. And, O exalted on,\r\nowing to the protection of Dharma, hundreds upon hundreds of robes of\r\nmany hues came off Draupadi\'s person. And there arose then a deep uproar\r\nof many many voices. And the kings present in that assembly beholding\r\nthat most extraordinary of all sights in the world, began to applaud\r\nDraupadi and censure the son of Dhritarashtra. And Bhima then, squeezing\r\nhis hands, with lips quivering in rage, swore in the midst of all those\r\nkings a terrible oath in a loud voice.\r\n\r\n"And Bhima said,--Hear these words of mine, ye Kshatriyas of the world.\r\nWords such as these were never before uttered by other men, nor will\r\nanybody in the future ever utter them. Ye lords of earth, if having\r\nspoken these words I do not accomplish them hereafter, let me not obtain\r\nthe region of my deceased ancestors. Tearing open in battle, by sheer\r\nforce, the breast of this wretch, this wicked-minded scoundrel of the\r\nBharata race, if I do not drink his life-blood, let me not obtain the\r\nregion of my ancestors."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these terrible words of Bhima that made\r\nthe down of the auditors to stand on end, everybody present there\r\napplauded him and censured the son of Dhritarashtra. And when a mass of\r\nclothes had been gathered in that assembly, all dragged from the person\r\nof Draupadi, Dussasana, tired and ashamed, sat down. And beholding the\r\nsons of Kunti in that state, the persons--those gods among men--that were\r\nin that assembly all uttered the word \'Fie!\'(on the son of\r\nDhritarashtra). And the united voices of all became so loud that they\r\nmade the down of anybody who heard them stand on end. And all the honest\r\nmen that were in that assembly began to say,--\'Alas! the Kauravas answer\r\nnot the question that hath been put to them by Draupadi. And all\r\ncensuring Dhritarashtra together, made a loud clamour. Then Vidura, that\r\nmaster of the science of morality, waving his hands and silencing every\r\none, spake these words;--\'Ye that are in this assembly, Draupadi having\r\nput her question is weeping helplessly. Ye are not answering her. Virtue\r\nand morality are being persecuted by such conduct. An afflicted person\r\napproacheth an assembly of good men, like one that is being consumed by\r\nfire. They that are in the assembly quench that fire and cool him by\r\nmeans of truth and morality. The afflicted person asketh the assembly\r\nabout his rights, as sanctioned by morality. They that are in the\r\nassembly should, unmoved by interest and anger, answer the question. Ye\r\nkings, Vikarna hath answered the question, according to his own knowledge\r\nand judgment. Ye should also answer it as ye think proper. Knowing the\r\nrules of morality, and having attended an assembly, he that doth not\r\nanswer a query that is put, incurreth half the demerit that attacheth to\r\na lie. He, on the other hand, who, knowing the rules of morality and\r\nhaving joined an assembly answereth falsely, assuredly incurreth the sin\r\nof a lie. The learned quote as an example in this connection the old\r\nhistory of Prahlada and the son of Angirasa.\r\n\r\n"There was of old a chief of the Daityas of the name Prahlada. He had a\r\nson named Virochana. And Virochana, for the sake of obtaining a bride,\r\nquarrelled with Sudhanwan, the son of Angiras. It hath been heard by us\r\nthat they mutually wagered their lives, saying--I am superior,--I am\r\nsuperior,--for the sake of obtaining a bride. And after they had thus\r\nquarrelled with each other, they both made Prahlada the arbitrator to\r\ndecide between them. And they asked him, saying;--Who amongst us is\r\nsuperior (to the other)? Answer this question. Speak not falsely.\r\nFrightened at this quarrel, Prahlada cast his eyes upon Sudhanwan. And\r\nSudhanwan in rage, burning like unto the mace of Yama, told him,--If thou\r\nanswerest falsely, or dost not answer at all thy head will then be split\r\ninto a hundred pieces by the wielder of the thunderbolt with that bolt of\r\nhis.--Thus addressed by Sudhanwan, the Daitya, trembling like a leaf of\r\nthe fig tree, went to Kasyapa of great energy, for taking counsel with\r\nhim. And Prahlada said,--\'Thou art, O illustrious and exalted one, fully\r\nconversant with the rules of morality that should guide both the gods and\r\nthe Asuras and the Brahmanas as well. Here, however, is a situation of\r\ngreat difficulty in respect of duty. Tell me, I ask thee, what regions\r\nare obtainable by them who upon being asked a question, answer it not, or\r\nanswer it falsely. Kasyapa thus asked answered.--\'He that knoweth, but\r\nanswereth not a question from temptation, anger or fear, casteth upon\r\nhimself a thousand nooses of Varuna. And the person who, cited as a\r\nwitness with respect to any matter of ocular or auricular knowledge,\r\nspeaketh carelessly, casteth a thousand nooses of Varuna upon his own\r\nperson. On the completion of one full year, one such noose is loosened.\r\nTherefore, he that knoweth, should speak the truth without concealment.\r\nIf virtue, pierced by sin, repaireth to an assembly (for aid), it is the\r\nduty of every body in the assembly to take off the dart, otherwise they\r\nthemselves would be pierced with it. In an assembly where a truly\r\ncensurable act is not rebuked, half the demerit of that act attacheth to\r\nthe head of that assembly, a fourth to the person acting censurably and a\r\nfourth unto those others that are there. In that assembly, on the other\r\nhand, when he that deserveth censure is rebuked, the head of the assembly\r\nbecometh freed from all sins, and the other members also incur none. It\r\nis only the perpetrator himself of the act that becometh responsible for\r\nit. O Prahlada, they who answer falsely those that ask them about\r\nmorality destroy the meritorious acts of their seven upper and seven\r\nlower generations. The grief of one who hath lost all his wealth, of one\r\nwho hath lost a son, of one who is in debt, of one who is separated from\r\nhis companions, of a woman who hath lost her husband, of one that hath\r\nlost his all in consequence of the king\'s demand, of a woman who is\r\nsterile, of one who hath been devoured by a tiger (during his last\r\nstruggles in the tiger\'s claws), of one who is a co-wife, and of one who\r\nhath been deprived of his property by false witnesses, have been said by\r\nthe gods to be uniform in degree. These different sorts of grief are his\r\nwho speaketh false. A person becometh a witness in consequence of his\r\nhaving seen, heard, and understood a thing. Therefore, a witness should\r\nalways tell the truth. A truth-telling witness never loseth his religious\r\nmerits and earthly possessions also.\' Hearing these words of Kasyapa,\r\nPrahlada told his son, "Sudhanwan is superior to thee, as indeed, (his\r\nfather) Angiras is superior to me. The mother also of Sudhanwan is\r\nsuperior to thy mother. Therefore, O Virochana, this Sudhanwan is now the\r\nlord of the life." At these words of Prahlada, Sudhanwan said, "Since\r\nunmoved by affection for thy child, thou hast adhered to virtue, I\r\ncommand, let this son of thine live for a hundred years."\r\n\r\n"Vidura continued,--Let all the persons, therefore, present in this\r\nassembly hearing these high truths of morality, reflect upon what should\r\nbe the answer to the question asked by Draupadi".\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"The kings that were there hearing these words\r\nof Vidura, answered not a word, yet Karna alone spoke unto Dussasana,\r\ntelling him. Take away this serving-woman Krishna into the inner\r\napartments. And thereupon Dussasana began to drag before all the\r\nspectators the helpless and modest Draupadi, trembling and crying\r\npiteously unto the Pandavas her lords."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXVIII\r\n\r\nDraupadi said,--\'Wait a little, thou worst of men, thou wicked-minded\r\nDussasana. I have an act to perform--a high duty that hath not been\r\nperformed by me yet. Dragged forcibly by this wretch\'s strong arms, I was\r\ndeprived of my senses. I salute these reverend seniors in this assembly\r\nof the Kurus. That I could not do this before cannot be my fault.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Dragged with greater force than before, the\r\nafflicted and helpless Draupadi, undeserving of such treatment, falling\r\ndown upon the ground, thus wept in that assembly of the Kurus,--\r\n\r\n"\'Alas, only once before, on the occasion of the Swayamvara, I was beheld\r\nby the assembled kings in the amphitheatre, and never even once beheld\r\nafterwards. I am to-day brought before this assembly. She whom even the\r\nwinds and the sun had seen never before in her palace is to-day before\r\nthis assembly and exposed to the gaze of the crowd. Alas, she whom the\r\nsons of Pandu could not, while in her palace, suffer to be touched even\r\nby the wind, is to-day suffered by the Pandavas to be seized and dragged\r\nby this wretch. Alas, these Kauravas also suffer their daughter-in-law,\r\nso unworthy of such treatment, to be thus afflicted before them. It\r\nseemeth that the times are out of joint. What can be more distressing to\r\nme, than that though high-born and chaste, I should yet be compelled to\r\nenter this public court? Where is that virtue for which these kings were\r\nnoted? It hath been heard that the kings of ancient days never brought\r\ntheir wedded wives into the public court. Alas, that eternal usage hath\r\ndisappeared from among the Kauravas. Else, how is it that the chaste wife\r\nof the Pandavas, the sister of Prishata\'s son, the friend of Vasudeva, is\r\nbrought before this assembly? Ye Kauravas, I am the wedded wife of king\r\nYudhishthira the just, hailing from the same dynasty to which the King\r\nbelonged. Tell me now if I am a serving-maid or otherwise. I will\r\ncheerfully accept your answer. This mean wretch, this destroyer of the\r\nname of the Kurus, is afflicting me hard. Ye Kauravas, I cannot bear it\r\nany longer. Ye kings, I desire ye to answer whether ye regard me as won\r\nor unwon. I will accept your verdict whatever it be.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing these words, Bhishma answered, I have already said, O blessed\r\none that the course of morality is subtle. Even the illustrious wise in\r\nthis world fail to understand it always. What in this world a strong man\r\ncalls morality is regarded as such by others, however otherwise it may\r\nreally be; but what a weak man calls morality is scarcely regarded as\r\nsuch even if it be the highest morality. From the importance of the issue\r\ninvolved, from its intricacy and subtlety, I am unable to answer with\r\ncertitude the question thou hast asked. However, it is certain that as\r\nall the Kurus have become the slaves of covetousness and folly, the\r\ndestruction of this our race will happen on no distant date. O blessed\r\none, the family into which thou hast been admitted as a daughter-in-law,\r\nis such that those who are born in it, however much they might be\r\nafflicted by calamities, never deviate from the paths of virtue and\r\nmorality. O Princess of Panchala, this conduct of thine also, viz. that\r\nthough sunk in distress, thou still easiest thy eyes on virtue and\r\nmorality, is assuredly worthy of thee. These persons, Drona and others,\r\nof mature years and conversant with morality, sit heads downwards like\r\nmen that are dead, with bodies from which life hath departed. It seemeth\r\nto me, however, that Yudhishthira is an authority on this question. It\r\nbehoveth him to declare whether thou art won or not won."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXIX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"The kings present in that assembly, from tear of\r\nDuryodhana, uttered not a word, good or ill, although they beheld\r\nDraupadi crying piteously in affliction like a female osprey, and\r\nrepeatedly appealing to them. And the son of Dhritarashtra beholding\r\nthose kings and sons and grand sons of kings all remaining silent, smiled\r\na little, and addressing the daughter of the king of Panchala, said,--O\r\nYajnaseni, the question thou hast put dependeth on thy husbands--on Bhima\r\nof mighty strength, on Arjuna, on Nakula, on Sahadeva. Let them answer\r\nthy question. O Panchali, let them for thy sake declare in the midst of\r\nthese respectable men that Yudhishthira is not their lord, let them\r\nthereby make king Yudhishthira the just a liar. Thou shalt then be freed\r\nfrom the condition of slavery. Let the illustrious son of Dharma, always\r\nadhering to virtue, who is even like Indra, himself declare whether he is\r\nnot thy lord. At his words, accept thou the Pandavas or ourselves without\r\ndelay. Indeed, all the Kauravas present in this assembly are floating in\r\nthe ocean of thy distress. Endued with magnanimity, they are unable to\r\nanswer thy question, looking at thy unfortunate husbands.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of the Kuru king, all who\r\nwere present in the assembly loudly applauded them. And shouting\r\napprovingly, they made signs unto one another by motions of their eyes\r\nand lips. And amongst some that were there, sounds of distress such as\r\n\'O! and \'Alas!" were heard. And at these words of Duryodhana, so\r\ndelightful (to his partisans), the Kauravas present in that assembly\r\nbecame exceedingly glad. And the kings, with faces turned sideways,\r\nlooked upon Yudhishthira conversant with the rules of morality, curious\r\nto hear what he would say. And every one present in that assembly became\r\ncurious to hear what Arjuna, the son of Pandu never defeated in battle,\r\nand what Bhimasena, and what the twins also would say. And when that busy\r\nhum of many voices became still, Bhimasena, waving his strong and\r\nwell-formed arms smeared with sandalpaste spake these words,--\'If this\r\nhigh-souled king Yudhishthira the just, who is our eldest brother, had\r\nnot been our lord, we would never have forgiven the Kuru race (for all\r\nthis). He is the lord of all our religious and ascetic merits, the lord\r\nof even our lives. If he regardeth himself as won, we too have all been\r\nwon. If this were not so, who is there amongst creatures touching the\r\nearth with their feet and mortal, that would escape from me with his life\r\nafter having touched those locks of the princess of Panchala? Behold\r\nthese mighty, well-formed arms of mine, even like maces of iron. Having\r\nonce come within them, even he of a hundred sacrifices is incapable of\r\neffecting an escape. Bound by the ties of virtue and the reverence that\r\nis due to our eldest brother, and repeatedly urged by Arjuna to remain\r\nsilent, I am not doing anything terrible. If however, I am once commanded\r\nby king Yudhishthira the just, I would slay these wretched sons of\r\nDhritarashtra, making slaps do the work of swords, like a lion slaying a\r\nnumber of little animals."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Unto Bhima who had spoken these words Bhishma\r\nand Drona and Vidura said, \'Forbear, O Bhima. Everything is possible with\r\nthee.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXX\r\n\r\n"Karna said,--\'Of all the persons in the assembly, three, viz., Bhishma,\r\nVidura, and the preceptor of the Kurus (Drona) appear to be independent;\r\nfor they always speak of their master as wicked, always censure him, and\r\nnever wish for his prosperity. O excellent one, the slave, the son, and\r\nthe wife are always dependent. They cannot earn wealth, for whatever they\r\nearn belongeth to their master. Thou art the wife of a slave incapable of\r\npossessing anything on his own account. Repair now to the inner\r\napartments of king Dhritarashtra and serve the king\'s relatives. We\r\ndirect that that is now thy proper business. And, O princess, all the\r\nsons of Dhritarashtra and not the sons of Pritha are now thy masters. O\r\nhandsome one, select thou another husband now,--one who will not make\r\nthee a slave by gambling. It is well-known that women, especially that\r\nare slaves, are not censurable if they proceed with freedom in electing\r\nhusbands. Therefore let it be done by thee. Nakula hath been won, as also\r\nBhimasena, and Yudhishthira also, and Sahadeva, and Arjuna. And, O\r\nYajnaseni, thou art now a slave. Thy husbands that are slaves cannot\r\ncontinue to be thy lords any longer. Alas, doth not the son of Pritha\r\nregards life, prowess and manhood as of no use that he offereth this\r\ndaughter of Drupada, the king of Panchala, in the presence of all this\r\nassembly, as a stake at dice?\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words, the wrathful Bhima\r\nbreathed hard, a very picture of woe. Obedient to the king and bound by\r\nthe tie of virtue and duty, burning everything with his eyes inflamed by\r\nanger, he said,--\'O king, I cannot be angry at these words of this son of\r\na Suta, for we have truly entered the state of servitude. But O king,\r\ncould our enemies have said so unto me, it thou hadst not played staking\r\nthis princess?\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of Bhimasena king\r\nDuryodhana addressed Yudhishthira who was silent and deprived of his\r\nsenses, saying,--\'O king, both Bhima and Arjuna, and the twins also, are\r\nunder thy sway. Answer thou the question (that hath been asked by\r\nDraupadi). Say, whether thou regardest Krishna as unwon.\' And having\r\nspoken thus unto the son of Kunti, Duryodhana. desirous of encouraging\r\nthe son of Radha and insulting Bhima, quickly uncovered his left thigh\r\nthat was like unto the stem of a plantain tree or the trunk of an\r\nelephant and which was graced with every auspicious sign and endued with\r\nthe strength of thunder, and showed it to Draupadi in her very sight. And\r\nbeholding this, Bhimasena expanding his red eyes, said unto Duryodhana in\r\nthe midst of all those kings and as if piercing them (with his dart-like\r\nwords),--\'Let not Vrikodara attain to the regions, obtained by his\r\nancestors, if he doth not break that thigh of thine in the great\r\nconflict. And sparkles of fire began to be emitted from every organ of\r\nsense of Bhima filled with wrath, like those that come out of every crack\r\nand orifice in the body of a blazing tree.\r\n\r\nVidura then, addressing everybody, said,--\'Ye kings of Pratipa\'s race,\r\nbehold the great danger that ariseth from Bhimasena. Know ye for certain\r\nthat this great calamity that threatens to overtake the Bharatas hath\r\nbeen sent by Destiny itself. The sons of Dhritarashtra have, indeed,\r\ngambled disregarding every proper consideration. They are even now\r\ndisputing in this assembly about a lady (of the royal household). The\r\nprosperity of our kingdom is at an end. Alas, the Kauravas are even now\r\nengaged in sinful consultations. Ye Kauravas, take to your heart this\r\nhigh precept that I declare. If virtue is persecuted, the whole assembly\r\nbecometh polluted. If Yudhishthira had staked her before he was himself\r\nwon, he would certainly have been regarded as her master. If, however a\r\nperson staketh anything at a time when he himself is incapable of holding\r\nany wealth, to win it is very like obtaining wealth in a dream. Listening\r\nto the words of the king of Gandhara, fall ye not off from this undoubted\r\ntruth.\'\r\n\r\n"Duryodhana, hearing Vidura thus speak, said,--\'I am willing to abide by\r\nthe words of Bhima, of Arjuna and of the twins. Let them say that\r\nYudhishthira is not their master. Yajnaseni will then be freed from her\r\nstate of bondage."\r\n\r\n"Arjuna at this, said,--"This illustrious son of Kunti, king Yudhishthira\r\nthe just, was certainly our master before he began to play. But having\r\nlost himself, let all the Kauravas judge whose master he could be after\r\nthat."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Just then, a jackal began to cry loudly in the\r\nhoma-chamber of king Dhritarashtra\'s palace. And, O king, unto the jackal\r\nthat howled so, the asses began to bray responsively. And terrible birds\r\nalso, from all sides, began to answer with their cries. And Vidura\r\nconversant with everything and the daughter of Suvala, both understood\r\nthe meaning of those terrible sounds. And Bhishma and Drona and the\r\nlearned Gautama loudly cried,--Swashti! Swashti![1] Then Gandhari and the\r\nlearned Vidura beholding that frightful omen, represented everything, in\r\ngreat affliction, unto the king. And the king (Dhritarashtra) thereupon\r\nsaid,--\r\n\r\n\'Thou wicked-minded Duryodhana, thou wretch, destruction hath all ready\r\novertaken thee when thou insultest in language such as this the wife of\r\nthese bulls among the Kurus, especially their wedded wife Draupadi. And\r\nhaving spoken those words, the wise Dhritarashtra endued with knowledge,\r\nreflecting with the aid of his wisdom and desirous of saving his\r\nrelatives and friends from destruction, began to console Krishna, the\r\nprincess of Panchala, and addressing her, the monarch said,--\'Ask of me\r\nany boon, O princess of Panchala, that thou desirest, Chaste and devoted\r\nto virtue, thou art the first of all my daughters-in-law.\r\n\r\n"Draupadi said,--\'O bull of the Bharata race, if thou will grant me a\r\nboon, I ask the handsome Yudhishthira, obedient to every duty, be freed\r\nfrom slavery. Let not unthinking children call my child Prativindhya\r\nendued with great energy of mind as the son of a slave. Having been a\r\nprince, so superior to all men, and nurtured by kings it is not proper\r\nthat he should be called the child of a slave.\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said unto her,--\'O auspicious one, let it be as thou\r\nsayest. O excellent one, ask thou another boon, for I will give it. My\r\nheart inclineth to give thee a second boon. Thou dost not deserve only\r\none boon.\r\n\r\n"Draupadi said,--\'I ask, O king, that Bhimasena and Dhananjaya and the\r\ntwins also, with their cars and bows, freed from bondage, regain their\r\nliberty.\'\r\n\r\n\'Dhritarashtra said,--\'O blessed daughter, let it be as thou desirest.\r\nAsk thou a third boon, for thou hast not been sufficiently honoured with\r\ntwo boons. Virtuous in thy behaviour, thou art the foremost of all my\r\ndaughters-in-law.\r\n\r\nDraupadi said,--\'O best of kings, O illustrious one, covetousness always\r\nbringeth about loss of virtue. I do not deserve a third boon. Therefore I\r\ndare not ask any. O king of kings, it hath been said that a Vaisya may\r\nask one boon; a Kshatriya lady, two boons; a Kshatriya male, three, and a\r\nBrahmana, a hundred. O king, these my husbands freed from the wretched\r\nstate of bondage, will be able to achieve prosperity by their own\r\nvirtuous acts!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXI\r\n\r\n"Karna said,--\'We have never heard of such an act (as this one of\r\nDraupadi), performed by any of the women noted in this world for their\r\nbeauty. When the sons of both Pandu and Dhritarashtra were excited with\r\nwrath, this Draupadi became unto the sons of Pandu as their salvation.\r\nIndeed the princess of Panchala, becoming as a boat unto the sons of\r\nPandu who were sinking in a boatless ocean of distress, hath brought them\r\nin safety to the shore.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of Karna in the midst of\r\nthe Kurus,--viz., that the sons of Pandu were saved by their wife,--the\r\nangry Bhimasena in great affliction said (unto Arjuna),--\'O Dhananjaya,\r\nit hath been said by Devala three lights reside in every person, viz.,\r\noffspring, acts and learning, for from these three hath sprung creation.\r\nWhen life becometh extinct and the body becometh impure and is cast off\r\nby relatives, these three become of service to every person. But the\r\nlight that is in us hath been dimmed by this act of insult to our wife.\r\nHow, O Arjuna, can a son born from this insulted wife of ours prove\r\nserviceable to us?\r\n\r\n"Arjuna replied,--\'Superior persons, O Bharata, never prate about the\r\nharsh words that may or may not be uttered by inferior men. Persons that\r\nhave earned respect for themselves, even if they are able to retaliate,\r\nremember not the acts of hostility done by their enemies, but, on the\r\nother hand, treasure up only their good deeds.\'\r\n\r\n\'Bhima said,--\'Shall I, O king, slay, without loss of time all these foes\r\nassembled together, even here, or shall I destroy them, O Bharata, by the\r\nroots, outside this palace? Or, what need is there of words or of\r\ncommand? I shall slay all these even now, and rule thou the whole earth,\r\nO king, without a rival. And saying this, Bhima with his younger\r\nbrothers, like a lion in the midst of a herd of inferior animals,\r\nrepeatedly cast his angry glances around. But Arjuna, however, of white\r\ndeeds, with appealing looks began to pacify his elder brother. And the\r\nmighty-armed hero endued with great prowess began to burn with the fire\r\nof his wrath. And, O king, this fire began to issue out of Vrikodara\'s\r\nears and other senses with smoke and sparks and flames. And his face\r\nbecame terrible to behold in consequence of his furrowed brows like those\r\nof Yama himself at the time of the universal destruction. Then\r\nYudhishthira forbade the mighty hero, embracing him with his arms and\r\ntelling him \'Be not so. Stay in silence and peace.\' And having pacified\r\nthe mighty-armed one with eyes red in wrath, the king approached his\r\nuncle Dhritarashtra, with hands joined in entreaty."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXII\r\n\r\n"Yudhishthira said,--\'O king, thou art our master. Command us as to what\r\nwe shall do. O Bharata, we desire to remain always in obedience to thee.\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra replied.--\'O Ajatasatru, blest be thou. Go thou in peace\r\nand safety. Commanded by me, go, rule thy own kingdom with thy wealth.\r\nAnd, O child, take to heart this command of an old man, this wholesome\r\nadvice that I give, and which is even a nutritive regimen. O\r\nYudhishthira, O child, thou knowest the subtle path of morality.\r\nPossessed of great wisdom, thou art also humble, and thou waitest also\r\nupon the old. Where there is intelligence, there is forbearance.\r\nTherefore, O Bharata, follow thou counsels of peace. The axe falleth upon\r\nwood, not upon stone. (Thou art open to advice, not Duryodhana). They are\r\nthe best of men that remember not the acts of hostility of their foes;\r\nthat behold only the merits, not the faults, of their enemies; and that\r\nnever enter into hostilities themselves. They that are good remember only\r\nthe good deeds of their foes and not the hostile acts their foes might\r\nhave done unto them. The good, besides, do good unto others without\r\nexpectation of any good, in return. O Yudhishthira, it is only the worst\r\nof men that utter harsh words in quarrelling; while they that are\r\nindifferent reply to such when spoken by others. But they that are good\r\nand wise never think of or recapitulate such harsh words, little caring\r\nwhether these may or may not have been uttered by their foes. They that\r\nare good, having regard to the state of their own feelings, can\r\nunderstand the feelings of others, and therefore remember only the good\r\ndeeds and not the acts of hostility of their foes. Thou hast acted even\r\nas good men of prepossessing countenance do, who transgress not the\r\nlimits of virtue, wealth, pleasure and salvation. O child, remember not\r\nthe harsh words of Duryodhana. Look at thy mother Gandhari and myself\r\nalso, if thou desirest to remember only what is good. O Bharata, look at\r\nme, who am thy father unto you and am old and blind, and still alive. It\r\nwas for seeing our friends and examining also the strength and weakness\r\nof my children, that I had, from motives of policy, suffered this match\r\nat dice to proceed. O king those amongst the Kurus that have thee for\r\ntheir ruler, and the intelligent Vidura conversant with every branch of\r\nlearning for their counsellor, have, indeed, nothing to grieve for. In\r\nthee is virtue, in Arjuna is patience, in Bhimasena is prowess, and the\r\ntwins, those foremost of men, is pure reverence for superiors. Blest be\r\nthou, O Ajatasatru. Return to Khandavaprastha, and let there be brotherly\r\nlove between thee and thy cousins. Let thy heart also be ever fixed on\r\nvirtue.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"That foremost of the Bharatas--king\r\nYudhishthira the just--then, thus addressed by his uncle, having gone\r\nthrough every ceremony of politeness, set out with his brothers for\r\nKhandavaprastha. And accompanied by Draupadi and ascending their cars\r\nwhich were all of the hue of the clouds, with cheerful hearts they all\r\nset out for that best of cities called Indraprastha."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIII\r\n\r\nJanamejaya said,--"How did the sons of Dhritarashtra feel, when they came\r\nto know that the Pandavas had, with Dhritarashtra\'s leave, left\r\nHastinapore with all their wealth and jewels?"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"O king, learning that the Pandavas had been\r\ncommanded by the wise Dhritarashtra to return to their capital, Dussasana\r\nwent without loss of time unto his brother. And, O bull of the Bharata\r\nrace, having arrived before Duryodhana with his counsellor, the prince,\r\nafflicted with grief, began to say,--\'Ye mighty warriors, that which we\r\nhad won after so much trouble, the old man (our father) hath thrown away.\r\nKnow ye that he hath made over the whole of that wealth to the foes. At\r\nthese words, Duryodhana and Karna and Sakuni, the son of Suvala, all of\r\nwhom were guided by vanity, united together, and desirous of\r\ncounteracting the sons of Pandu, approaching in haste saw privately the\r\nwise king Dhritarashtra--the son of Vichitravirya and spake unto him\r\nthese pleasing and artful words. Duryodhana said,--\r\n\r\n\'Hast thou not heard, O king, what the learned Vrihaspati the preceptor\r\nof the celestials, said in course of counselling Sakra about mortals and\r\npolitics? Even these, O slayer of foes, were the words of Vrihaspati,\r\n\'Those enemies that always do wrong by stratagem or force, should be\r\nslain by every means.\' If, therefore, with the wealth of the Pandavas, we\r\ngratify the kings of the earth and then fight with the sons of Pandu,\r\nwhat reverses can overtake us? When one hath placed on the neck and back\r\nof venomous snakes full of wrath for encompassing his destruction, is it\r\npossible for him to take them off? Equipped with weapon and seated on\r\ntheir cars, the angry sons of Pandu like wrathful and venomous snakes\r\nwill assuredly annihilate us, O father. Even now Arjuna proceedeth,\r\nencased in mail and furnished with his couple of quivers, frequently\r\ntaking up the Gandiva and breathing hard and casting angry glances\r\naround. It hath (also) been heard by us that Vrikodara, hastily ordering\r\nhis car to be made ready and riding on it, is proceeding along,\r\nfrequently whirling his heavy mace. Nakula also is going along, with the\r\nsword in his grasp and the semi-circular shield in his hand. And Sahadeva\r\nand the king (Yudhishthira) have made signs clearly testifying to their\r\nintentions. Having ascended their cars that are full of all kinds of\r\narms, they are whipping their horses (for going to Khandava soon) and\r\nassembling their forces. Persecuted thus by us they are incapable of\r\nforgiving us those injuries. Who is there among them that will forgive\r\nthat insult to Draupadi? Blest be thou. We will again gamble with the son\r\nof Pandu for sending them to exile. O bull among men, we are competent to\r\nbring them thus under our sway. Dressed in skins, either we or they\r\ndefeated at dice, shall repair to the woods for twelve years. The\r\nthirteenth year shall have to be spent in some inhabited country\r\nunrecognised; and, if recognised, an exile for another twelve years shall\r\nbe the consequence. Either we or they shall live so. Let the play begin,\r\ncasting the dice, let the sons of Pandu once more play. O bull of the\r\nBharata race, O king, even this is our highest duty. This Sakuni knoweth\r\nwell the whole science of dice. Even if they succeed in observing this\r\nvow for thirteen years, we shall be in the meantime firmly rooted in the\r\nkingdom and making alliances, assemble a vast invincible host and keep\r\nthem content, so that we shall, O king, defeat the sons of Pandu if they\r\nreappear. Let this plan recommend itself to thee, O slayer of foes.\r\n\r\n"Dhritarashtra said,--Bring back the Pandavas then, indeed, even if they\r\nhave gone a great way. Let them come at once again to cast dice."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Then Drona, Somadatta and Valhika, Gautama,\r\nVidura, the son of Drona, and the mighty son of Dhritarashtra by his\r\nVaisya wife, Bhurisravas, and Bhishma, and that mighty warrior\r\nVikarna,--all said, \'Let not the play commence. Let there be peace. But\r\nDhritarashtra, partial to his sons, disregarding the counsels of all his\r\nwise friends and relatives, summoned the sons of Pandu."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIV\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'O monarch, it was then that the virtuous Gandhari,\r\nafflicted with grief on account of her affection for her sons, addressed\r\nking Dhritarashtra and said, "When Duryodhana was born, Vidura of great\r\nintelligence had said, \'It is well to send this disgrace of the race to\r\nthe other world. He cried repeatedly and dissonantly like a jackal. It is\r\ncertain he will prove the destruction of our race. Take this to heart, O\r\nking of the Kurus. O Bharata, sink not, for thy own fault, into an ocean\r\nof calamity. O lord, accord not thy approbation to the counsels of the\r\nwicked ones of immature years. Be not thou the cause of the terrible\r\ndestruction of this race. Who is there that will break an embankment\r\nwhich hath been completed, or re-kindle a conflagration which hath been\r\nextinguished? O bull of the Bharata race, who is there that will provoke\r\nthe peaceful sons of Pritha? Thou rememberest, O Ajamida, everything, but\r\nstill I will call thy attention to this. The scriptures can never control\r\nthe wicked-minded for good or evil. And, O king, a person of immature\r\nunderstanding will never act as one of mature years. Let thy sons follow\r\nthee as their leader. Let them not be separated from thee for ever (by\r\nlosing their lives). Therefore, at my word, O king, abandon this wretch\r\nof our race. Thou couldst not, O king, from parental affection, do it\r\nbefore. Know that the time hath come for the destruction of race through\r\nhim. Err not, O king. Let thy mind, guided by counsels of peace, virtue,\r\nand true policy, be what it naturally is. That prosperity which is\r\nacquired by the aid of wicked acts, is soon destroyed; while that which\r\nis won by mild means taketh root and descendeth from generation to\r\ngeneration."\r\n\r\n"The king, thus addressed by Gandhari who pointed out to him in such\r\nlanguage the path of virtue, replied unto her, saying,--\'If the\r\ndestruction of our race is come, let it take place freely. I am ill able\r\nto prevent it. Let it be as they (these my sons) desire. Let the Pandavas\r\nreturn. And let my sons again gamble with the sons of Pandu."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXV\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'The royal messenger, agreeably to the commands of\r\nthe intelligent king Dhritarashtra, coming upon Yudhishthira, the son of\r\nPritha who had by that time gone a great way, addressed the monarch and\r\nsaid,--\'Even these are the words of thy father-like uncle, O Bharata,\r\nspoken unto thee, \'The assembly is ready. O son of Pandu, O king\r\nYudhisthira, come and cast the dice.\'\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'Creatures obtain fruits good and ill according to\r\nthe dispensation of the Ordainer of the creation. Those fruits are\r\ninevitable whether I play or not. This is a summons to dice; it is,\r\nbesides the command of the old king. Although I know that it will prove\r\ndestructive to me, yet I cannot refuse.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Although (a living) animal made of gold was an\r\nimpossibility, yet Rama suffered himself to be tempted by a (golden)\r\ndeer. Indeed, the minds of men over whom calamities hang, became deranged\r\nand out of order. Yudhishthira, therefore, having said these words,\r\nretraced his steps along with his brothers. And knowing full well the\r\ndeception practised by Sakuni, the son of Pritha came back to sit at dice\r\nwith him again. These mighty warriors again entered that assembly,\r\nafflicting the hearts of all their friends. And compelled by Fate they\r\nonce more sat down at ease for gambling for the destruction of\r\nthemselves."\r\n\r\n"Sakuni then said,--\'The old king hath given ye back all your wealth.\r\nThat is well. But, O bull of the Bharata race, listen to me, there is a\r\nstake of great value. Either defeated by ye at dice, dressed in deer\r\nskins we shall enter the great forest and live there for twelve years\r\npassing the whole of the thirteenth year in some inhabited region,\r\nunrecognised, and if recognised return to an exile of another twelve\r\nyears; or vanquished by us, dressed in deer skins ye shall, with Krishna,\r\nlive for twelve years in the woods passing the whole of the thirteenth\r\nyear unrecognised, in some inhabited region. If recognised, an exile of\r\nanother twelve years is to be the consequence. On the expiry of the\r\nthirteenth year, each is to have his kingdom surrendered by the other. O\r\nYudhishthira, with this resolution, play with us, O Bharata, casting the\r\ndice.\'\r\n\r\n"At these words, they that were in that assembly, raising up their arms\r\nsaid in great anxiety of mind, and from the strength of their feelings\r\nthese words,--\'Alas, fie on the friends of Duryodhana that they do not\r\napprise him of his great danger. Whether he, O bull among the Bharatas,\r\n(Dhritarashtra) understandeth or not, of his own sense, it is thy duty to\r\ntell him plainly."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued,--King Yudhishthira, even hearing these various\r\nremarks, from shame and a sense of virtue again sat at dice. And though\r\npossessed of great intelligence and fully knowing the consequences, he\r\nagain began to play, as if knowing that the destruction of the Kurus was\r\nat hand.\r\n\r\n"And Yudhishthira said,--\'How can, O Sakuni, a king like me, always\r\nobservant of the uses of his own order, refuse, when summoned to dice?\r\nTherefore I play with thee."\r\n\r\n"Sakuni answered,--\'We have many kine and horses, and milch cows, and an\r\ninfinite number of goats and sheep; and elephants and treasures and gold\r\nand slaves both male and female. All these were staked by us before but\r\nnow let this be our one stake, viz., exile into the woods,--being\r\ndefeated either ye or we will dwell in the woods (for twelve years) and\r\nthe thirteenth year, unrecognised, in some inhabited place. Ye bulls\r\namong men, with this determination, will we play."\r\n\r\n"O Bharata, this proposal about a stay in the woods was uttered but once.\r\nThe son of Pritha, however, accepted it and Sakuni took up the dice. And\r\ncasting them he said unto Yudhishthira,--\'Lo, I have won."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVI\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"Then the vanquished sons of Pritha prepared for\r\ntheir exile into the woods. And they, one after another, in due order,\r\ncasting off their royal robes, attired themselves in deer-skins. And\r\nDussasana, beholding those chastisers of foes, dressed in deer-skins and\r\ndeprived of their kingdom and ready to go into exile, exclaimed \'The\r\nabsolute sovereignty of the illustrious king Duryodhana hath commenced.\r\nThe sons of Pandu have been vanquished, and plunged into great\r\naffliction. Now have we attained the goal either by broad or narrow\r\npaths. For today becoming superior to our foes in point of prosperity as\r\nalso of duration of rule have we become praiseworthy of men. The sons of\r\nPritha have all been plunged by us into everlasting hell. They have been\r\ndeprived of happiness and kingdom for ever and ever. They who, proud of\r\ntheir wealth, laughed in derision at the son of Dhritarashtra, will now\r\nhave to go into the woods, defeated and deprived by us of all their\r\nwealth. Let them now put off their variegated coats of mail, their\r\nresplendent robes of celestial make, and let them all attire themselves\r\nin deer-skins according to the stake they had accepted of the son of\r\nSuvala. They who always used to boast that they had no equals in all the\r\nworld, will now know and regard themselves in this their calamity as\r\ngrains of sesame without the kernel. Although in this dress of theirs the\r\nPandavas seem like unto wise and powerful persons installed in a\r\nsacrifice, yet they look like persons not entitled to perform sacrifices,\r\nwearing such a guise. The wise Yajnasena of the Somake race, having\r\nbestowed his daughter--the princess of Panchala--on the sons of Pandu,\r\nacted most unfortunately for the husbands of Yajnaseni--these sons of\r\nPritha are as eunuchs. And O Yajnaseni, what joy will be thine upon\r\nbeholding in the woods these thy husbands dressed in skins and\r\nthread-bare rags, deprived of their wealth and possessions. Elect thou a\r\nhusband, whomsoever thou likest, from among all these present here. These\r\nKurus assembled here, are all forbearing and self-controlled, and\r\npossessed of great wealth. Elect thou one amongst these as thy lord, so\r\nthat these great calamity may not drag thee to wretchedness. \'The sons of\r\nPandu now are even like grains of sesame without the kernel, or like\r\nshow-animals encased in skins, or like grains of rice without the kernel.\r\nWhy shouldst thou then longer wait upon the fallen sons of Pandu? Vain is\r\nthe labour used upon pressing the sesame grain devoid of the kernel!\'\r\n\r\n"Thus did Dussasana, the son of Dhritarashtra, utter in the hearing of\r\nthe Pandavas, harsh words of the most cruel import. And hearing them, the\r\nunforbearing Bhima, in wrath suddenly approaching that prince like a\r\nHimalayan lion upon a jackal, loudly and chastisingly rebuked him in\r\nthese words,--Wicked-minded villain, ravest thou so in words that are\r\nuttered alone by the sinful? Boastest thou thus in the midst of the\r\nkings, advanced as thou art by the skill of the king of Gandhara. As thou\r\npiercest our hearts hear with these thy arrowy words, so shall I pierce\r\nthy heart in battle, recalling all this to thy mind. And they also who\r\nfrom anger or covetousness are walking behind thee as thy\r\nprotectors,--them also shall I send to the abode of Yama with their\r\ndescendants and relatives."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--Unto Bhima dressed in deer-skins and uttering\r\nthese words of wrath without doing any thing, for he could not deviate\r\nfrom the path of virtue, Dussasana abandoning all sense of shame, dancing\r\naround the Kurus, loudly said, \'O cow! O cow!\'\r\n\r\nBhima at this once more said,--Wretch darest thou, O Dussasana, use harsh\r\nwords as these? Whom doth it behove to boast, thus having won wealth by\r\nfoul means? I tell thee that if Vrikodara, the son of Pritha, drinketh\r\nnot thy life-blood, piercing open thy breast in battle, let him not\r\nattain to regions of blessedness, I tell thee truly that by slaying the\r\nsons of Dhritarashtra in battle, before the very eyes of all the\r\nwarriors, I shall pacify this wrath of mine soon enough.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"And as the Pandavas were going away from the\r\nassembly, the wicked king Duryodhana from excess of joy mimiced by his\r\nown steps the playful leonine trade of Bhima. Then Vrikodara, half\r\nturning towards the king said, Think not ye fool that by this thou\r\ngainest any ascendency over me slay thee shall I soon with all thy\r\nfollowers, and answer thee, recalling all this to thy mind. And beholding\r\nthis insult offered to him, the mighty and proud Bhima, suppressing his\r\nrising rage and following the steps of Yudhishthira, also spake these\r\nwords while going out of the Kaurava court, \'I will slay Duryodhana, and\r\nDhananjaya will slay Karna, and Sahadeva will slay Sakuni that gambler\r\nwith dice. I also repeat in this assembly these proud words which the\r\ngods will assuredly make good, if ever we engage in battle with the\r\nKurus, I will slay this wretched Duryodhana in battle with my mace, and\r\nprostrating him on the ground I will place my foot on his head. And as\r\nregards this (other) wicked person--Dussasana who is audacious in speech,\r\nI will drink his blood like a lion.\r\n\r\n"And Arjuna said,--O Bhima, the resolutions of superior men are not known\r\nin words only. On the fourteenth year from this day, they shall see what\r\nhappeneth.\r\n\r\n"And Bhima again said,--\'The earth shall drink the blood of Duryodhana,\r\nand Karna, and the wicked Sakuni, and Dussasana that maketh the fourth.\'\r\n\r\n"And Arjuna said,--\'O Bhima, I will, as thou directest, slay in battle\r\nthis Karna so malicious and jealous and harsh-speeched and vain. For\r\ndoing what is agreeable to Bhima, Arjuna voweth that he will slay in\r\nbattle with his arrows this Karna with all his followers. And I will send\r\nunto the regions of Yama also all those other kings that will from\r\nfoolishness fight against me. The mountains of Himavat might be removed\r\nfrom where they are, the maker of the day lose his brightness, the moon\r\nhis coldness, but this vow of mine will ever be cherished. And all this\r\nshall assuredly happen if on the fourteenth year from this, Duryodhana\r\ndoth not, with proper respect, return us our kingdom.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"After Arjuna had said this, Sahadeva the\r\nhandsome son of Madri, endued with great energy, desirous of slaying\r\nSakuni, waving his mighty arms and sighing like snake, exclaimed, with\r\neyes red with anger--\'Thou disgrace of the Gandhara kings, those whom\r\nthou thinkest as defeated are not really so. Those are even sharp-pointed\r\narrows from whose wounds thou hast run the risk in battle. I shall\r\ncertainly accomplish all which Bhima hath said adverting to thee with all\r\nthy followers. If therefore thou hast anything to do, do it before that\r\nday cometh. I shall assuredly slay thee in battle with all thy followers\r\nsoon enough, it thou, O son of Suvala, stayest in the light pursuant to\r\nthe Kshatriya usage.\'\r\n\r\n"\'Then, O monarch hearing these words of Sahadeva, Nakula the handsomest\r\nof men spake these words,--\'I shall certainly send unto the abode of Yama\r\nall those wicked sons of Dhritarashtra, who desirous of death and\r\nimpelled by Fate, and moved also by the wish of doing what is agreeable\r\nto Duryodhana, have used harsh and insulting speeches towards this\r\ndaughter o Yajnasena at the gambling match. Soon enough shall I, at the\r\ncommand of Yudhishthira and remembering the wrongs to Draupadi, make the\r\nearth destitute of the sons of Dhritarashtra.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"And those tigers among men, all endued with\r\nlong arms, having thus pledged themselves to virtuous promises approached\r\nking Dhritarashtra."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVII\r\n\r\nYudhishthira said,--\'I bid farewell unto all the Bharatas, unto my old\r\ngrand-sire (Bhishma), king Somadatta, the great king Vahlika, Drona,\r\nKripa, all the other kings, Aswathaman, Vidura, Dhritarashtra, all the\r\nsons of Dhritarashtra, Yayutsu, Sanjaya, and all the courtiers, I bid\r\nfare well, all of ye and returning again I shall see you."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Overcome with shame none of those that were\r\npresent there, could tell Yudhishthira anything. Within their hearts,\r\nhowever, they prayed for the welfare of that intelligent prince.\r\n\r\nVidura then said,--The reverend Pritha is a princess by birth. It\r\nbehoveth her not to go into the woods. Delicate and old and ever known to\r\nhappiness the blessed one will live, respected by me, in my abode. Known\r\nthis, ye sons of Pandu. And let safety be always yours.\'\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--\'The Pandavas thereupon said,--O sinless one,\r\nlet it be as thou sayest. Thou art our uncle, and, therefore like as our\r\nfather. We also are all obedient to thee. Thou art, O learned one, our\r\nmost respected superior. We should always obey what thou choosest to\r\ncommand. And, O high-souled one, order thou whatever else there is that\r\nremaineth to be done.\r\n\r\n"Vidura replied,--\'O Yudhishthira, O bull of the Bharata race, know this\r\nto be my opinion, that one that is vanquished by sinful means need not be\r\npained by such defeat. Thou knowest every rule of morality; Dhananjaya is\r\never victorious in battle; Bhimasena is the slayer of foes; Nakula is the\r\ngatherer of wealth; Sahadeva hath administrative talents, Dhaumya is the\r\nforemost of all conversant with the vedas; and the well-behaved Draupadi\r\nis conversant with virtue and economy. Ye are attached to one another and\r\nfeel delight at one another\'s sight and enemies can not separate you from\r\none another, and ye are contented. Therefore, who is there that will not\r\nenvy ye? O Bharata, this patient abstraction from the possession of the\r\nworld will be of great benefit to thee. No foe, even if he were equal to\r\nsakra himself, will be able to stand it. Formerly thou wert instructed on\r\nthe mountains of Himavat by Meru Savarni; in the town of Varanavata by\r\nKrishna Dwaipayana; on the cliff of Bhrigu by Rama; and on the banks of\r\nthe Dhrishadwati by Sambhu himself. Thou hast also listened to the\r\ninstruction of the great Rishi Asita on the hills of Anjana; and thou\r\nbecamest a disciple of Bhrigu on the banks of the Kalmashi. Narada and\r\nthis thy priest Dhaumya will now become thy instructors. In the matter of\r\nthe next world, abandon not these excellent lessons thou hast obtained\r\nfrom the Rishis. O son of Pandu. thou surpassest in intelligence even\r\nPururavas, the son of Ila; in strength, all other monarchs, and in\r\nvirtue, even the Rishis. Therefore, resolve thou earnestly to win\r\nvictory, which belongeth to Indra; to control thy wrath, which belongeth\r\nto Yama; to give in charity, which belongeth to Kuvera; and to control\r\nall passions, which belongeth to Varuna. And, O Bharata, obtain thou the\r\npower of gladdening from the moon, the power of sustaining all from\r\nwater; forbearance from the earth; energy from the entire solar disc;\r\nstrength from the winds, and affluence from the other elements. Welfare\r\nand immunity from ailment be thine; I hope to see thee return. And, O\r\nYudhishthira, act properly and duly in all seasons,--in those of\r\ndistress--in those of difficulty,--indeed, in respect of everything, O\r\nson of Kunti, with our leave go hence. O Bharata, blessing be thine. No\r\none can say that ye have done anything sinful before. We hope to see\r\nthee, therefore, return in safety and crowned with success."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Thus addressed by Vidura, Yudhishthira the son\r\nof Pandu, of prowess incapable of being baffled, saying, \'So be it,\'\r\nbowing low unto Bhishma and Drona, went away."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVIII\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--\'Then when Draupadi was about to set out she went\r\nunto the illustrious Pritha and solicited her leave. And she also asked\r\nleave of the other ladies of the household who had all been plunged into\r\ngrief. And saluting and embracing every one of them as each deserved, she\r\ndesired to go away. Then there arose within the inner apartments of the\r\nPandavas a loud wail of woe. And Kunti, terribly afflicted upon beholding\r\nDraupadi on the eve of her journey, uttered these words in a voice choked\r\nwith grief,--\r\n\r\n\'O child, grieve not that this great calamity hath overtaken thee. Thou\r\nart well conversant with the duties of the female sex, and thy behaviour\r\nand conduct also are as they should be. It behoveth me not, O thou of\r\nsweet smiles, to instruct thee as to thy duties towards thy lords. Thou\r\nart chaste and accomplished, and thy qualities have adorned the race of\r\nthy birth as also the race into which thou hast been admitted by\r\nmarriage. Fortunate are the Kauravas that they have not been burnt by thy\r\nwrath. O child, safely go thou blest by my prayers. Good women never\r\nsuffer their hearts to the unstung at what is inevitable. Protected by\r\nvirtue that is superior to everything, soon shalt thou obtain good\r\nfortune. While living in the woods, keep thy eye on my child Sahadeva.\r\nSee that his heart sinketh not under this great calamity.\'\r\n\r\n"Saying \'So be it!\' the princess Draupadi bathed in tears, and clad in\r\none piece of cloth, stained with blood, and with hair dishevelled left\r\nher mother-in-law. And as she went away weeping and wailing Pritha\r\nherself in grief followed her. She had not gone far when she saw her sons\r\nshorn of their ornaments and robes, their bodies clad in deerskins, and\r\ntheir heads down with shame. And she beheld them surrounded by rejoicing\r\nfoes\' and pitied by friends. Endued with excess of parental affection,\r\nKunti approached her sons in that state, and embracing them all, and in\r\naccents choked by woe, She said these words,--\r\n\r\n"Ye are virtuous and good-mannered, and adorned with all excellent\r\nqualities and respectful behaviour. Ye are all high-minded, and engaged\r\nin the service of your superiors. And ye are also devoted to the gods and\r\nthe performance of sacrifices. Why, then, hath this calamity overtaken\r\nyou. Whence is this reverse of fortune? I do not see by whose wickedness\r\nthis sin hath overtaken you. Alas I have brought you forth. All this must\r\nbe due to my ill fortune. It is for this that ye have been overtaken by\r\nthis calamity, though ye all are endued with excellent virtues. In energy\r\nand prowess and strength and firmness and might, ye are not wanting. How\r\nshall ye now, losing your wealth and possessions, live poor in the\r\npathless woods? If I had known before that ye were destined to live in\r\nthe woods, I would not have on Pandit\'s death come from the mountains of\r\nSatasringa to Hastinapore. Fortunate was your father, as I now regard,\r\nfor he truly reaped the fruit of his asceticism, and he was gifted with\r\nforesight, as he entertained the wish of ascending heaven, without having\r\nto feel any pain on account of his sons. Fortunate also was the virtuous\r\nMadri, as I regard her today, who had, it seems, a fore-knowledge of what\r\nwould happen and who on that account, obtained the high path of\r\nemancipation and every blessing therewith. All, Madri looked upon me as\r\nher stay, and her mind and her affections were ever fixed on me. Oh, fie\r\non my desire of life, owing to which suffer all this woe. Ye children, ye\r\nare all excellent and dear unto me. I have obtained you alter much\r\nsuffering. I cannot leave you. Even I will go with you. Alas, O Krishna,\r\n(Draupadi), why dost thou leave me so? Everything endued with life is\r\nsure to perish. Hath Dhata (Brahma) himself forgotten to ordain my death?\r\nPerhaps, it is so, and, therefore, life doth not quit me. O Krishna, O\r\nthou who dwellest in Dwaraka, O younger brother of Sankarshana, where art\r\nthou? Why dost thou not deliver me and these best of men also from such\r\nwoe? They say that thou who art without beginning and without end\r\ndeliverest those that think of thee. Why doth this saying become untrue.\r\nThese my sons are ever attached to virtue and nobility and good fame and\r\nprowess. They deserve not to suffer affliction. Oh, show them mercy.\r\nAlas, when there are such elders amongst our race as Bhishma and Drona\r\nand Kripa, all conversant with morality and the science of worldly\r\nconcerns, how could such calamity at all come? O Pandu, O king, where art\r\nthou? Why sufferest thou quietly thy good children to be thus sent into\r\nexile, defeated at dice? O Sahadeva, desist from going. Thou art my\r\ndearest child, dearer, O son of Madri, than my body itself. Forsake me\r\nnot. It behoveth thee to have some kindness for me. Bound by the ties of\r\nvirtue, let these thy brothers go. But then, earn thou that virtue which\r\nspringeth from waiting upon me.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"The Pandavas then consoled their weeping mother\r\nand with hearts plunged in grief set out for the woods. And Vidura\r\nhimself also much afflicted, consoling the distressed Kunti with reasons,\r\nand led her slowly to his house. And the ladies of Dhritarashtra\'s house,\r\nhearing everything as it happened, viz., the exile (of the Pandavas) and\r\nthe dragging of Krishna into the assembly where the princes had gambled,\r\nloudly wept censuring the Kauravas. And the ladies of the royal household\r\nalso sat silent for a long time, covering their lotus-like faces with\r\ntheir fair hands. And king Dhritarashtra also thinking of the dangers\r\nthat threatened his sons, became a prey to anxiety and could not enjoy\r\npeace of mind. And anxiously meditating on everything, and with mind\r\ndeprived of its equanimity through grief, he sent a messenger unto\r\nVidura, saying, \'Let Kshatta come to me without a moment\'s delay.\'\r\n\r\n"At this summons, Vidura quickly came to Dhritarashtra\'s palace. And as\r\nsoon as he came, the monarch asked him with great anxiety how the\r\nPandavas had left Hastinapore."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"As soon as Vidura endued with great foresight came\r\nunto him king Dhritarashtra, the son of Amvika, timidly asked his\r\nbrother,--\'How doth Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma, proceed along? And\r\nhow Arjuna? And how the twin sons of Madri? And how, O Kshatta, doth\r\nDhaumya proceed along? And how the illustrious Draupadi? I desire to hear\r\neverything, O Kshatta; describe to me all their acts.\'\r\n\r\nVidura replied,--\'Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, hath gone away covering\r\nhis face with his cloth. And Bhima, O king, hath gone away looking at his\r\nown mighty arms. And Jishnu (Arjuna) hath gone away, following the king\r\nspreading sand-grains around. And Sahadeva, the son of Madri, hath gone\r\naway besmearing his face, and Nakula, the handsomest of men, O king, hath\r\ngone away, staining himself with dust and his heart in great affliction.\r\nAnd the large-eyed and beautiful Krishna hath gone away, covering her\r\nface with her dishevelled hair following in the wake of the king, weeping\r\nand in tears. And O monarch, Dhaumya goeth along the road, with kusa\r\ngrass in hand, and uttering the aweful mantras of Sama Veda that relate\r\nto Yama.\'\r\n\r\nDhritarashtra asked,--"Tell me, O Vidura, why is it that the Pandavas are\r\nleaving Hastinapore in such varied guise."\r\n\r\n"Vidura replied,--\'Though persecuted by thy sons and robbed of his\r\nkingdom and wealth the mind of the wise king Yudhishthira the just hath\r\nnot yet deviated from the path of virtue. King Yudhishthira is always\r\nkind, O Bharata, to thy children. Though deprived (of his kingdom and\r\npossessions) by foul means, filled with wrath as he is, he doth not open\r\neyes. \'I should not burn the people by looking at them with angry\r\neyes,\'--thinking so, the royal son of Pandu goeth covering his face.\r\nListen to me as I tell thee, O bull of the Bharata race, why Bhima goeth\r\nso. \'There is none equal to me in strength of arms,\' thinking so Bhima\r\ngoeth repeatedly stretching forth his mighty arms. And, O king, proud of\r\nthe strength of his arms, Vrikodara goeth, exhibiting them and desiring\r\nto do unto his enemies deeds worthy of those arms. And Arjuna the son of\r\nKunti, capable of using both his arms (in wielding the Gandiva) followeth\r\nthe footsteps of Yudhishthira, scattering sand-grains emblematical of the\r\narrows he would shower in battle. O Bharata, he indicateth that as the\r\nsand-grains are scattered by him with ease, so will he rain arrows with\r\nperfect ease on the foe (in time of battle). And Sahadeva goeth\r\nbesmearing his lace, thinking \'None may recognise me in this day of\r\ntrouble.\' And, O exalted one, Nakula goeth staining himself with dust\r\nthinking, \'Lest otherwise I steal the hearts of the ladies that may look\r\nat me.\' And Draupadi goeth, attired in one piece of stained cloth, her\r\nhair dishevelled, and weeping, signifying--\'The wives of those for whom I\r\nhave been reduced to such a plight, shall on the fourteenth year hence be\r\ndeprived of husbands, sons and relatives and dear ones and smeared all\r\nover with blood, with hair dishevelled and all in their feminine seasons\r\nenter Hastinapore having offered oblations of water (unto the manes of\r\nthose they will have lost). And O Bharata, the learned Dhaumya with\r\npassions under full control, holding the kusa grass in his hand and\r\npointing the same towards the south-west, walketh before, singing the\r\nmantras of the Sama Veda that relate to Yama. And, O monarch, that\r\nlearned Brahamana goeth, also signifying, \'When the Bharatas shall be\r\nslain in battle, the priests of the Kurus will thus sing the Soma mantras\r\n(for the benefit of the deceased).\' And the citizens, afflicted with\r\ngreat grief, are repeatedly crying out, \'Alas, alas, behold our masters\r\nare going away! O fie on the Kuru elders that have acted like foolish\r\nchildren in thus banishing heirs of Pandu from covetousness alone. Alas,\r\nseparated from the son of Pandu we all shall become masterless. What love\r\ncan we bear to the wicked and avaricious Kurus? Thus O king, have the\r\nsons of Kunti, endued with great energy of mind, gone away,--indicating,\r\nby manner and signs, the resolutions that are in their hearts. And as\r\nthose foremost of men had gone away from Hastinapore, flashes of\r\nlightning appeared in the sky though without clouds and the earth itself\r\nbegan to tremble. And Rahu came to devour the Sun, although it was not\r\nthe day of conjunction And meteors began to fall, keeping the city to\r\ntheir right. And jackals and vultures and ravens and other carnivorous\r\nbeasts and birds began to shriek and cry aloud from the temples of the\r\ngods and the tops of sacred trees and walls and house-tops. And these\r\nextraordinary calamitous portents, O king, were seen and heard,\r\nindicating the destruction of the Bharatas as the consequence of thy evil\r\ncounsels."\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"And, O monarch, while king Dhritarashtra and\r\nthe wise Vidura were thus talking with each other, there appeared in that\r\nassembly of the Kauravas and before the eyes of all, the best of the\r\ncelestial Rishis. And appealing before them all, he uttered these\r\nterrible words, On the fourteenth year hence, the Kauravas, in\r\nconsequence of Duryodhana\'s fault, will all be destroyed by the might of\r\nBhima and Arjuna\'. And having said this, that best of celestial Rishis,\r\nadorned with surpassing Vedic grace, passing through the skies,\r\ndisappeared from the scene. Then Duryodhana and Karna and Sakuni, the son\r\nof Suvala regarding Drona as their sole refuge, offered the kingdom to\r\nhim. Drona then, addressing the envious and wrathful Duryodhana and\r\nDussasana and Karna and all the Bharata, said, \'The Brahamanas have said\r\nthat the Pandavas being of celestial origin are incapable of being slain.\r\nThe sons of Dhritarashtra, however, having, with all the kings, heartily\r\nand with reverence sought my protection, I shall look after them to the\r\nbest of my power. Destiny is supreme, I cannot abandon them. The sons of\r\nPandu, defeated at dice, are going into exile in pursuance of their\r\npromise. They will live in the woods for twelve years. Practising the\r\nBrahmacharyya mode of life for this period, they will return in anger and\r\nto our great grief take the amplest vengeance on their foes. I had\r\nformerly deprived Drupada of his kingdom in a friendly dispute. Robbed of\r\nhis kingdom by me, O Bharata, the king performed a sacrifice for\r\nobtaining a son (that should slay me). Aided by the ascetic power of Yaja\r\nand Upayaja, Drupada obtained from the (sacrificial) fire a son named\r\nDhrishtadyumna and a daughter, viz., the faultless Krishna, both risen\r\nfrom the sacrificial platform. That Dhrishtadyumna is the brother-in-law\r\nof the sons of Pandu by marriage, and dear unto them. It is for him,\r\ntherefore that I have much fear. Of celestial origin and resplendent as\r\nthe fire, he was born with bow, arrows, and encased in mail. I am a being\r\nthat is mortal. Therefore it is for him that I have great fear. That\r\nslayer of all foes, the son of Parshatta, hath taken the side of the\r\nPandavas. I shall have to lose my life, if he and I ever encounter each\r\nother in battle. What grief can be greater to me in this world than this,\r\nye Kauravas that Dhrishtadyumna is the destined slayer of Drona--this\r\nbelief is general. That he hath been born for slaying me hath been heard\r\nby me and is widely known also in the world. For thy sake, O Duryodhana,\r\nthat terrible season of destruction is almost come. Do without loss of\r\ntime, what may be beneficial unto thee. Think not that everything hath\r\nbeen accomplished by sending the Pandavas into exile. This thy happiness\r\nwill last for but a moment, even as in winter the shadow of the top of\r\nthe palm tree resteth (for a short time) at its base. Perform various\r\nkinds of sacrifices, and enjoy, and give O Bharata, everything thou\r\nlikest. On the fourteenth year hence, a great calamity will overwhelm\r\nthee.\'"\r\n\r\nVaisampayana continued,--"Hearing these words of Drona, Dhritarashtra\r\nsaid,--\'O Kshatta, the preceptor hath uttered what is true. Go thou and\r\nbring back the Pandavas. If they do not come back, let them go treated\r\nwith respect and affection. Let those my sons go with weapons, and cars,\r\nand infantry, and enjoying every other good thing.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXX\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said,--"defeated at dice, after the Pandavas had gone to the\r\nwoods, Dhritarashtra, O king, was overcome with anxiety. And while he was\r\nseated restless with anxiety and sighing in grief, Sanjaya approaching\r\nhim said, \'O lord of the earth having now obtained the whole earth with\r\nall its wealth and sent away the sons of Pandu into exile, why is it, O\r\nking, that thou grievest so?"\r\n\r\nDhritarashtra said,--\'What have they not to grieve for who will have to\r\nencounter in battle those bulls among warriors--the sons of\r\nPandu--fighting on great cars and aided by allies?\'\r\n\r\n"Sanjaya said,--"O king, all this great hostility is inevitable on\r\naccount of thy mistaken action, and this will assuredly bring about the\r\nwholesale destruction of the whole world. Forbidden by Bhishma, by Drona,\r\nand by Vidura, thy wicked-minded and shameless son Duryodhana sent his\r\nSuta messenger commanding him to bring into court the beloved and\r\nvirtuous wife of the Pandavas. The gods first deprive that man of his\r\nreason unto whom they send defeat and disgrace. It is for this that such\r\na person seeth things in a strange light. When destruction is at hand,\r\nevil appeareth as good unto the understanding polluted by sin, and the\r\nman adhereth to it firmly. That which is improper appeareth as proper,\r\nand that which is proper appeareth as improper unto the man about to be\r\noverwhelmed by destruction, and evil and impropriety are what he liketh.\r\nThe time that bringeth on destruction doth not come with upraised club\r\nand smash one\'s head. On the other hand the peculiarity of such a time is\r\nthat it maketh a man behold evil in good and good in evil. The wretches\r\nhave brought on themselves this terrible, wholesale, and horrible\r\ndestruction by dragging the helpless princess of Panchala into the court.\r\nWho else than Duryodhana--that false player of dice could bring into the\r\nassembly, with insults, the daughter of Drupada, endued with beauty and\r\nintelligence, and conversant with every rule of morality and duty, and\r\nsprung not from any woman\'s womb but from the sacred fire? The handsome\r\nKrishna, then in her season, attired in one piece of stained cloth when\r\nbrought into the court cast her eyes upon the Pandavas. She beheld them,\r\nhowever, robbed of their wealth, of their kingdom, of even their attire,\r\nof their beauty, of every enjoyment, and plunged into a state of bondage.\r\nBound by the tie of virtue, they were then unable to exert their prowess.\r\nAnd before all the assembled kings Duryodhana and Karna spake cruel and\r\nharsh words unto the distressed and enraged Krishna undeserving of such\r\ntreatment. O monarch, all this appeareth to me as foreboding fearful\r\nconsequences.\'\r\n\r\nDhritarashtra said,--\'O Sanjaya, the glances of the distressed daughter\r\nof Drupada might consume the whole earth. Can it be possible that even a\r\nsingle son of mine will live? The wives of the Bharatas, uniting with\r\nGandhari upon beholding virtuous Krishna, the wedded wife of the\r\nPandavas, endued with beauty and youth, dragged into the court, set up\r\nfrightful wail. Even now, along with all my subjects, they weep every\r\nday. Enraged at the ill treatment of Draupadi, the Brahmanas in a body\r\ndid not perform that evening their Agnihotra ceremony. The winds blew\r\nmightily as they did at the time of the universal dissolution. There was\r\na terrible thunder-storm also. Meteors fell from the sky, and Rahu by\r\nswallowing the Sun unseasonably alarmed the people terribly. Our\r\nwar-chariots were suddenly ablaze, and all their flagstaffs fell down\r\nforeboding evil unto the Bharatas. Jackals began to cry frightfully from\r\nwithin the sacred fire-chamber of Duryodhana, and asses from all\r\ndirections began to bray in response. Then Bhishma and Drona, and Kripa,\r\nand Somadatta and the high-souled Vahlika, all left the assembly. It was\r\nthen that at the advice of Vidura I addressed Krishna and said, \'I will\r\ngrant thee boons, O Krishna, indeed, whatever thou wouldst ask? The\r\nprincess of the Panchala there begged of me the liberation of the\r\nPandavas. Out of my own motion I then set free the Pandavas, commanding\r\nthem to return (to their capital) on their cars and with their bows and\r\narrows. It was then that Vidura told me, \'Even this will prove the\r\ndestruction of the Bharata race, viz., this dragging of Krishna into the\r\ncourt. This daughter of the King of Panchala is the faultless Sree\r\nherself. Of celestial origin, she is the wedded wife of the Pandavas. The\r\nwrathful sons of Pandu will never forgive this insult offered unto her.\r\nNor will the mighty bowmen of the Vrishni race, nor the mighty warriors\r\namongst the Panchalas suffer this in silence. Supported by Vasudeva of\r\nunbaffled prowess, Arjuna will assuredly come back, surrounded by the\r\nPanchala host. And that mighty warrior amongst them, Bhimasena endued\r\nwith surpassing strength, will also come back, whirling his mace like\r\nYama himself with his club. These kings will scarcely be able to bear the\r\nforce of Bhima\'s mace. Therefore, O king, not hostility but peace for\r\never with the sons of Pandu is what seemeth to me to be the best. The\r\nsons of Pandu are always stronger than the Kurus. Thou knowest, O king,\r\nthat the illustrious and mighty king Jarasandha was slain in battle by\r\nBhima with his bare arms alone. Therefore, O bull of the Bharata race, it\r\nbehoveth thee to make peace with the sons of Pandu. Without scruples of\r\nany kind, unite the two parties, O king. And it thou actest in this way,\r\nthou art sure to obtain good luck, O king. It was thus, O son of\r\nGavalgani, that Vidura addressed me in words of both virtue and profit.\r\nAnd I did not accept this counsel, moved by affection for my son."\r\n\r\nThe End of Sabha Parva\r\n\r\nFOOTNOTES\r\n\r\n1. A word of benediction, similar to \'Amen.\'\r\n']

Cleaning The Data

When dealing with numerical data, data cleaning often involves removing null values and duplicate data, dealing with outliers, etc. With text data, there are some common data cleaning techniques, which are also known as text pre-processing techniques.

With text data, this cleaning process can go on forever. There’s always an exception to every cleaning step. So, we’re going to follow the MVP (minimum viable product) approach - start simple and iterate. Here are a bunch of things you can do to clean your data. We’re going to execute just the common cleaning steps here and the rest can be done at a later point to improve our results.

Common data cleaning steps on all text:

  • Make text all lower case
  • Remove punctuation
  • Remove numerical values
  • Remove common non-sensical text (/n)
  • Tokenize text
  • Remove stop words

More data cleaning steps after tokenization:

  • Stemming / lemmatization
  • Parts of speech tagging
  • Create bi-grams or tri-grams
  • Deal with typos
  • And more…
# Let's take a look at our data again
next(iter(data.keys()))
'Adi'
# Notice that our dictionary is currently in key: parva, value: list of text format
next(iter(data.values()))
['The Mahabharata\r\n\r\nof\r\n\r\nKrishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa\r\n\r\nBOOK 1\r\n\r\nADI PARVA\r\n\r\nTranslated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text\r\n\r\nby\r\n\r\nKisari Mohan Ganguli\r\n\r\n[1883-1896]\r\n\r\nScanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003. Proofed at Distributed Proofing,\r\nJuliet Sutherland, Project Manager. Additional proofing and formatting at\r\nsacred-texts.com, by J. B. Hare.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nTRANSLATOR\'S PREFACE\r\n\r\nThe object of a translator should ever be to hold the mirror upto his\r\nauthor. That being so, his chief duty is to represent so far as\r\npracticable the manner in which his author\'s ideas have been expressed,\r\nretaining if possible at the sacrifice of idiom and taste all the\r\npeculiarities of his author\'s imagery and of language as well. In regard\r\nto translations from the Sanskrit, nothing is easier than to dish up\r\nHindu ideas, so as to make them agreeable to English taste. But the\r\nendeavour of the present translator has been to give in the following\r\npages as literal a rendering as possible of the great work of Vyasa. To\r\nthe purely English reader there is much in the following pages that will\r\nstrike as ridiculous. Those unacquainted with any language but their own\r\nare generally very exclusive in matters of taste. Having no knowledge of\r\nmodels other than what they meet with in their own tongue, the standard\r\nthey have formed of purity and taste in composition must necessarily be a\r\nnarrow one. The translator, however, would ill-discharge his duty, if for\r\nthe sake of avoiding ridicule, he sacrificed fidelity to the original. He\r\nmust represent his author as he is, not as he should be to please the\r\nnarrow taste of those entirely unacquainted with him. Mr. Pickford, in\r\nthe preface to his English translation of the Mahavira Charita, ably\r\ndefends a close adherence to the original even at the sacrifice of idiom\r\nand taste against the claims of what has been called \'Free Translation,\'\r\nwhich means dressing the author in an outlandish garb to please those to\r\nwhom he is introduced.\r\n\r\nIn the preface to his classical translation of Bhartrihari\'s Niti Satakam\r\nand Vairagya Satakam, Mr. C.H. Tawney says, "I am sensible that in the\r\npresent attempt I have retained much local colouring. For instance, the\r\nideas of worshipping the feet of a god of great men, though it frequently\r\noccurs in Indian literature, will undoubtedly move the laughter of\r\nEnglishmen unacquainted with Sanskrit, especially if they happen to\r\nbelong to that class of readers who revel their attention on the\r\naccidental and remain blind to the essential. But a certain measure of\r\nfidelity to the original even at the risk of making oneself ridiculous,\r\nis better than the studied dishonesty which characterises so many\r\ntranslations of oriental poets."\r\n\r\nWe fully subscribe to the above although, it must be observed, the\r\ncensure conveyed to the class of translators last indicated is rather\r\nundeserved, there being nothing like a \'studied dishonesty\' in their\r\nefforts which proceed only from a mistaken view of their duties and as\r\nsuch betray only an error of the head but not of the heart. More than\r\ntwelve years ago when Babu Pratapa Chandra Roy, with Babu Durga Charan\r\nBanerjee, went to my retreat at Seebpore, for engaging me to translate\r\nthe Mahabharata into English, I was amazed with the grandeur of the\r\nscheme. My first question to him was,--whence was the money to come,\r\nsupposing my competence for the task. Pratapa then unfolded to me the\r\ndetails of his plan, the hopes he could legitimately cherish of\r\nassistance from different quarters. He was full of enthusiasm. He showed\r\nme Dr. Rost\'s letter, which, he said, had suggested to him the\r\nundertaking. I had known Babu Durga Charan for many years and I had the\r\nhighest opinion of his scholarship and practical good sense. When he\r\nwarmly took Pratapa\'s side for convincing me of the practicability of the\r\nscheme, I listened to him patiently. The two were for completing all\r\narrangements with me the very day. To this I did not agree. I took a\r\nweek\'s time to consider. I consulted some of my literary friends,\r\nforemost among whom was the late lamented Dr. Sambhu C. Mookherjee. The\r\nlatter, I found, had been waited upon by Pratapa. Dr. Mookherjee spoke to\r\nme of Pratapa as a man of indomitable energy and perseverance. The result\r\nof my conference with Dr. Mookherjee was that I wrote to Pratapa asking\r\nhim to see me again. In this second interview estimates were drawn up,\r\nand everything was arranged as far as my portion of the work was\r\nconcerned. My friend left with me a specimen of translation which he had\r\nreceived from Professor Max Muller. This I began to study, carefully\r\ncomparing it sentence by sentence with the original. About its literal\r\ncharacter there could be no doubt, but it had no flow and, therefore,\r\ncould not be perused with pleasure by the general reader. The translation\r\nhad been executed thirty years ago by a young German friend of the great\r\nPundit. I had to touch up every sentence. This I did without at all\r\nimpairing faithfulness to the original. My first \'copy\' was set up in\r\ntype and a dozen sheets were struck off. These were submitted to the\r\njudgment of a number of eminent writers, European and native. All of\r\nthem, I was glad to see, approved of the specimen, and then the task of\r\ntranslating the Mahabharata into English seriously began.\r\n\r\nBefore, however, the first fasciculus could be issued, the question as to\r\nwhether the authorship of the translation should be publicly owned,\r\narose. Babu Pratapa Chandra Roy was against anonymity. I was for it. The\r\nreasons I adduced were chiefly founded upon the impossibility of one\r\nperson translating the whole of the gigantic work. Notwithstanding my\r\nresolve to discharge to the fullest extent the duty that I took up, I\r\nmight not live to carry it out. It would take many years before the end\r\ncould be reached. Other circumstances than death might arise in\r\nconsequence of which my connection with the work might cease. It could\r\nnot be desirable to issue successive fasciculus with the names of a\r\nsuccession of translators appearing on the title pages. These and other\r\nconsiderations convinced my friend that, after all, my view was correct.\r\nIt was, accordingly, resolved to withhold the name of the translator. As\r\na compromise, however, between the two views, it was resolved to issue\r\nthe first fasciculus with two prefaces, one over the signature of the\r\npublisher and the other headed--\'Translator\'s Preface.\' This, it was\r\nsupposed, would effectually guard against misconceptions of every kind.\r\nNo careful reader would then confound the publisher with the author.\r\n\r\nAlthough this plan was adopted, yet before a fourth of the task had been\r\naccomplished, an influential Indian journal came down upon poor Pratapa\r\nChandra Roy and accused him openly of being a party to a great literary\r\nimposture, viz., of posing before the world as the translator of Vyasa\'s\r\nwork when, in fact, he was only the publisher. The charge came upon my\r\nfriend as a surprise, especially as he had never made a secret of the\r\nauthorship in his correspondence with Oriental scholars in every part of\r\nthe world. He promptly wrote to the journal in question, explaining the\r\nreasons there were for anonymity, and pointing to the two prefaces with\r\nwhich the first fasciculus had been given to the world. The editor\r\nreadily admitted his mistake and made a satisfactory apology.\r\n\r\nNow that the translation has been completed, there can no longer be any\r\nreason for withholding the name of the translator. The entire translation\r\nis practically the work of one hand. In portions of the Adi and the Sabha\r\nParvas, I was assisted by Babu Charu Charan Mookerjee. About four forms\r\nof the Sabha Parva were done by Professor Krishna Kamal Bhattacharya, and\r\nabout half a fasciculus during my illness, was done by another hand. I\r\nshould however state that before passing to the printer the copy received\r\nfrom these gentlemen I carefully compared every sentence with the\r\noriginal, making such alterations as were needed for securing a\r\nuniformity of style with the rest of the work.\r\n\r\nI should here observe that in rendering the Mahabharata into English I\r\nhave derived very little aid from the three Bengali versions that are\r\nsupposed to have been executed with care. Every one of these is full of\r\ninaccuracies and blunders of every description. The Santi in particular\r\nwhich is by far the most difficult of the eighteen Parvas, has been made\r\na mess of by the Pundits that attacked it. Hundreds of ridiculous\r\nblunders can be pointed out in both the Rajadharma and the Mokshadharma\r\nsections. Some of these I have pointed out in footnotes.\r\n\r\nI cannot lay claim to infallibility. There are verses in the Mahabharata\r\nthat are exceedingly difficult to construe. I have derived much aid from\r\nthe great commentator Nilakantha. I know that Nilakantha\'s authority is\r\nnot incapable of being challenged. But when it is remembered that the\r\ninterpretations given by Nilakantha came down to him from preceptors of\r\nolden days, one should think twice before rejecting Nilakantha as a guide.\r\n\r\nAbout the readings I have adopted, I should say that as regards the first\r\nhalf of the work, I have generally adhered to the Bengal texts; as\r\nregards the latter half, to the printed Bombay edition. Sometimes\r\nindividual sections, as occurring in the Bengal editions, differ widely,\r\nin respect of the order of the verses, from the corresponding ones in the\r\nBombay edition. In such cases I have adhered to the Bengal texts,\r\nconvinced that the sequence of ideas has been better preserved in the\r\nBengal editions than the Bombay one.\r\n\r\nI should express my particular obligations to Pundit Ram Nath Tarkaratna,\r\nthe author of \'Vasudeva Vijayam\' and other poems, Pundit Shyama Charan\r\nKaviratna, the learned editor of Kavyaprakasha with the commentary of\r\nProfessor Mahesh Chandra Nayaratna, and Babu Aghore Nath Banerjee, the\r\nmanager of the Bharata Karyalaya. All these scholars were my referees on\r\nall points of difficulty. Pundit Ram Nath\'s solid scholarship is known to\r\nthem that have come in contact with him. I never referred to him a\r\ndifficulty that he could not clear up. Unfortunately, he was not always\r\nat hand to consult. Pundit Shyama Charan Kaviratna, during my residence\r\nat Seebpore, assisted me in going over the Mokshadharma sections of the\r\nSanti Parva. Unostentatious in the extreme, Kaviratna is truly the type\r\nof a learned Brahman of ancient India. Babu Aghore Nath Banerjee also has\r\nfrom time to time, rendered me valuable assistance in clearing my\r\ndifficulties.\r\n\r\nGigantic as the work is, it would have been exceedingly difficult for me\r\nto go on with it if I had not been encouraged by Sir Stuart Bayley, Sir\r\nAuckland Colvin, Sir Alfred Croft, and among Oriental scholars, by the\r\nlate lamented Dr. Reinhold Rost, and Mons. A. Barth of Paris. All these\r\neminent men know from the beginning that the translation was proceeding\r\nfrom my pen. Notwithstanding the enthusiasm, with which my poor friend,\r\nPratapa Chandra Roy, always endeavoured to fill me. I am sure my energies\r\nwould have flagged and patience exhausted but for the encouraging words\r\nwhich I always received from these patrons and friends of the enterprise.\r\n\r\nLastly, I should name my literary chief and friend, Dr. Sambhu C.\r\nMookherjee. The kind interest he took in my labours, the repeated\r\nexhortations he addressed to me inculcating patience, the care with which\r\nhe read every fasciculus as it came out, marking all those passages which\r\nthrew light upon topics of antiquarian interest, and the words of praise\r\nhe uttered when any expression particularly happy met his eyes, served to\r\nstimulate me more than anything else in going on with a task that\r\nsometimes seemed to me endless.\r\n\r\nKisari Mohan Ganguli\r\n\r\nCalcutta\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nTHE MAHABHARATA\r\n\r\nADI PARVA\r\n\r\nSECTION I\r\n\r\nOm! Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the most exalted male being,\r\nand also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.\r\n\r\nUgrasrava, the son of Lomaharshana, surnamed Sauti, well-versed in the\r\nPuranas, bending with humility, one day approached the great sages of\r\nrigid vows, sitting at their ease, who had attended the twelve years\'\r\nsacrifice of Saunaka, surnamed Kulapati, in the forest of Naimisha. Those\r\nascetics, wishing to hear his wonderful narrations, presently began to\r\naddress him who had thus arrived at that recluse abode of the inhabitants\r\nof the forest of Naimisha. Having been entertained with due respect by\r\nthose holy men, he saluted those Munis (sages) with joined palms, even\r\nall of them, and inquired about the progress of their asceticism. Then\r\nall the ascetics being again seated, the son of Lomaharshana humbly\r\noccupied the seat that was assigned to him. Seeing that he was\r\ncomfortably seated, and recovered from fatigue, one of the Rishis\r\nbeginning the conversation, asked him, \'Whence comest thou, O lotus-eyed\r\nSauti, and where hast thou spent the time? Tell me, who ask thee, in\r\ndetail.\'\r\n\r\nAccomplished in speech, Sauti, thus questioned, gave in the midst of that\r\nbig assemblage of contemplative Munis a full and proper answer in words\r\nconsonant with their mode of life.\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Having heard the diverse sacred and wonderful stories which\r\nwere composed in his Mahabharata by Krishna-Dwaipayana, and which were\r\nrecited in full by Vaisampayana at the Snake-sacrifice of the high-souled\r\nroyal sage Janamejaya and in the presence also of that chief of Princes,\r\nthe son of Parikshit, and having wandered about, visiting many sacred\r\nwaters and holy shrines, I journeyed to the country venerated by the\r\nDwijas (twice-born) and called Samantapanchaka where formerly was fought\r\nthe battle between the children of Kuru and Pandu, and all the chiefs of\r\nthe land ranged on either side. Thence, anxious to see you, I am come\r\ninto your presence. Ye reverend sages, all of whom are to me as Brahma;\r\nye greatly blessed who shine in this place of sacrifice with the\r\nsplendour of the solar fire: ye who have concluded the silent meditations\r\nand have fed the holy fire; and yet who are sitting--without care, what,\r\nO ye Dwijas (twice-born), shall I repeat, shall I recount the sacred\r\nstories collected in the Puranas containing precepts of religious duty\r\nand of worldly profit, or the acts of illustrious saints and sovereigns\r\nof mankind?"\r\n\r\n"The Rishi replied, \'The Purana, first promulgated by the great Rishi\r\nDwaipayana, and which after having been heard both by the gods and the\r\nBrahmarshis was highly esteemed, being the most eminent narrative that\r\nexists, diversified both in diction and division, possessing subtile\r\nmeanings logically combined, and gleaned from the Vedas, is a sacred\r\nwork. Composed in elegant language, it includeth the subjects of other\r\nbooks. It is elucidated by other Shastras, and comprehendeth the sense of\r\nthe four Vedas. We are desirous of hearing that history also called\r\nBharata, the holy composition of the wonderful Vyasa, which dispelleth\r\nthe fear of evil, just as it was cheerfully recited by the Rishi\r\nVaisampayana, under the direction of Dwaipayana himself, at the\r\nsnake-sacrifice of Raja Janamejaya?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti then said, \'Having bowed down to the primordial being Isana, to\r\nwhom multitudes make offerings, and who is adored by the multitude; who\r\nis the true incorruptible one, Brahma, perceptible, imperceptible,\r\neternal; who is both a non-existing and an existing-non-existing being;\r\nwho is the universe and also distinct from the existing and non-existing\r\nuniverse; who is the creator of high and low; the ancient, exalted,\r\ninexhaustible one; who is Vishnu, beneficent and the beneficence itself,\r\nworthy of all preference, pure and immaculate; who is Hari, the ruler of\r\nthe faculties, the guide of all things moveable and immoveable; I will\r\ndeclare the sacred thoughts of the illustrious sage Vyasa, of marvellous\r\ndeeds and worshipped here by all. Some bards have already published this\r\nhistory, some are now teaching it, and others, in like manner, will\r\nhereafter promulgate it upon the earth. It is a great source of\r\nknowledge, established throughout the three regions of the world. It is\r\npossessed by the twice-born both in detailed and compendious forms. It is\r\nthe delight of the learned for being embellished with elegant\r\nexpressions, conversations human and divine, and a variety of poetical\r\nmeasures.\r\n\r\nIn this world, when it was destitute of brightness and light, and\r\nenveloped all around in total darkness, there came into being, as the\r\nprimal cause of creation, a mighty egg, the one inexhaustible seed of all\r\ncreated beings. It is called Mahadivya, and was formed at the beginning\r\nof the Yuga, in which we are told, was the true light Brahma, the eternal\r\none, the wonderful and inconceivable being present alike in all places;\r\nthe invisible and subtile cause, whose nature partaketh of entity and\r\nnon-entity. From this egg came out the lord Pitamaha Brahma, the one only\r\nPrajapati; with Suraguru and Sthanu. Then appeared the twenty-one\r\nPrajapatis, viz., Manu, Vasishtha and Parameshthi; ten Prachetas, Daksha,\r\nand the seven sons of Daksha. Then appeared the man of inconceivable\r\nnature whom all the Rishis know and so the Viswe-devas, the Adityas, the\r\nVasus, and the twin Aswins; the Yakshas, the Sadhyas, the Pisachas, the\r\nGuhyakas, and the Pitris. After these were produced the wise and most\r\nholy Brahmarshis, and the numerous Rajarshis distinguished by every noble\r\nquality. So the water, the heavens, the earth, the air, the sky, the\r\npoints of the heavens, the years, the seasons, the months, the\r\nfortnights, called Pakshas, with day and night in due succession. And\r\nthus were produced all things which are known to mankind.\r\n\r\nAnd what is seen in the universe, whether animate or inanimate, of\r\ncreated things, will at the end of the world, and after the expiration of\r\nthe Yuga, be again confounded. And, at the commencement of other Yugas,\r\nall things will be renovated, and, like the various fruits of the earth,\r\nsucceed each other in the due order of their seasons. Thus continueth\r\nperpetually to revolve in the world, without beginning and without end,\r\nthis wheel which causeth the destruction of all things.\r\n\r\nThe generation of Devas, in brief, was thirty-three thousand,\r\nthirty-three hundred and thirty-three. The sons of Div were Brihadbhanu,\r\nChakshus, Atma Vibhavasu, Savita, Richika, Arka, Bhanu, Asavaha, and\r\nRavi. Of these Vivaswans of old, Mahya was the youngest whose son was\r\nDeva-vrata. The latter had for his son, Su-vrata who, we learn, had three\r\nsons,--Dasa-jyoti, Sata-jyoti, and Sahasra-jyoti, each of them producing\r\nnumerous offspring. The illustrious Dasa-jyoti had ten thousand,\r\nSata-jyoti ten times that number, and Sahasra-jyoti ten times the number\r\nof Sata-jyoti\'s offspring. From these are descended the family of the\r\nKurus, of the Yadus, and of Bharata; the family of Yayati and of\r\nIkshwaku; also of all the Rajarshis. Numerous also were the generations\r\nproduced, and very abundant were the creatures and their places of abode.\r\nThe mystery which is threefold--the Vedas, Yoga, and Vijnana Dharma,\r\nArtha, and Kama--also various books upon the subject of Dharma, Artha,\r\nand Kama; also rules for the conduct of mankind; also histories and\r\ndiscourses with various srutis; all of which having been seen by the\r\nRishi Vyasa are here in due order mentioned as a specimen of the book.\r\n\r\nThe Rishi Vyasa published this mass of knowledge in both a detailed and\r\nan abridged form. It is the wish of the learned in the world to possess\r\nthe details and the abridgement. Some read the Bharata beginning with the\r\ninitial mantra (invocation), others with the story of Astika, others with\r\nUparichara, while some Brahmanas study the whole. Men of learning display\r\ntheir various knowledge of the institutes in commenting on the\r\ncomposition. Some are skilful in explaining it, while others, in\r\nremembering its contents.\r\n\r\nThe son of Satyavati having, by penance and meditation, analysed the\r\neternal Veda, afterwards composed this holy history, when that learned\r\nBrahmarshi of strict vows, the noble Dwaipayana Vyasa, offspring of\r\nParasara, had finished this greatest of narrations, he began to consider\r\nhow he might teach it to his disciples. And the possessor of the six\r\nattributes, Brahma, the world\'s preceptor, knowing of the anxiety of the\r\nRishi Dwaipayana, came in person to the place where the latter was, for\r\ngratifying the saint, and benefiting the people. And when Vyasa,\r\nsurrounded by all the tribes of Munis, saw him, he was surprised; and,\r\nstanding with joined palms, he bowed and ordered a seat to be brought.\r\nAnd Vyasa having gone round him who is called Hiranyagarbha seated on\r\nthat distinguished seat stood near it; and being commanded by Brahma\r\nParameshthi, he sat down near the seat, full of affection and smiling in\r\njoy. Then the greatly glorious Vyasa, addressing Brahma Parameshthi,\r\nsaid, "O divine Brahma, by me a poem hath been composed which is greatly\r\nrespected. The mystery of the Veda, and what other subjects have been\r\nexplained by me; the various rituals of the Upanishads with the Angas;\r\nthe compilation of the Puranas and history formed by me and named after\r\nthe three divisions of time, past, present, and future; the determination\r\nof the nature of decay, fear, disease, existence, and non-existence, a\r\ndescription of creeds and of the various modes of life; rule for the four\r\ncastes, and the import of all the Puranas; an account of asceticism and\r\nof the duties of a religious student; the dimensions of the sun and moon,\r\nthe planets, constellations, and stars, together with the duration of the\r\nfour ages; the Rik, Sama and Yajur Vedas; also the Adhyatma; the sciences\r\ncalled Nyaya, Orthoephy and Treatment of diseases; charity and\r\nPasupatadharma; birth celestial and human, for particular purposes; also\r\na description of places of pilgrimage and other holy places of rivers,\r\nmountains, forests, the ocean, of heavenly cities and the kalpas; the art\r\nof war; the different kinds of nations and languages: the nature of the\r\nmanners of the people; and the all-pervading spirit;--all these have been\r\nrepresented. But, after all, no writer of this work is to be found on\r\nearth.\'\r\n\r\n"Brahma said. \'I esteem thee for thy knowledge of divine mysteries,\r\nbefore the whole body of celebrated Munis distinguished for the sanctity\r\nof their lives. I know thou hast revealed the divine word, even from its\r\nfirst utterance, in the language of truth. Thou hast called thy present\r\nwork a poem, wherefore it shall be a poem. There shall be no poets whose\r\nworks may equal the descriptions of this poem, even, as the three other\r\nmodes called Asrama are ever unequal in merit to the domestic Asrama. Let\r\nGanesa be thought of, O Muni, for the purpose of writing the poem.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Brahma having thus spoken to Vyasa, retired to his own\r\nabode. Then Vyasa began to call to mind Ganesa. And Ganesa, obviator of\r\nobstacles, ready to fulfil the desires of his votaries, was no sooner\r\nthought of, than he repaired to the place where Vyasa was seated. And\r\nwhen he had been saluted, and was seated, Vyasa addressed him thus, \'O\r\nguide of the Ganas! be thou the writer of the Bharata which I have formed\r\nin my imagination, and which I am about to repeat."\r\n\r\n"Ganesa, upon hearing this address, thus answered, \'I will become the\r\nwriter of thy work, provided my pen do not for a moment cease writing."\r\nAnd Vyasa said unto that divinity, \'Wherever there be anything thou dost\r\nnot comprehend, cease to continue writing.\' Ganesa having signified his\r\nassent, by repeating the word Om! proceeded to write; and Vyasa began;\r\nand by way of diversion, he knit the knots of composition exceeding\r\nclose; by doing which, he dictated this work according to his engagement.\r\n\r\nI am (continued Sauti) acquainted with eight thousand and eight hundred\r\nverses, and so is Suka, and perhaps Sanjaya. From the mysteriousness of\r\ntheir meaning, O Muni, no one is able, to this day, to penetrate those\r\nclosely knit difficult slokas. Even the omniscient Ganesa took a moment\r\nto consider; while Vyasa, however, continued to compose other verses in\r\ngreat abundance.\r\n\r\nThe wisdom of this work, like unto an instrument of applying collyrium,\r\nhath opened the eyes of the inquisitive world blinded by the darkness of\r\nignorance. As the sun dispelleth the darkness, so doth the Bharata by its\r\ndiscourses on religion, profit, pleasure and final release, dispel the\r\nignorance of men. As the full-moon by its mild light expandeth the buds\r\nof the water-lily, so this Purana, by exposing the light of the Sruti\r\nhath expanded the human intellect. By the lamp of history, which\r\ndestroyeth the darkness of ignorance, the whole mansion of nature is\r\nproperly and completely illuminated.\r\n\r\nThis work is a tree, of which the chapter of contents is the seed; the\r\ndivisions called Pauloma and Astika are the root; the part called\r\nSambhava is the trunk; the books called Sabha and Aranya are the roosting\r\nperches; the books called Arani is the knitting knots; the books called\r\nVirata and Udyoga the pith; the book named Bhishma, the main branch; the\r\nbook called Drona, the leaves; the book called Karna, the fair flowers;\r\nthe book named Salya, their sweet smell; the books entitled Stri and\r\nAishika, the refreshing shade; the book called Santi, the mighty fruit;\r\nthe book called Aswamedha, the immortal sap; the denominated\r\nAsramavasika, the spot where it groweth; and the book called Mausala, is\r\nan epitome of the Vedas and held in great respect by the virtuous\r\nBrahmanas. The tree of the Bharata, inexhaustible to mankind as the\r\nclouds, shall be as a source of livelihood to all distinguished poets."\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'I will now speak of the undying flowery and fruitful\r\nproductions of this tree, possessed of pure and pleasant taste, and not\r\nto be destroyed even by the immortals. Formerly, the spirited and\r\nvirtuous Krishna-Dwaipayana, by the injunctions of Bhishma, the wise son\r\nof Ganga and of his own mother, became the father of three boys who were\r\nlike the three fires by the two wives of Vichitra-virya; and having thus\r\nraised up Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura, he returned to his recluse\r\nabode to prosecute his religious exercise.\r\n\r\nIt was not till after these were born, grown up, and departed on the\r\nsupreme journey, that the great Rishi Vyasa published the Bharata in this\r\nregion of mankind; when being solicited by Janamejaya and thousands of\r\nBrahmanas, he instructed his disciple Vaisampayana, who was seated near\r\nhim; and he, sitting together with the Sadasyas, recited the Bharata,\r\nduring the intervals of the ceremonies of the sacrifice, being repeatedly\r\nurged to proceed.\r\n\r\nVyasa hath fully represented the greatness of the house of Kuru, the\r\nvirtuous principles of Gandhari, the wisdom of Vidura, and the constancy\r\nof Kunti. The noble Rishi hath also described the divinity of Vasudeva,\r\nthe rectitude of the sons of Pandu, and the evil practices of the sons\r\nand partisans of Dhritarashtra.\r\n\r\nVyasa executed the compilation of the Bharata, exclusive of the episodes\r\noriginally in twenty-four thousand verses; and so much only is called by\r\nthe learned as the Bharata. Afterwards, he composed an epitome in one\r\nhundred and fifty verses, consisting of the introduction with the chapter\r\nof contents. This he first taught to his son Suka; and afterwards he gave\r\nit to others of his disciples who were possessed of the same\r\nqualifications. After that he executed another compilation, consisting of\r\nsix hundred thousand verses. Of those, thirty hundred thousand are known\r\nin the world of the Devas; fifteen hundred thousand in the world of the\r\nPitris: fourteen hundred thousand among the Gandharvas, and one hundred\r\nthousand in the regions of mankind. Narada recited them to the Devas,\r\nDevala to the Pitris, and Suka published them to the Gandharvas, Yakshas,\r\nand Rakshasas: and in this world they were recited by Vaisampayana, one\r\nof the disciples of Vyasa, a man of just principles and the first among\r\nall those acquainted with the Vedas. Know that I, Sauti, have also\r\nrepeated one hundred thousand verses.\r\n\r\nYudhishthira is a vast tree, formed of religion and virtue; Arjuna is its\r\ntrunk; Bhimasena, its branches; the two sons of Madri are its full-grown\r\nfruit and flowers; and its roots are Krishna, Brahma, and the Brahmanas.\r\n\r\nPandu, after having subdued many countries by his wisdom and prowess,\r\ntook up his abode with the Munis in a certain forest as a sportsman,\r\nwhere he brought upon himself a very severe misfortune for having killed\r\na stag coupling with its mate, which served as a warning for the conduct\r\nof the princes of his house as long as they lived. Their mothers, in\r\norder that the ordinances of the law might be fulfilled, admitted as\r\nsubstitutes to their embraces the gods Dharma, Vayu, Sakra, and the\r\ndivinities the twin Aswins. And when their offspring grew up, under the\r\ncare of their two mothers, in the society of ascetics, in the midst of\r\nsacred groves and holy recluse-abodes of religious men, they were\r\nconducted by Rishis into the presence of Dhritarashtra and his sons,\r\nfollowing as students in the habit of Brahmacharis, having their hair\r\ntied in knots on their heads. \'These our pupils\', said they, \'are as your\r\nsons, your brothers, and your friends; they are Pandavas.\' Saying this,\r\nthe Munis disappeared.\r\n\r\nWhen the Kauravas saw them introduced as the sons of Pandu, the\r\ndistinguished class of citizens shouted exceedingly for joy. Some,\r\nhowever, said, they were not the sons of Pandu; others said, they were;\r\nwhile a few asked how they could be his offspring, seeing he had been so\r\nlong dead. Still on all sides voices were heard crying, \'They are on all\r\naccounts welcome! Through divine Providence we behold the family of\r\nPandu! Let their welcome be proclaimed!\' As these acclamations ceased,\r\nthe plaudits of invisible spirits, causing every point of the heavens to\r\nresound, were tremendous. There were showers of sweet-scented flowers,\r\nand the sound of shells and kettle-drums. Such were the wonders that\r\nhappened on the arrival of the young princes. The joyful noise of all the\r\ncitizens, in expression of their satisfaction on the occasion, was so\r\ngreat that it reached the very heavens in magnifying plaudits.\r\n\r\nHaving studied the whole of the Vedas and sundry other shastras, the\r\nPandavas resided there, respected by all and without apprehension from\r\nany one.\r\n\r\nThe principal men were pleased with the purity of Yudhishthira, the\r\ncourage of Arjuna, the submissive attention of Kunti to her superiors,\r\nand the humility of the twins, Nakula and Sahadeva; and all the people\r\nrejoiced in their heroic virtues.\r\n\r\nAfter a while, Arjuna obtained the virgin Krishna at the swayamvara, in\r\nthe midst of a concourse of Rajas, by performing a very difficult feat of\r\narchery. And from this time he became very much respected in this world\r\namong all bowmen; and in fields of battle also, like the sun, he was hard\r\nto behold by foe-men. And having vanquished all the neighbouring princes\r\nand every considerable tribe, he accomplished all that was necessary for\r\nthe Raja (his eldest brother) to perform the great sacrifice called\r\nRajasuya.\r\n\r\nYudhishthira, after having, through the wise counsels of Vasudeva and by\r\nthe valour of Bhimasena and Arjuna, slain Jarasandha (the king of\r\nMagadha) and the proud Chaidya, acquired the right to perform the grand\r\nsacrifice of Rajasuya abounding in provisions and offering and fraught\r\nwith transcendent merits. And Duryodhana came to this sacrifice; and when\r\nhe beheld the vast wealth of the Pandavas scattered all around, the\r\nofferings, the precious stones, gold and jewels; the wealth in cows,\r\nelephants, and horses; the curious textures, garments, and mantles; the\r\nprecious shawls and furs and carpets made of the skin of the Ranku; he\r\nwas filled with envy and became exceedingly displeased. And when he\r\nbeheld the hall of assembly elegantly constructed by Maya (the Asura\r\narchitect) after the fashion of a celestial court, he was inflamed with\r\nrage. And having started in confusion at certain architectural deceptions\r\nwithin this building, he was derided by Bhimasena in the presence of\r\nVasudeva, like one of mean descent.\r\n\r\nAnd it was represented to Dhritarashtra that his son, while partaking of\r\nvarious objects of enjoyment and diverse precious things, was becoming\r\nmeagre, wan, and pale. And Dhritarashtra, some time after, out of\r\naffection for his son, gave his consent to their playing (with the\r\nPandavas) at dice. And Vasudeva coming to know of this, became\r\nexceedingly wroth. And being dissatisfied, he did nothing to prevent the\r\ndisputes, but overlooked the gaming and sundry other horried\r\nunjustifiable transactions arising therefrom: and in spite of Vidura,\r\nBhishma, Drona, and Kripa, the son of Saradwan, he made the Kshatriyas\r\nkill each other in the terrific war that ensued.\'\r\n\r\n"And Dhritarashtra hearing the ill news of the success of the Pandavas\r\nand recollecting the resolutions of Duryodhana, Kama, and Sakuni,\r\npondered for a while and addressed to Sanjaya the following speech:--\r\n\r\n\'Attend, O Sanjaya, to all I am about to say, and it will not become thee\r\nto treat me with contempt. Thou art well-versed in the shastras,\r\nintelligent and endowed with wisdom. My inclination was never to war, not\r\ndid I delight in the destruction of my race. I made no distinction\r\nbetween my own children and the children of Pandu. My own sons were prone\r\nto wilfulness and despised me because I am old. Blind as I am, because of\r\nmy miserable plight and through paternal affection, I bore it all. I was\r\nfoolish alter the thoughtless Duryodhana ever growing in folly. Having\r\nbeen a spectator of the riches of the mighty sons of Pandu, my son was\r\nderided for his awkwardness while ascending the hall. Unable to bear it\r\nall and unable himself to overcome the sons of Pandu in the field, and\r\nthough a soldier, unwilling yet to obtain good fortune by his own\r\nexertion, with the help of the king of Gandhara he concerted an unfair\r\ngame at dice.\r\n\r\n\'Hear, O Sanjaya, all that happened thereupon and came to my knowledge.\r\nAnd when thou hast heard all I say, recollecting everything as it fell\r\nout, thou shall then know me for one with a prophetic eye. When I heard\r\nthat Arjuna, having bent the bow, had pierced the curious mark and\r\nbrought it down to the ground, and bore away in triumph the maiden\r\nKrishna, in the sight of the assembled princes, then, O Sanjaya I had no\r\nhope of success. When I heard that Subhadra of the race of Madhu had,\r\nafter forcible seizure been married by Arjuna in the city of Dwaraka, and\r\nthat the two heroes of the race of Vrishni (Krishna and Balarama the\r\nbrothers of Subhadra) without resenting it had entered Indraprastha as\r\nfriends, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that\r\nArjuna, by his celestial arrow preventing the downpour by Indra the king\r\nof the gods, had gratified Agni by making over to him the forest of\r\nKhandava, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that\r\nthe five Pandavas with their mother Kunti had escaped from the house of\r\nlac, and that Vidura was engaged in the accomplishment of their designs,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna,\r\nafter having pierced the mark in the arena had won Draupadi, and that the\r\nbrave Panchalas had joined the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. When I heard that Jarasandha, the foremost of the royal line\r\nof Magadha, and blazing in the midst of the Kshatriyas, had been slain by\r\nBhima with his bare arms alone, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that in their general campaign the sons of Pandu\r\nhad conquered the chiefs of the land and performed the grand sacrifice of\r\nthe Rajasuya, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat Draupadi, her voice choked with tears and heart full of agony, in\r\nthe season of impurity and with but one raiment on, had been dragged into\r\ncourt and though she had protectors, she had been treated as if she had\r\nnone, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the\r\nwicked wretch Duhsasana, was striving to strip her of that single\r\ngarment, had only drawn from her person a large heap of cloth without\r\nbeing able to arrive at its end, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that Yudhishthira, beaten by Saubala at the game of\r\ndice and deprived of his kingdom as a consequence thereof, had still been\r\nattended upon by his brothers of incomparable prowess, then, O Sanjaya, I\r\nhad no hope of success. When I heard that the virtuous Pandavas weeping\r\nwith affliction had followed their elder brother to the wilderness and\r\nexerted themselves variously for the mitigation of his discomforts, then,\r\nO Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.\r\n\r\n\'When I heard that Yudhishthira had been followed into the wilderness by\r\nSnatakas and noble-minded Brahmanas who live upon alms, then, O Sanjaya,\r\nI had no hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna, having, in combat,\r\npleased the god of gods, Tryambaka (the three-eyed) in the disguise of a\r\nhunter, obtained the great weapon Pasupata, then O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. When I heard that the just and renowned Arjuna after having\r\nbeen to the celestial regions, had there obtained celestial weapons from\r\nIndra himself then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat afterwards Arjuna had vanquished the Kalakeyas and the Paulomas\r\nproud with the boon they had obtained and which had rendered them\r\ninvulnerable even to the celestials, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that Arjuna, the chastiser of enemies, having gone\r\nto the regions of Indra for the destruction of the Asuras, had returned\r\nthence successful, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard that Bhima and the other sons of Pritha (Kunti) accompanied by\r\nVaisravana had arrived at that country which is inaccessible to man then,\r\nO Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that my sons, guided by\r\nthe counsels of Karna, while on their journey of Ghoshayatra, had been\r\ntaken prisoners by the Gandharvas and were set free by Arjuna, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Dharma (the god of\r\njustice) having come under the form of a Yaksha had proposed certain\r\nquestions to Yudhishthira then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When\r\nI heard that my sons had failed to discover the Pandavas under their\r\ndisguise while residing with Draupadi in the dominions of Virata, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the principal men of\r\nmy side had all been vanquished by the noble Arjuna with a single chariot\r\nwhile residing in the dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. When I heard that Vasudeva of the race of Madhu, who covered\r\nthis whole earth by one foot, was heartily interested in the welfare of\r\nthe Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat the king of Matsya, had offered his virtuous daughter Uttara to\r\nArjuna and that Arjuna had accepted her for his son, then, O Sanjaya, I\r\nhad no hope of success. When I heard that Yudhishthira, beaten at dice,\r\ndeprived of wealth, exiled and separated from his connections, had\r\nassembled yet an army of seven Akshauhinis, then, O Sanjaya, I had no\r\nhope of success. When I heard Narada, declare that Krishna and Arjuna\r\nwere Nara and Narayana and he (Narada) had seen them together in the\r\nregions of Brahma, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard that Krishna, anxious to bring about peace, for the welfare of\r\nmankind had repaired to the Kurus, and went away without having been able\r\nto effect his purpose, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard that Kama and Duryodhana resolved upon imprisoning Krishna\r\ndisplayed in himself the whole universe, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. Then I heard that at the time of his departure, Pritha\r\n(Kunti) standing, full of sorrow, near his chariot received consolation\r\nfrom Krishna, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat Vasudeva and Bhishma the son of Santanu were the counsellors of the\r\nPandavas and Drona the son of Bharadwaja pronounced blessings on them,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When Kama said unto Bhishma--I\r\nwill not fight when thou art fighting--and, quitting the army, went away,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Vasudeva and\r\nArjuna and the bow Gandiva of immeasurable prowess, these three of\r\ndreadful energy had come together, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that upon Arjuna having been seized with\r\ncompunction on his chariot and ready to sink, Krishna showed him all the\r\nworlds within his body, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard that Bhishma, the desolator of foes, killing ten thousand\r\ncharioteers every day in the field of battle, had not slain any amongst\r\nthe Pandavas then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that\r\nBhishma, the righteous son of Ganga, had himself indicated the means of\r\nhis defeat in the field of battle and that the same were accomplished by\r\nthe Pandavas with joyfulness, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.\r\nWhen I heard that Arjuna, having placed Sikhandin before himself in his\r\nchariot, had wounded Bhishma of infinite courage and invincible in\r\nbattle, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the\r\naged hero Bhishma, having reduced the numbers of the race of shomaka to a\r\nfew, overcome with various wounds was lying on a bed of arrows, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that upon Bhishma\'s lying\r\non the ground with thirst for water, Arjuna, being requested, had pierced\r\nthe ground and allayed his thirst, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When Bayu together with Indra and Suryya united as allies for\r\nthe success of the sons of Kunti, and the beasts of prey (by their\r\ninauspicious presence) were putting us in fear, then, O Sanjaya, I had no\r\nhope of success. When the wonderful warrior Drona, displaying various\r\nmodes of fight in the field, did not slay any of the superior Pandavas,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the\r\nMaharatha Sansaptakas of our army appointed for the overthrow of Arjuna\r\nwere all slain by Arjuna himself, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that our disposition of forces, impenetrable by\r\nothers, and defended by Bharadwaja himself well-armed, had been singly\r\nforced and entered by the brave son of Subhadra, then, O Sanjaya, I had\r\nno hope of success. When I heard that our Maharathas, unable to overcome\r\nArjuna, with jubilant faces after having jointly surrounded and slain the\r\nboy Abhimanyu, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat the blind Kauravas were shouting for joy after having slain\r\nAbhimanyu and that thereupon Arjuna in anger made his celebrated speech\r\nreferring to Saindhava, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard that Arjuna had vowed the death of Saindhava and fulfilled his vow\r\nin the presence of his enemies, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that upon the horses of Arjuna being fatigued,\r\nVasudeva releasing them made them drink water and bringing them back and\r\nreharnessing them continued to guide them as before, then, O Sanjaya, I\r\nhad no hope of success. When I heard that while his horses were fatigued,\r\nArjuna staying in his chariot checked all his assailants, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Yuyudhana of the\r\nrace of Vrishni, after having thrown into confusion the army of Drona\r\nrendered unbearable in prowess owing to the presence of elephants,\r\nretired to where Krishna and Arjuna were, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. When I heard that Karna even though he had got Bhima within\r\nhis power allowed him to escape after only addressing him in contemptuous\r\nterms and dragging him with the end of his bow, then, O Sanjaya, I had no\r\nhope of success. When I heard that Drona, Kritavarma, Kripa, Karna, the\r\nson of Drona, and the valiant king of Madra (Salya) suffered Saindhava to\r\nbe slain, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that\r\nthe celestial Sakti given by Indra (to Karna) was by Madhava\'s\r\nmachinations caused to be hurled upon Rakshasa Ghatotkacha of frightful\r\ncountenance, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that\r\nin the encounter between Karna and Ghatotkacha, that Sakti was hurled\r\nagainst Ghatotkacha by Karna, the same which was certainly to have slain\r\nArjuna in battle, then, O Sanjaya. I had no hope of success. When I heard\r\nthat Dhristadyumna, transgressing the laws of battle, slew Drona while\r\nalone in his chariot and resolved on death, then, O Sanjaya, I had no\r\nhope of success. When I heard that Nakula. the son of Madri, having in\r\nthe presence of the whole army engaged in single combat with the son of\r\nDrona and showing himself equal to him drove his chariot in circles\r\naround, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When upon the death of\r\nDrona, his son misused the weapon called Narayana but failed to achieve\r\nthe destruction of the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of\r\nsuccess. When I heard that Bhimasena drank the blood of his brother\r\nDuhsasana in the field of battle without anybody being able to prevent\r\nhim, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the\r\ninfinitely brave Karna, invincible in battle, was slain by Arjuna in that\r\nwar of brothers mysterious even to the gods, then, O Sanjaya, I had no\r\nhope of success. When I heard that Yudhishthira, the Just, overcame the\r\nheroic son of Drona, Duhsasana, and the fierce Kritavarman, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the brave king of\r\nMadra who ever dared Krishna in battle was slain by Yudhishthira, then, O\r\nSanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the wicked Suvala of\r\nmagic power, the root of the gaming and the feud, was slain in battle by\r\nSahadeva, the son of Pandu, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.\r\nWhen I heard that Duryodhana, spent with fatigue, having gone to a lake\r\nand made a refuge for himself within its waters, was lying there alone,\r\nhis strength gone and without a chariot, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope\r\nof success. When I heard that the Pandavas having gone to that lake\r\naccompanied by Vasudeva and standing on its beach began to address\r\ncontemptuously my son who was incapable of putting up with affronts,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that while,\r\ndisplaying in circles a variety of curious modes (of attack and defence)\r\nin an encounter with clubs, he was unfairly slain according to the\r\ncounsels of Krishna, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I\r\nheard the son of Drona and others by slaying the Panchalas and the sons\r\nof Draupadi in their sleep, perpetrated a horrible and infamous deed,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Aswatthaman\r\nwhile being pursued by Bhimasena had discharged the first of weapons\r\ncalled Aishika, by which the embryo in the womb (of Uttara) was wounded,\r\nthen, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the weapon\r\nBrahmashira (discharged by Aswatthaman) was repelled by Arjuna with\r\nanother weapon over which he had pronounced the word "Sasti" and that\r\nAswatthaman had to give up the jewel-like excrescence on his head, then,\r\nO Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that upon the embryo in\r\nthe womb of Virata\'s daughter being wounded by Aswatthaman with a mighty\r\nweapon, Dwaipayana and Krishna pronounced curses on him, then, O Sanjaya,\r\nI had no hope of success.\r\n\r\n\'Alas! Gandhari, destitute of children, grand-children, parents,\r\nbrothers, and kindred, is to be pitied. Difficult is the task that hath\r\nbeen performed by the Pandavas: by them hath a kingdom been recovered\r\nwithout a rival.\r\n\r\n\'Alas! I have heard that the war hath left only ten alive: three of our\r\nside, and the Pandavas, seven, in that dreadful conflict eighteen\r\nAkshauhinis of Kshatriyas have been slain! All around me is utter\r\ndarkness, and a fit of swoon assaileth me: consciousness leaves me, O\r\nSuta, and my mind is distracted."\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Dhritarashtra, bewailing his fate in these words, was\r\novercome with extreme anguish and for a time deprived of sense; but being\r\nrevived, he addressed Sanjaya in the following words.\r\n\r\n"After what hath come to pass, O Sanjaya, I wish to put an end to my life\r\nwithout delay; I do not find the least advantage in cherishing it any\r\nlonger."\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The wise son of Gavalgana (Sanjaya) then addressed the\r\ndistressed lord of Earth while thus talking and bewailing, sighing like a\r\nserpent and repeatedly tainting, in words of deep import.\r\n\r\n"Thou hast heard, O Raja, of the greatly powerful men of vast exertions,\r\nspoken of by Vyasa and the wise Narada; men born of great royal families,\r\nresplendent with worthy qualities, versed in the science of celestial\r\narms, and in glory emblems of Indra; men who having conquered the world\r\nby justice and performed sacrifices with fit offerings (to the\r\nBrahmanas), obtained renown in this world and at last succumbed to the\r\nsway of time. Such were Saivya; the valiant Maharatha; Srinjaya, great\r\namongst conquerors. Suhotra; Rantideva, and Kakshivanta, great in glory;\r\nValhika, Damana, Saryati, Ajita, and Nala; Viswamitra the destroyer of\r\nfoes; Amvarisha, great in strength; Marutta, Manu, Ikshaku, Gaya, and\r\nBharata; Rama the son of Dasaratha; Sasavindu, and Bhagiratha;\r\nKritavirya, the greatly fortunate, and Janamejaya too; and Yayati of good\r\ndeeds who performed sacrifices, being assisted therein by the celestials\r\nthemselves, and by whose sacrificial altars and stakes this earth with\r\nher habited and uninhabited regions hath been marked all over. These\r\ntwenty-four Rajas were formerly spoken of by the celestial Rishi Narada\r\nunto Saivya when much afflicted for the loss of his children. Besides\r\nthese, other Rajas had gone before, still more powerful than they, mighty\r\ncharioteers noble in mind, and resplendent with every worthy quality.\r\nThese were Puru, Kuru, Yadu, Sura and Viswasrawa of great glory; Anuha,\r\nYuvanaswu, Kakutstha, Vikrami, and Raghu; Vijava, Virihorta, Anga, Bhava,\r\nSweta, and Vripadguru; Usinara, Sata-ratha, Kanka, Duliduha, and Druma;\r\nDambhodbhava, Para, Vena, Sagara, Sankriti, and Nimi; Ajeya, Parasu,\r\nPundra, Sambhu, and holy Deva-Vridha; Devahuya, Supratika, and\r\nVrihad-ratha; Mahatsaha, Vinitatma, Sukratu, and Nala, the king of the\r\nNishadas; Satyavrata, Santabhaya, Sumitra, and the chief Subala;\r\nJanujangha, Anaranya, Arka, Priyabhritya, Chuchi-vrata, Balabandhu,\r\nNirmardda, Ketusringa, and Brhidbala; Dhrishtaketu, Brihatketu,\r\nDriptaketu, and Niramaya; Abikshit, Chapala, Dhurta, Kritbandhu, and\r\nDridhe-shudhi; Mahapurana-sambhavya, Pratyanga, Paraha and Sruti. These,\r\nO chief, and other Rajas, we hear enumerated by hundreds and by\r\nthousands, and still others by millions, princes of great power and\r\nwisdom, quitting very abundant enjoyments met death as thy sons have\r\ndone! Their heavenly deeds, valour, and generosity, their magnanimity,\r\nfaith, truth, purity, simplicity and mercy, are published to the world in\r\nthe records of former times by sacred bards of great learning. Though\r\nendued with every noble virtue, these have yielded up their lives. Thy\r\nsons were malevolent, inflamed with passion, avaricious, and of very\r\nevil-disposition. Thou art versed in the Sastras, O Bharata, and art\r\nintelligent and wise; they never sink under misfortunes whose\r\nunderstandings are guided by the Sastras. Thou art acquainted, O prince,\r\nwith the lenity and severity of fate; this anxiety therefore for the\r\nsafety of thy children is unbecoming. Moreover, it behoveth thee not to\r\ngrieve for that which must happen: for who can avert, by his wisdom, the\r\ndecrees of fate? No one can leave the way marked out for him by\r\nProvidence. Existence and non-existence, pleasure and pain all have Time\r\nfor their root. Time createth all things and Time destroyeth all\r\ncreatures. It is Time that burneth creatures and it is Time that\r\nextinguisheth the fire. All states, the good and the evil, in the three\r\nworlds, are caused by Time. Time cutteth short all things and createth\r\nthem anew. Time alone is awake when all things are asleep: indeed, Time\r\nis incapable of being overcome. Time passeth over all things without\r\nbeing retarded. Knowing, as thou dost, that all things past and future\r\nand all that exist at the present moment, are the offspring of Time, it\r\nbehoveth thee not to throw away thy reason.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The son of Gavalgana having in this manner administered\r\ncomfort to the royal Dhritarashtra overwhelmed with grief for his sons,\r\nthen restored his mind to peace. Taking these facts for his subject,\r\nDwaipayana composed a holy Upanishad that has been published to the world\r\nby learned and sacred bards in the Puranas composed by them.\r\n\r\n"The study of the Bharata is an act of piety. He that readeth even one\r\nfoot, with belief, hath his sins entirely purged away. Herein Devas,\r\nDevarshis, and immaculate Brahmarshis of good deeds, have been spoken of;\r\nand likewise Yakshas and great Uragas (Nagas). Herein also hath been\r\ndescribed the eternal Vasudeva possessing the six attributes. He is the\r\ntrue and just, the pure and holy, the eternal Brahma, the supreme soul,\r\nthe true constant light, whose divine deeds wise and learned recount;\r\nfrom whom hath proceeded the non-existent and existent-non-existent\r\nuniverse with principles of generation and progression, and birth, death\r\nand re-birth. That also hath been treated of which is called Adhyatma\r\n(the superintending spirit of nature) that partaketh of the attributes of\r\nthe five elements. That also hath been described who is purusha being\r\nabove such epithets as \'undisplayed\' and the like; also that which the\r\nforemost yatis exempt from the common destiny and endued with the power\r\nof meditation and Tapas behold dwelling in their hearts as a reflected\r\nimage in the mirror.\r\n\r\n"The man of faith, devoted to piety, and constant in the exercise of\r\nvirtue, on reading this section is freed from sin. The believer that\r\nconstantly heareth recited this section of the Bharata, called the\r\nIntroduction, from the beginning, falleth not into difficulties. The man\r\nrepeating any part of the introduction in the two twilights is during\r\nsuch act freed from the sins contracted during the day or the night. This\r\nsection, the body of the Bharata, is truth and nectar. As butter is in\r\ncurd, Brahmana among bipeds, the Aranyaka among the Vedas, and nectar\r\namong medicines; as the sea is eminent among receptacles of water, and\r\nthe cow among quadrupeds; as are these (among the things mentioned) so is\r\nthe Bharata said to be among histories.\r\n\r\n"He that causeth it, even a single foot thereof, to be recited to\r\nBrahmanas during a Sradha, his offerings of food and drink to the manes\r\nof his ancestors become inexhaustible.\r\n\r\n"By the aid of history and the Puranas, the Veda may be expounded; but\r\nthe Veda is afraid of one of little information lest he should it. The\r\nlearned man who recites to other this Veda of Vyasa reapeth advantage. It\r\nmay without doubt destroy even the sin of killing the embryo and the\r\nlike. He that readeth this holy chapter of the moon, readeth the whole of\r\nthe Bharata, I ween. The man who with reverence daily listeneth to this\r\nsacred work acquireth long life and renown and ascendeth to heaven.\r\n\r\n"In former days, having placed the four Vedas on one side and the Bharata\r\non the other, these were weighed in the balance by the celestials\r\nassembled for that purpose. And as the latter weighed heavier than the\r\nfour Vedas with their mysteries, from that period it hath been called in\r\nthe world Mahabharata (the great Bharata). Being esteemed superior both\r\nin substance and gravity of import it is denominated Mahabharata on\r\naccount of such substance and gravity of import. He that knoweth its\r\nmeaning is saved from all his sins.\r\n\r\n\'Tapa is innocent, study is harmless, the ordinance of the Vedas\r\nprescribed for all the tribes are harmless, the acquisition of wealth by\r\nexertion is harmless; but when they are abused in their practices it is\r\nthen that they become sources of evil.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION II\r\n\r\n"The Rishis said, \'O son of Suta, we wish to hear a full and\r\ncircumstantial account of the place mentioned by you as Samanta-panchaya.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Listen, O ye Brahmanas, to the sacred descriptions I utter\r\nO ye best of men, ye deserve to hear of the place known as\r\nSamanta-panchaka. In the interval between the Treta and Dwapara Yugas,\r\nRama (the son of Jamadagni) great among all who have borne arms, urged by\r\nimpatience of wrongs, repeatedly smote the noble race of Kshatriyas. And\r\nwhen that fiery meteor, by his own valour, annihilated the entire tribe\r\nof the Kshatriyas, he formed at Samanta-panchaka five lakes of blood. We\r\nare told that his reason being overpowered by anger he offered oblations\r\nof blood to the manes of his ancestors, standing in the midst of the\r\nsanguine waters of those lakes. It was then that his forefathers of whom\r\nRichika was the first having arrived there addressed him thus, \'O Rama, O\r\nblessed Rama, O offspring of Bhrigu, we have been gratified with the\r\nreverence thou hast shown for thy ancestors and with thy valour, O mighty\r\none! Blessings be upon thee. O thou illustrious one, ask the boon that\r\nthou mayst desire.\'\r\n\r\n"Rama said, \'If, O fathers, ye are favourably disposed towards me, the\r\nboon I ask is that I may be absolved from the sins born of my having\r\nannihilated the Kshatriyas in anger, and that the lakes I have formed may\r\nbecome famous in the world as holy shrines.\' The Pitris then said, \'So\r\nshall it be. But be thou pacified.\' And Rama was pacified accordingly.\r\nThe region that lieth near unto those lakes of gory water, from that time\r\nhath been celebrated as Samanta-panchaka the holy. The wise have declared\r\nthat every country should be distinguished by a name significant of some\r\ncircumstance which may have rendered it famous. In the interval between\r\nthe Dwapara and the Kali Yugas there happened at Samanta-panchaka the\r\nencounter between the armies of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. In that\r\nholy region, without ruggedness of any kind, were assembled eighteen\r\nAkshauhinis of soldiers eager for battle. And, O Brahmanas, having come\r\nthereto, they were all slain on the spot. Thus the name of that region, O\r\nBrahmanas, hath been explained, and the country described to you as a\r\nsacred and delightful one. I have mentioned the whole of what relateth to\r\nit as the region is celebrated throughout the three worlds.\'\r\n\r\n"The Rishis said, \'We have a desire to know, O son of Suta, what is\r\nimplied by the term Akshauhini that hath been used by thee. Tell us in\r\nfull what is the number of horse and foot, chariots and elephants, which\r\ncompose an Akshauhini for thou art fully informed.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'One chariot, one elephant, five foot-soldiers, and three\r\nhorses form one Patti; three pattis make one Sena-mukha; three\r\nsena-mukhas are called a Gulma; three gulmas, a Gana; three ganas, a\r\nVahini; three vahinis together are called a Pritana; three pritanas form\r\na Chamu; three chamus, one Anikini; and an anikini taken ten times forms,\r\nas it is styled by those who know, an Akshauhini. O ye best of Brahmanas,\r\narithmeticians have calculated that the number of chariots in an\r\nAkshauhini is twenty-one thousand eight hundred and seventy. The measure\r\nof elephants must be fixed at the same number. O ye pure, you must know\r\nthat the number of foot-soldiers is one hundred and nine thousand, three\r\nhundred and fifty, the number of horse is sixty-five thousand, six\r\nhundred and ten. These, O Brahmanas, as fully explained by me, are the\r\nnumbers of an Akshauhini as said by those acquainted with the principles\r\nof numbers. O best of Brahmanas, according to this calculation were\r\ncomposed the eighteen Akshauhinis of the Kaurava and the Pandava army.\r\nTime, whose acts are wonderful assembled them on that spot and having\r\nmade the Kauravas the cause, destroyed them all. Bhishma acquainted with\r\nchoice of weapons, fought for ten days. Drona protected the Kaurava\r\nVahinis for five days. Kama the desolator of hostile armies fought for\r\ntwo days; and Salya for half a day. After that lasted for half a day the\r\nencounter with clubs between Duryodhana and Bhima. At the close of that\r\nday, Aswatthaman and Kripa destroyed the army of Yudishthira in the night\r\nwhile sleeping without suspicion of danger.\r\n\r\n\'O Saunaka, this best of narrations called Bharata which has begun to be\r\nrepeated at thy sacrifice, was formerly repeated at the sacrifice of\r\nJanamejaya by an intelligent disciple of Vyasa. It is divided into\r\nseveral sections; in the beginning are Paushya, Pauloma, and Astika\r\nparvas, describing in full the valour and renown of kings. It is a work\r\nwhose description, diction, and sense are varied and wonderful. It\r\ncontains an account of various manners and rites. It is accepted by the\r\nwise, as the state called Vairagya is by men desirous of final release.\r\nAs Self among things to be known, as life among things that are dear, so\r\nis this history that furnisheth the means of arriving at the knowledge of\r\nBrahma the first among all the sastras. There is not a story current in\r\nthis world but doth depend upon this history even as the body upon the\r\nfoot that it taketh. As masters of good lineage are ever attended upon by\r\nservants desirous of preferment so is the Bharata cherished by all poets.\r\nAs the words constituting the several branches of knowledge appertaining\r\nto the world and the Veda display only vowels and consonants, so this\r\nexcellent history displayeth only the highest wisdom.\r\n\r\n\'Listen, O ye ascetics, to the outlines of the several divisions (parvas)\r\nof this history called Bharata, endued with great wisdom, of sections and\r\nfeet that are wonderful and various, of subtile meanings and logical\r\nconnections, and embellished with the substance of the Vedas.\r\n\r\n\'The first parva is called Anukramanika; the second, Sangraha; then\r\nPaushya; then Pauloma; the Astika; then Adivansavatarana. Then comes the\r\nSambhava of wonderful and thrilling incidents. Then comes Jatugrihadaha\r\n(setting fire to the house of lac) and then Hidimbabadha (the killing of\r\nHidimba) parvas; then comes Baka-badha (slaughter of Baka) and then\r\nChitraratha. The next is called Swayamvara (selection of husband by\r\nPanchali), in which Arjuna by the exercise of Kshatriya virtues, won\r\nDraupadi for wife. Then comes Vaivahika (marriage). Then comes\r\nViduragamana (advent of Vidura), Rajyalabha (acquirement of kingdom),\r\nArjuna-banavasa (exile of Arjuna) and Subhadra-harana (the carrying away\r\nof Subhadra). After these come Harana-harika, Khandava-daha (the burning\r\nof the Khandava forest) and Maya-darsana (meeting with Maya the Asura\r\narchitect). Then come Sabha, Mantra, Jarasandha, Digvijaya (general\r\ncampaign). After Digvijaya come Raja-suyaka, Arghyaviharana (the robbing\r\nof the Arghya) and Sisupala-badha (the killing of Sisupala). After these,\r\nDyuta (gambling), Anudyuta (subsequent to gambling), Aranyaka, and\r\nKrimira-badha (destruction of Krimira). The Arjuna-vigamana (the travels\r\nof Arjuna), Kairati. In the last hath been described the battle between\r\nArjuna and Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter. After this\r\nIndra-lokavigamana (the journey to the regions of Indra); then that mine\r\nof religion and virtue, the highly pathetic Nalopakhyana (the story of\r\nNala). After this last, Tirtha-yatra or the pilgrimage of the wise prince\r\nof the Kurus, the death of Jatasura, and the battle of the Yakshas. Then\r\nthe battle with the Nivata-kavachas, Ajagara, and Markandeya-Samasya\r\n(meeting with Markandeya). Then the meeting of Draupadi and Satyabhama,\r\nGhoshayatra, Mirga-Swapna (dream of the deer). Then the story of\r\nBrihadaranyaka and then Aindradrumna. Then Draupadi-harana (the abduction\r\nof Draupadi), Jayadratha-bimoksana (the release of Jayadratha). Then the\r\nstory of \'Savitri\' illustrating the great merit of connubial chastity.\r\nAfter this last, the story of \'Rama\'. The parva that comes next is called\r\n\'Kundala-harana\' (the theft of the ear-rings). That which comes next is\r\n\'Aranya\' and then \'Vairata\'. Then the entry of the Pandavas and the\r\nfulfilment of their promise (of living unknown for one year). Then the\r\ndestruction of the \'Kichakas\', then the attempt to take the kine (of\r\nVirata by the Kauravas). The next is called the marriage of Abhimanyu\r\nwith the daughter of Virata. The next you must know is the most wonderful\r\nparva called Udyoga. The next must be known by the name of \'Sanjaya-yana\'\r\n(the arrival of Sanjaya). Then comes \'Prajagara\' (the sleeplessness of\r\nDhritarashtra owing to his anxiety). Then Sanatsujata, in which are the\r\nmysteries of spiritual philosophy. Then \'Yanasaddhi\', and then the\r\narrival of Krishna. Then the story of \'Matali\' and then of \'Galava\'. Then\r\nthe stories of \'Savitri\', \'Vamadeva\', and \'Vainya\'. Then the story of\r\n\'Jamadagnya and Shodasarajika\'. Then the arrival of Krishna at the court,\r\nand then Bidulaputrasasana. Then the muster of troops and the story of\r\nSheta. Then, must you know, comes the quarrel of the high-souled Karna.\r\nThen the march to the field of the troops of both sides. The next hath\r\nbeen called numbering the Rathis and Atirathas. Then comes the arrival of\r\nthe messenger Uluka which kindled the wrath (of the Pandavas). The next\r\nthat comes, you must know, is the story of Amba. Then comes the thrilling\r\nstory of the installation of Bhishma as commander-in-chief. The next is\r\ncalled the creation of the insular region Jambu; then Bhumi; then the\r\naccount about the formation of islands. Then comes the \'Bhagavat-gita\';\r\nand then the death of Bhishma. Then the installation of Drona; then the\r\ndestruction of the \'Sansaptakas\'. Then the death of Abhimanyu; and then\r\nthe vow of Arjuna (to slay Jayadratha). Then the death of Jayadratha, and\r\nthen of Ghatotkacha. Then, must you know, comes the story of the death of\r\nDrona of surprising interest. The next that comes is called the discharge\r\nof the weapon called Narayana. Then, you know, is Karna, and then Salya.\r\nThen comes the immersion in the lake, and then the encounter (between\r\nBhima and Duryodhana) with clubs. Then comes Saraswata, and then the\r\ndescriptions of holy shrines, and then genealogies. Then comes Sauptika\r\ndescribing incidents disgraceful (to the honour of the Kurus). Then comes\r\nthe \'Aisika\' of harrowing incidents. Then comes \'Jalapradana\' oblations\r\nof water to the manes of the deceased, and then the wailings of the\r\nwomen. The next must be known as \'Sraddha\' describing the funeral rites\r\nperformed for the slain Kauravas. Then comes the destruction of the\r\nRakshasa Charvaka who had assumed the disguise of a Brahmana (for\r\ndeceiving Yudhishthira). Then the coronation of the wise Yudhishthira.\r\nThe next is called the \'Grihapravibhaga\'. Then comes \'Santi\', then\r\n\'Rajadharmanusasana\', then \'Apaddharma\', then \'Mokshadharma\'. Those that\r\nfollow are called respectively \'Suka-prasna-abhigamana\',\r\n\'Brahma-prasnanusana\', the origin of \'Durvasa\', the disputations with\r\nMaya. The next is to be known as \'Anusasanika\'. Then the ascension of\r\nBhishma to heaven. Then the horse-sacrifice, which when read purgeth all\r\nsins away. The next must be known as the \'Anugita\' in which are words of\r\nspiritual philosophy. Those that follow are called \'Asramvasa\',\r\n\'Puttradarshana\' (meeting with the spirits of the deceased sons), and the\r\narrival of Narada. The next is called \'Mausala\' which abounds with\r\nterrible and cruel incidents. Then comes \'Mahaprasthanika\' and ascension\r\nto heaven. Then comes the Purana which is called Khilvansa. In this last\r\nare contained \'Vishnuparva\', Vishnu\'s frolics and feats as a child, the\r\ndestruction of \'Kansa\', and lastly, the very wonderful \'Bhavishyaparva\'\r\n(in which there are prophecies regarding the future).\r\n\r\nThe high-souled Vyasa composed these hundred parvas of which the above is\r\nonly an abridgement: having distributed them into eighteen, the son of\r\nSuta recited them consecutively in the forest of Naimisha as follows:\r\n\r\n\'In the Adi parva are contained Paushya, Pauloma, Astika, Adivansavatara,\r\nSamva, the burning of the house of lac, the slaying of Hidimba, the\r\ndestruction of the Asura Vaka, Chitraratha, the Swayamvara of Draupadi,\r\nher marriage after the overthrow of rivals in war, the arrival of Vidura,\r\nthe restoration, Arjuna\'s exile, the abduction of Subhadra, the gift and\r\nreceipt of the marriage dower, the burning of the Khandava forest, and\r\nthe meeting with (the Asura-architect) Maya. The Paushya parva treats of\r\nthe greatness of Utanka, and the Pauloma, of the sons of Bhrigu. The\r\nAstika describes the birth of Garuda and of the Nagas (snakes), the\r\nchurning of the ocean, the incidents relating to the birth of the\r\ncelestial steed Uchchaihsrava, and finally, the dynasty of Bharata, as\r\ndescribed in the Snake-sacrifice of king Janamejaya. The Sambhava parva\r\nnarrates the birth of various kings and heroes, and that of the sage,\r\nKrishna Dwaipayana: the partial incarnations of deities, the generation\r\nof Danavas and Yakshas of great prowess, and serpents, Gandharvas, birds,\r\nand of all creatures; and lastly, of the life and adventures of king\r\nBharata--the progenitor of the line that goes by his name--the son born\r\nof Sakuntala in the hermitage of the ascetic Kanwa. This parva also\r\ndescribes the greatness of Bhagirathi, and the births of the Vasus in the\r\nhouse of Santanu and their ascension to heaven. In this parva is also\r\nnarrated the birth of Bhishma uniting in himself portions of the energies\r\nof the other Vasus, his renunciation of royalty and adoption of the\r\nBrahmacharya mode of life, his adherence to his vows, his protection of\r\nChitrangada, and after the death of Chitrangada, his protection of his\r\nyounger brother, Vichitravirya, and his placing the latter on the throne:\r\nthe birth of Dharma among men in consequence of the curse of Animondavya;\r\nthe births of Dhritarashtra and Pandu through the potency of Vyasa\'s\r\nblessings (?) and also the birth of the Pandavas; the plottings of\r\nDuryodhana to send the sons of Pandu to Varanavata, and the other dark\r\ncounsels of the sons of Dhritarashtra in regard to the Pandavas; then the\r\nadvice administered to Yudhishthira on his way by that well-wisher of the\r\nPandavas--Vidura--in the mlechchha language--the digging of the hole, the\r\nburning of Purochana and the sleeping woman of the fowler caste, with her\r\nfive sons, in the house of lac; the meeting of the Pandavas in the\r\ndreadful forest with Hidimba, and the slaying of her brother Hidimba by\r\nBhima of great prowess. The birth of Ghatotkacha; the meeting of the\r\nPandavas with Vyasa and in accordance with his advice their stay in\r\ndisguise in the house of a Brahmana in the city of Ekachakra; the\r\ndestruction of the Asura Vaka, and the amazement of the populace at the\r\nsight; the extra-ordinary births of Krishna and Dhrishtadyumna; the\r\ndeparture of the Pandavas for Panchala in obedience to the injunction of\r\nVyasa, and moved equally by the desire of winning the hand of Draupadi on\r\nlearning the tidings of the Swayamvara from the lips of a Brahmana;\r\nvictory of Arjuna over a Gandharva, called Angaraparna, on the banks of\r\nthe Bhagirathi, his contraction of friendship with his adversary, and his\r\nhearing from the Gandharva the history of Tapati, Vasishtha and Aurva.\r\nThis parva treats of the journey of the Pandavas towards Panchala, the\r\nacquisition of Draupadi in the midst of all the Rajas, by Arjuna, after\r\nhaving successfully pierced the mark; and in the ensuing fight, the\r\ndefeat of Salya, Kama, and all the other crowned heads at the hands of\r\nBhima and Arjuna of great prowess; the ascertainment by Balarama and\r\nKrishna, at the sight of these matchless exploits, that the heroes were\r\nthe Pandavas, and the arrival of the brothers at the house of the potter\r\nwhere the Pandavas were staying; the dejection of Drupada on learning\r\nthat Draupadi was to be wedded to five husbands; the wonderful story of\r\nthe five Indras related in consequence; the extraordinary and\r\ndivinely-ordained wedding of Draupadi; the sending of Vidura by the sons\r\nof Dhritarashtra as envoy to the Pandavas; the arrival of Vidura and his\r\nsight to Krishna; the abode of the Pandavas in Khandava-prastha, and then\r\ntheir rule over one half of the kingdom; the fixing of turns by the sons\r\nof Pandu, in obedience to the injunction of Narada, for connubial\r\ncompanionship with Krishna. In like manner hath the history of Sunda and\r\nUpasunda been recited in this. This parva then treats of the departure of\r\nArjuna for the forest according to the vow, he having seen Draupadi and\r\nYudhishthira sitting together as he entered the chamber to take out arms\r\nfor delivering the kine of a certain Brahmana. This parva then describes\r\nArjuna\'s meeting on the way with Ulupi, the daughter of a Naga (serpent);\r\nit then relates his visits to several sacred spots; the birth of\r\nVabhruvahana; the deliverance by Arjuna of the five celestial damsels who\r\nhad been turned into alligators by the imprecation of a Brahmana, the\r\nmeeting of Madhava and Arjuna on the holy spot called Prabhasa; the\r\ncarrying away of Subhadra by Arjuna, incited thereto by her brother\r\nKrishna, in the wonderful car moving on land and water, and through\r\nmid-air, according to the wish of the rider; the departure for\r\nIndraprastha, with the dower; the conception in the womb of Subhadra of\r\nthat prodigy of prowess, Abhimanyu; Yajnaseni\'s giving birth to children;\r\nthen follows the pleasure-trip of Krishna and Arjuna to the banks of the\r\nJamuna and the acquisition by them of the discus and the celebrated bow\r\nGandiva; the burning of the forest of Khandava; the rescue of Maya by\r\nArjuna, and the escape of the serpent,--and the begetting of a son by\r\nthat best of Rishis, Mandapala, in the womb of the bird Sarngi. This\r\nparva is divided by Vyasa into two hundred and twenty-seven chapters.\r\nThese two hundred and twenty-seven chapters contain eight thousand eight\r\nhundred and eighty-four slokas.\r\n\r\nThe second is the extensive parva called Sabha or the assembly, full of\r\nmatter. The subjects of this parva are the establishment of the grand\r\nhall by the Pandavas; their review of their retainers; the description of\r\nthe lokapalas by Narada well-acquainted with the celestial regions; the\r\npreparations for the Rajasuya sacrifice; the destruction of Jarasandha;\r\nthe deliverance by Vasudeva of the princes confined in the mountain-pass;\r\nthe campaign of universal conquest by the Pandavas; the arrival of the\r\nprinces at the Rajasuya sacrifice with tribute; the destruction of\r\nSisupala on the occasion of the sacrifice, in connection with offering of\r\narghya; Bhimasena\'s ridicule of Duryodhana in the assembly; Duryodhana\'s\r\nsorrow and envy at the sight of the magnificent scale on which the\r\narrangements had been made; the indignation of Duryodhana in consequence,\r\nand the preparations for the game of dice; the defeat of Yudhishthira at\r\nplay by the wily Sakuni; the deliverance by Dhritarashtra of his\r\nafflicted daughter-in-law Draupadi plunged in the sea of distress caused\r\nby the gambling, as of a boat tossed about by the tempestuous waves. The\r\nendeavours of Duryodhana to engage Yudhishthira again in the game; and\r\nthe exile of the defeated Yudhishthira with his brothers. These\r\nconstitute what has been called by the great Vyasa the Sabha Parva. This\r\nparva is divided into seventh-eight sections, O best of Brahmanas, of two\r\nthousand, five hundred and seven slokas.\r\n\r\nThen comes the third parva called Aranyaka (relating to the forest) This\r\nparva treats of the wending of the Pandavas to the forest and the\r\ncitizens, following the wise Yudhishthira, Yudhishthira\'s adoration of\r\nthe god of day; according to the injunctions of Dhaumya, to be gifted\r\nwith the power of maintaining the dependent Brahmanas with food and\r\ndrink: the creation of food through the grace of the Sun: the expulsion\r\nby Dhritarashtra of Vidura who always spoke for his master\'s good;\r\nVidura\'s coming to the Pandavas and his return to Dhritarashtra at the\r\nsolicitation of the latter; the wicked Duryodhana\'s plottings to destroy\r\nthe forest-ranging Pandavas, being incited thereto by Karna; the\r\nappearance of Vyasa and his dissuasion of Duryodhana bent on going to the\r\nforest; the history of Surabhi; the arrival of Maitreya; his laying down\r\nto Dhritarashtra the course of action; and his curse on Duryodhana;\r\nBhima\'s slaying of Kirmira in battle; the coming of the Panchalas and the\r\nprinces of the Vrishni race to Yudhishthira on hearing of his defeat at\r\nthe unfair gambling by Sakuni; Dhananjaya\'s allaying the wrath of\r\nKrishna; Draupadi\'s lamentations before Madhava; Krishna\'s cheering her;\r\nthe fall of Sauva also has been here described by the Rishi; also\r\nKrishna\'s bringing Subhadra with her son to Dwaraka; and Dhrishtadyumna\'s\r\nbringing the son of Draupadi to Panchala; the entrance of the sons of\r\nPandu into the romantic Dwaita wood; conversation of Bhima, Yudhishthira,\r\nand Draupadi; the coming of Vyasa to the Pandavas and his endowing\r\nYudhishthira with the power of Pratismriti; then, after the departure of\r\nVyasa, the removal of the Pandavas to the forest of Kamyaka; the\r\nwanderings of Arjuna of immeasurable prowess in search of weapons; his\r\nbattle with Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter; his meeting with the\r\nlokapalas and receipt of weapons from them; his journey to the regions of\r\nIndra for arms and the consequent anxiety of Dhritarashtra; the wailings\r\nand lamentations of Yudhishthira on the occasion of his meeting with the\r\nworshipful great sage Brihadaswa. Here occurs the holy and highly\r\npathetic story of Nala illustrating the patience of Damayanti and the\r\ncharacter of Nala. Then the acquirement by Yudhishthira of the mysteries\r\nof dice from the same great sage; then the arrival of the Rishi Lomasa\r\nfrom the heavens to where the Pandavas were, and the receipt by these\r\nhigh-souled dwellers in the woods of the intelligence brought by the\r\nRishi of their brother Arjuna staving in the heavens; then the pilgrimage\r\nof the Pandavas to various sacred spots in accordance with the message of\r\nArjuna, and their attainment of great merit and virtue consequent on such\r\npilgrimage; then the pilgrimage of the great sage Narada to the shrine\r\nPutasta; also the pilgrimage of the high-souled Pandavas. Here is the\r\ndeprivation of Karna of his ear-rings by Indra. Here also is recited the\r\nsacrificial magnificence of Gaya; then the story of Agastya in which the\r\nRishi ate up the Asura Vatapi, and his connubial connection with\r\nLopamudra from the desire of offspring. Then the story of Rishyasringa\r\nwho adopted Brahmacharya mode of life from his very boyhood; then the\r\nhistory of Rama of great prowess, the son of Jamadagni, in which has been\r\nnarrated the death of Kartavirya and the Haihayas; then the meeting\r\nbetween the Pandavas and the Vrishnis in the sacred spot called Prabhasa;\r\nthen the story of Su-kanya in which Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu, made the\r\ntwins, Aswinis, drink, at the sacrifice of king Saryati, the Soma juice\r\n(from which they had been excluded by the other gods), and in which\r\nbesides is shown how Chyavana himself acquired perpetual youth (as a boon\r\nfrom the grateful Aswinis). Then hath been described the history of king\r\nMandhata; then the history of prince Jantu; and how king Somaka by\r\noffering up his only son (Jantu) in sacrifice obtained a hundred others;\r\nthen the excellent history of the hawk and the pigeon; then the\r\nexamination of king Sivi by Indra, Agni, and Dharma; then the story of\r\nAshtavakra, in which occurs the disputation, at the sacrifice of Janaka,\r\nbetween that Rishi and the first of logicians, Vandi, the son of Varuna;\r\nthe defeat of Vandi by the great Ashtavakra, and the release by the Rishi\r\nof his father from the depths of the ocean. Then the story of Yavakrita,\r\nand then that of the great Raivya: then the departure (of the Pandavas)\r\nfor Gandhamadana and their abode in the asylum called Narayana; then\r\nBhimasena\'s journey to Gandhamadana at the request of Draupadi (in search\r\nof the sweet-scented flower). Bhima\'s meeting on his way, in a grove of\r\nbananas, with Hanuman, the son of Pavana of great prowess; Bhima\'s bath\r\nin the tank and the destruction of the flowers therein for obtaining the\r\nsweet-scented flower (he was in search of); his consequent battle with\r\nthe mighty Rakshasas and the Yakshas of great prowess including Hanuman;\r\nthe destruction of the Asura Jata by Bhima; the meeting (of the Pandavas)\r\nwith the royal sage Vrishaparva; their departure for the asylum of\r\nArshtishena and abode therein: the incitement of Bhima (to acts of\r\nvengeance) by Draupadi. Then is narrated the ascent on the hills of\r\nKailasa by Bhimasena, his terrific battle with the mighty Yakshas headed\r\nby Hanuman; then the meeting of the Pandavas with Vaisravana (Kuvera),\r\nand the meeting with Arjuna after he had obtained for the purpose of\r\nYudhishthira many celestial weapons; then Arjuna\'s terrible encounter\r\nwith the Nivatakavachas dwelling in Hiranyaparva, and also with the\r\nPaulomas, and the Kalakeyas; their destruction at the hands of Arjuna;\r\nthe commencement of the display of the celestial weapons by Arjuna before\r\nYudhishthira, the prevention of the same by Narada; the descent of the\r\nPandavas from Gandhamadana; the seizure of Bhima in the forest by a\r\nmighty serpent huge as the mountain; his release from the coils of the\r\nsnake, upon Yudhishthira\'s answering certain questions; the return of the\r\nPandavas to the Kamyaka woods. Here is described the reappearance of\r\nVasudeva to see the mighty sons of Pandu; the arrival of Markandeya, and\r\nvarious recitals, the history of Prithu the son of Vena recited by the\r\ngreat Rishi; the stories of Saraswati and the Rishi Tarkhya. After these,\r\nis the story of Matsya; other old stories recited by Markandeya; the\r\nstories of Indradyumna and Dhundhumara; then the history of the chaste\r\nwife; the history of Angira, the meeting and conversation of Draupadi and\r\nSatyabhama; the return of the Pandavas to the forest of Dwaita; then the\r\nprocession to see the calves and the captivity of Duryodhana; and when\r\nthe wretch was being carried off, his rescue by Arjuna; here is\r\nYudhishthira\'s dream of the deer; then the re-entry of the Pandavas into\r\nthe Kamyaka forest, here also is the long story of Vrihidraunika. Here\r\nalso is recited the story of Durvasa; then the abduction by Jayadratha of\r\nDraupadi from the asylum; the pursuit of the ravisher by Bhima swift as\r\nthe air and the ill-shaving of Jayadratha\'s crown at Bhima\'s hand. Here\r\nis the long history of Rama in which is shown how Rama by his prowess\r\nslew Ravana in battle. Here also is narrated the story of Savitri; then\r\nKarna\'s deprivation by Indra of his ear-rings; then the presentation to\r\nKarna by the gratified Indra of a Sakti (missile weapon) which had the\r\nvirtue of killing only one person against whom it might be hurled; then\r\nthe story called Aranya in which Dharma (the god of justice) gave advice\r\nto his son (Yudhishthira); in which, besides is recited how the Pandavas\r\nafter having obtained a boon went towards the west. These are all\r\nincluded in the third Parva called Aranyaka, consisting of two hundred\r\nand sixty-nine sections. The number of slokas is eleven thousand, six\r\nhundred and sixty-four.\r\n\r\n"The extensive Parva that comes next is called Virata. The Pandavas\r\narriving at the dominions of Virata saw in a cemetery on the outskirts of\r\nthe city a large shami tree whereon they kept their weapons. Here hath\r\nbeen recited their entry into the city and their stay there in disguise.\r\nThen the slaying by Bhima of the wicked Kichaka who, senseless with lust,\r\nhad sought Draupadi; the appointment by prince Duryodhana of clever\r\nspies; and their despatch to all sides for tracing the Pandavas; the\r\nfailure of these to discover the mighty sons of Pandu; the first seizure\r\nof Virata\'s kine by the Trigartas and the terrific battle that ensued;\r\nthe capture of Virata by the enemy and his rescue by Bhimasena; the\r\nrelease also of the kine by the Pandava (Bhima); the seizure of Virata\'s\r\nkine again by the Kurus; the defeat in battle of all the Kurus by the\r\nsingle-handed Arjuna; the release of the king\'s kine; the bestowal by\r\nVirata of his daughter Uttara for Arjuna\'s acceptance on behalf of his\r\nson by Subhadra--Abhimanyu--the destroyer of foes. These are the contents\r\nof the extensive fourth Parva--the Virata. The great Rishi Vyasa has\r\ncomposed in these sixty-seven sections. The number of slokas is two\r\nthousand and fifty.\r\n\r\n"Listen then to (the contents of) the fifth Parva which must be known as\r\nUdyoga. While the Pandavas, desirous of victory, were residing in the\r\nplace called Upaplavya, Duryodhana and Arjuna both went at the same time\r\nto Vasudeva, and said, "You should render us assistance in this war." The\r\nhigh-souled Krishna, upon these words being uttered, replied, "O ye first\r\nof men, a counsellor in myself who will not fight and one Akshauhini of\r\ntroops, which of these shall I give to which of you?" Blind to his own\r\ninterests, the foolish Duryodhana asked for the troops; while Arjuna\r\nsolicited Krishna as an unfighting counsellor. Then is described how,\r\nwhen the king of Madra was coming for the assistance of the Pandavas,\r\nDuryodhana, having deceived him on the way by presents and hospitality,\r\ninduced him to grant a boon and then solicited his assistance in battle;\r\nhow Salya, having passed his word to Duryodhana, went to the Pandavas and\r\nconsoled them by reciting the history of Indra\'s victory (over Vritra).\r\nThen comes the despatch by the Pandavas of their Purohita (priest) to the\r\nKauravas. Then is described how king Dhritarashtra of great prowess,\r\nhaving heard the word of the purohita of the Pandavas and the story of\r\nIndra\'s victory decided upon sending his purohita and ultimately\r\ndespatched Sanjaya as envoy to the Pandavas from desire for peace. Here\r\nhath been described the sleeplessness of Dhritarashtra from anxiety upon\r\nhearing all about the Pandavas and their friends, Vasudeva and others. It\r\nwas on this occasion that Vidura addressed to the wise king Dhritarashtra\r\nvarious counsels that were full of wisdom. It was here also that\r\nSanat-sujata recited to the anxious and sorrowing monarch the excellent\r\ntruths of spiritual philosophy. On the next morning Sanjaya spoke, in the\r\ncourt of the King, of the identity of Vasudeva and Arjuna. It was then\r\nthat the illustrious Krishna, moved by kindness and a desire for peace,\r\nwent himself to the Kaurava capital, Hastinapura, for bringing about\r\npeace. Then comes the rejection by prince Duryodhana of the embassy of\r\nKrishna who had come to solicit peace for the benefit of both parties.\r\nHere hath been recited the story of Damvodvava; then the story of the\r\nhigh-souled Matuli\'s search for a husband for his daughter: then the\r\nhistory of the great sage Galava; then the story of the training and\r\ndiscipline of the son of Bidula. Then the exhibition by Krishna, before\r\nthe assembled Rajas, of his Yoga powers upon learning the evil counsels\r\nof Duryodhana and Karna; then Krishna\'s taking Karna in his chariot and\r\nhis tendering to him of advice, and Karna\'s rejection of the same from\r\npride. Then the return of Krishna, the chastiser of enemies from\r\nHastinapura to Upaplavya, and his narration to the Pandavas of all that\r\nhad happened. It was then that those oppressors of foes, the Pandavas,\r\nhaving heard all and consulted properly with each other, made every\r\npreparation for war. Then comes the march from Hastinapura, for battle,\r\nof foot-soldiers, horses, charioteers and elephants. Then the tale of the\r\ntroops by both parties. Then the despatch by prince Duryodhana of Uluka\r\nas envoy to the Pandavas on the day previous to the battle. Then the tale\r\nof charioteers of different classes. Then the story of Amba. These all\r\nhave been described in the fifth Parva called Udyoga of the Bharata,\r\nabounding with incidents appertaining to war and peace. O ye ascetics,\r\nthe great Vyasa hath composed one hundred and eighty-six sections in this\r\nParva. The number of slokas also composed in this by the great Rishi is\r\nsix thousand, six hundred and ninety-eight.\r\n\r\n"Then is recited the Bhishma Parva replete with wonderful incidents. In\r\nthis hath been narrated by Sanjaya the formation of the region known as\r\nJambu. Here hath been described the great depression of Yudhishthira\'s\r\narmy, and also a fierce fight for ten successive days. In this the\r\nhigh-souled Vasudeva by reasons based on the philosophy of final release\r\ndrove away Arjuna\'s compunction springing from the latter\'s regard for\r\nhis kindred (whom he was on the eve of slaying). In this the magnanimous\r\nKrishna, attentive to the welfare of Yudhishthira, seeing the loss\r\ninflicted (on the Pandava army), descended swiftly from his chariot\r\nhimself and ran, with dauntless breast, his driving whip in hand, to\r\neffect the death of Bhishma. In this, Krishna also smote with piercing\r\nwords Arjuna, the bearer of the Gandiva and the foremost in battle among\r\nall wielders of weapons. In this, the foremost of bowmen, Arjuna, placing\r\nShikandin before him and piercing Bhishma with his sharpest arrows felled\r\nhim from his chariot. In this, Bhishma lay stretched on his bed of\r\narrows. This extensive Parva is known as the sixth in the Bharata. In\r\nthis have been composed one hundred and seventeen sections. The number of\r\nslokas is five thousand, eight hundred and eighty-four as told by Vyasa\r\nconversant with the Vedas.\r\n\r\n"Then is recited the wonderful Parva called Drona full of incidents.\r\nFirst comes the installation in the command of the army of the great\r\ninstructor in arms, Drona: then the vow made by that great master of\r\nweapons of seizing the wise Yudhishthira in battle to please Duryodhana;\r\nthen the retreat of Arjuna from the field before the Sansaptakas, then\r\nthe overthrow of Bhagadatta like to a second Indra in the field, with the\r\nelephant Supritika, by Arjuna; then the death of the hero Abhimanyu in\r\nhis teens, alone and unsupported, at the hands of many Maharathas\r\nincluding Jayadratha; then after the death of Abhimanyu, the destruction\r\nby Arjuna, in battle of seven Akshauhinis of troops and then of\r\nJayadratha; then the entry, by Bhima of mighty arms and by that foremost\r\nof warriors-in-chariot, Satyaki, into the Kaurava ranks impenetrable even\r\nto the gods, in search of Arjuna in obedience to the orders of\r\nYudhishthira, and the destruction of the remnant of the Sansaptakas. In\r\nthe Drona Parva, is the death of Alambusha, of Srutayus, of Jalasandha,\r\nof Shomadatta, of Virata, of the great warrior-in-chariot Drupada, of\r\nGhatotkacha and others; in this Parva, Aswatthaman, excited beyond\r\nmeasure at the fall of his father in battle, discharged the terrible\r\nweapon Narayana. Then the glory of Rudra in connection with the burning\r\n(of the three cities). Then the arrival of Vyasa and recital by him of\r\nthe glory of Krishna and Arjuna. This is the great seventh Parva of the\r\nBharata in which all the heroic chiefs and princes mentioned were sent to\r\ntheir account. The number of sections in this is one hundred and seventy.\r\nThe number of slokas as composed in the Drona Parva by Rishi Vyasa, the\r\nson of Parasara and the possessor of true knowledge after much\r\nmeditation, is eight thousand, nine hundred and nine.\r\n\r\n"Then comes the most wonderful Parva called Karna. In this is narrated\r\nthe appointment of the wise king of Madra as (Karna\'s) charioteer. Then\r\nthe history of the fall of the Asura Tripura. Then the application to\r\neach other by Karna and Salya of harsh words on their setting out for the\r\nfield, then the story of the swan and the crow recited in insulting\r\nallusion: then the death of Pandya at the hands of the high-souled\r\nAswatthaman; then the death of Dandasena; then that of Darda; then\r\nYudhishthira\'s imminent risk in single combat with Karna in the presence\r\nof all the warriors; then the mutual wrath of Yudhishthira and Arjuna;\r\nthen Krishna\'s pacification of Arjuna. In this Parva, Bhima, in\r\nfulfilment of his vow, having ripped open Dussasana\'s breast in battle\r\ndrank the blood of his heart. Then Arjuna slew the great Karna in single\r\ncombat. Readers of the Bharata call this the eighth Parva. The number of\r\nsections in this is sixty-nine and the number of slokas is four thousand,\r\nnine hundred and sixty-tour.\r\n\r\n"Then hath been recited the wonderful Parva called Salya. After all the\r\ngreat warriors had been slain, the king of Madra became the leader of the\r\n(Kaurava) army. The encounters one after another, of charioteers, have\r\nbeen here described. Then comes the fall of the great Salya at the hands\r\nof Yudhishthira, the Just. Here also is the death of Sakuni in battle at\r\nthe hands of Sahadeva. Upon only a small remnant of the troops remaining\r\nalive after the immense slaughter, Duryodhana went to the lake and\r\ncreating for himself room within its waters lay stretched there for some\r\ntime. Then is narrated the receipt of this intelligence by Bhima from the\r\nfowlers: then is narrated how, moved by the insulting speeches of the\r\nintelligent Yudhishthira, Duryodhana ever unable to bear affronts, came\r\nout of the waters. Then comes the encounter with clubs, between\r\nDuryodhana and Bhima; then the arrival, at the time of such encounter, of\r\nBalarama: then is described the sacredness of the Saraswati; then the\r\nprogress of the encounter with clubs; then the fracture of Duryodhana\'s\r\nthighs in battle by Bhima with (a terrific hurl of) his mace. These all\r\nhave been described in the wonderful ninth Parva. In this the number of\r\nsections is fifty-nine and the number of slokas composed by the great\r\nVyasa--the spreader of the fame of the Kauravas--is three thousand, two\r\nhundred and twenty.\r\n\r\n"Then shall I describe the Parva called Sauptika of frightful incidents.\r\nOn the Pandavas having gone away, the mighty charioteers, Kritavarman,\r\nKripa, and the son of Drona, came to the field of battle in the evening\r\nand there saw king Duryodhana lying on the ground, his thighs broken, and\r\nhimself covered with blood. Then the great charioteer, the son of Drona,\r\nof terrible wrath, vowed, \'without killing all the Panchalas including\r\nDrishtadyumna, and the Pandavas also with all their allies, I will not\r\ntake off armour.\' Having spoken those words, the three warriors leaving\r\nDuryodhana\'s side entered the great forest just as the sun was setting.\r\nWhile sitting under a large banian tree in the night, they saw an owl\r\nkilling numerous crows one after another. At the sight of this,\r\nAswatthaman, his heart full of rage at the thought of his father\'s fate,\r\nresolved to slay the slumbering Panchalas. And wending to the gate of the\r\ncamp, he saw there a Rakshasa of frightful visage, his head reaching to\r\nthe very heavens, guarding the entrance. And seeing that Rakshasa\r\nobstructing all his weapons, the son of Drona speedily pacified by\r\nworship the three-eyed Rudra. And then accompanied by Kritavarman and\r\nKripa he slew all the sons of Draupadi, all the Panchalas with\r\nDhrishtadyumna and others, together with their relatives, slumbering\r\nunsuspectingly in the night. All perished on that fatal night except the\r\nfive Pandavas and the great warrior Satyaki. Those escaped owing to\r\nKrishna\'s counsels, then the charioteer of Dhrishtadyumna brought to the\r\nPandavas intelligence of the slaughter of the slumbering Panchalas by the\r\nson of Drona. Then Draupadi distressed at the death of her sons and\r\nbrothers and father sat before her lords resolved to kill herself by\r\nfasting. Then Bhima of terrible prowess, moved by the words of Draupadi,\r\nresolved, to please her; and speedily taking up his mace followed in\r\nwrath the son of his preceptor in arms. The son of Drona from fear of\r\nBhimasena and impelled by the fates and moved also by anger discharged a\r\ncelestial weapon saying, \'This is for the destruction of all the\r\nPandavas\'; then Krishna saying. \'This shall not be\', neutralised\r\nAswatthaman\'s speech. Then Arjuna neutralised that weapon by one of his\r\nown. Seeing the wicked Aswatthaman\'s destructive intentions, Dwaipayana\r\nand Krishna pronounced curses on him which the latter returned. Pandava\r\nthen deprived the mighty warrior-in-chariot Aswatthaman, of the jewel on\r\nhis head, and became exceedingly glad, and, boastful of their success,\r\nmade a present of it to the sorrowing Draupadi. Thus the tenth Parva,\r\ncalled Sauptika, is recited. The great Vyasa hath composed this in\r\neighteen sections. The number of slokas also composed (in this) by the\r\ngreat reciter of sacred truths is eight hundred and seventy. In this\r\nParva has been put together by the great Rishi the two Parvas called\r\nSauptika and Aishika.\r\n\r\n"After this hath been recited the highly pathetic Parva called Stri,\r\nDhritarashtra of prophetic eye, afflicted at the death of his children,\r\nand moved by enmity towards Bhima, broke into pieces a statue of hard\r\niron deftly placed before him by Krishna (as substitute of Bhima). Then\r\nVidura, removing the distressed Dhritarashtra\'s affection for worldly\r\nthings by reasons pointing to final release, consoled that wise monarch.\r\nThen hath been described the wending of the distressed Dhritarashtra\r\naccompanied by the ladies of his house to the field of battle of the\r\nKauravas. Here follow the pathetic wailings of the wives of the slain\r\nheroes. Then the wrath of Gandhari and Dhritarashtra and their loss of\r\nconsciousness. Then the Kshatriya ladies saw those heroes,--their\r\nunreturning sons, brothers, and fathers,--lying dead on the field. Then\r\nthe pacification by Krishna of the wrath of Gandhari distressed at the\r\ndeath of her sons and grandsons. Then the cremation of the bodies of the\r\ndeceased Rajas with due rites by that monarch (Yudhishthira) of great\r\nwisdom and the foremost also of all virtuous men. Then upon the\r\npresentation of water of the manes of the deceased princes having\r\ncommenced, the story of Kunti\'s acknowledgment of Karna as her son born\r\nin secret. Those have all been described by the great Rishi Vyasa in the\r\nhighly pathetic eleventh Parva. Its perusal moveth every feeling heart\r\nwith sorrow and even draweth tears from the eyes. The number of sections\r\ncomposed is twenty-seven. The number of slokas is seven hundred and\r\nseventy-five.\r\n\r\n"Twelfth in number cometh the Santi Parva, which increaseth the\r\nunderstanding and in which is related the despondency of Yudhishthira on\r\nhis having slain his fathers, brothers, sons, maternal uncles and\r\nmatrimonial relations. In this Parva is described how from his bed of\r\narrows Bhishma expounded various systems of duties worth the study of\r\nkings desirous of knowledge; this Parva expounded the duties relative to\r\nemergencies, with full indications of time and reasons. By understanding\r\nthese, a person attaineth to consummate knowledge. The mysteries also of\r\nfinal emancipation have been expatiated upon. This is the twelfth Parva\r\nthe favourite of the wise. It consists of three hundred and thirty-nine\r\nsections, and contains fourteen thousand, seven hundred and thirty-two\r\nslokas.\r\n\r\n"Next in order is the excellent Anusasana Parva. In it is described how\r\nYudhishthira, the king of the Kurus, was reconciled to himself on hearing\r\nthe exposition of duties by Bhishma, the son of Bhagirathi. This Parva\r\ntreats of rules in detail and of Dharma and Artha; then the rules of\r\ncharity and its merits; then the qualifications of donees, and the\r\nsupreme ride-regarding gifts. This Parva also describes the ceremonials\r\nof individual duty, the rules of conduct and the matchless merit of\r\ntruth. This Parva showeth the great merit of Brahmanas and kine, and\r\nunraveleth the mysteries of duties in relation to time and place. These\r\nare embodied in the excellent Parva called Anusasana of varied incidents.\r\nIn this hath been described the ascension of Bhishma to Heaven. This is\r\nthe thirteenth Parva which hath laid down accurately the various duties\r\nof men. The number of sections, in this is one hundred and forty-six. The\r\nnumber of slokas is eight thousand.\r\n\r\n"Then comes the fourteenth Parva Aswamedhika. In this is the excellent\r\nstory of Samvarta and Marutta. Then is described the discovery (by the\r\nPandavas) of golden treasuries; and then the birth of Parikshit who was\r\nrevived by Krishna after having been burnt by the (celestial) weapon of\r\nAswatthaman. The battles of Arjuna the son of Pandu, while following the\r\nsacrificial horse let loose, with various princes who in wrath seized it.\r\nThen is shown the great risk of Arjuna in his encounter with Vabhruvahana\r\nthe son of Chitrangada (by Arjuna) the appointed daughter of the chief of\r\nManipura. Then the story of the mongoose during the performance of the\r\nhorse-sacrifice. This is the most wonderful Parva called Aswamedhika. The\r\nnumber of sections is one hundred and three. The number of slokas\r\ncomposed (in this) by Vyasa of true knowledge is three thousand, three\r\nhundred and twenty.\r\n\r\n"Then comes the fifteenth Parva called Asramvasika. In this,\r\nDhritarashtra, abdicating the kingdom, and accompanied by Gandhari and\r\nVidura went to the woods. Seeing this, the virtuous Pritha also, ever\r\nengaged in cherishing her superiors, leaving the court of her sons,\r\nfollowed the old couple. In this is described the wonderful meeting\r\nthrough the kindness of Vyasa of the king (Dhritarashtra) with the\r\nspirits of his slain children, grand-children, and other princes,\r\nreturned from the other world. Then the monarch abandoning his sorrows\r\nacquired with his wife the highest fruit of his meritorious actions. In\r\nthis Parva, Vidura after having leaned on virtue all his life attaineth\r\nto the most meritorious state.\r\n\r\n"The learned son of Gavalgana, Sanjaya, also of passions under full\r\ncontrol, and the foremost of ministers, attained, in the Parva, to the\r\nblessed state. In this, Yudhishthira the just met Narada and heard from\r\nhim about the extinction of the race of Vrishnis. This is the very\r\nwonderful Parva called Asramvasika. The number of sections in this is\r\nforty-two, and the number of slokas composed by Vyasa cognisant of truth\r\nis one thousand five hundred and six.\r\n\r\n"After this, you know, comes the Maushala of painful incidents. In this,\r\nthose lion-hearted heroes (of the race of Vrishni) with the scars of many\r\na field on their bodies, oppressed with the curse of a Brahmana, while\r\ndeprived of reason from drink, impelled by the fates, slew each other on\r\nthe shores of the Salt Sea with the Eraka grass which (in their hands)\r\nbecame (invested with the fatal attributes of the) thunder. In this, both\r\nBalarama and Kesava (Krishna) after causing the extermination of their\r\nrace, their hour having come, themselves did not rise superior to the\r\nsway of all-destroying Time. In this, Arjuna the foremost among men,\r\ngoing to Dwaravati (Dwaraka) and seeing the city destitute of the\r\nVrishnis was much affected and became exceedingly sorry. Then after the\r\nfuneral of his maternal uncle Vasudeva the foremost among the Yadus\r\n(Vrishnis), he saw the heroes of the Yadu race lying stretched in death\r\non the spot where they had been drinking. He then caused the cremation of\r\nthe bodies of the illustrious Krishna and Balarama and of the principal\r\nmembers of the Vrishni race. Then as he was journeying from Dwaraka with\r\nthe women and children, the old and the decrepit--the remnants of the\r\nYadu race--he was met on the way by a heavy calamity. He witnessed also\r\nthe disgrace of his bow Gandiva and the unpropitiousness of his celestial\r\nweapons. Seeing all this, Arjuna became despondent and, pursuant to\r\nVyasa\'s advice, went to Yudhishthira and solicited permission to adopt\r\nthe Sannyasa mode of life. This is the sixteenth Parva called Maushala\r\nThe number of sections is eight and the number of slokas composed by\r\nVyasa cognisant of truth is three hundred and twenty.\r\n\r\n"The next is Mahaprasthanika, the seventeenth Parva.\r\n\r\n"In this, those foremost among men the Pandavas abdicating their kingdom\r\nwent with Draupadi on their great journey called Mahaprasthana. In this,\r\nthey came across Agni, having arrived on the shore of the sea of red\r\nwaters. In this, asked by Agni himself, Arjuna worshipped him duly,\r\nreturned to him the excellent celestial bow called Gandiva. In this,\r\nleaving his brothers who dropped one after another and Draupadi also,\r\nYudhishthira went on his journey without once looking back on them. This\r\nthe seventeenth Parva is called Mahaprasthanika. The number of sections\r\nin this is three. The number of slokas also composed by Vyasa cognisant\r\nof truth is three hundred and twenty.\r\n\r\n"The Parva that comes after this, you must know, is the extraordinary one\r\ncalled Svarga of celestial incidents. Then seeing the celestial car come\r\nto take him, Yudhishthira moved by kindness towards the dog that\r\naccompanied him, refused to ascend it without his companion. Observing\r\nthe illustrious Yudhishthira\'s steady adherence to virtue, Dharma (the\r\ngod of justice) abandoning his canine form showed himself to the king.\r\nThen Yudhishthira ascending to heaven felt much pain. The celestial\r\nmessenger showed him hell by an act of deception. Then Yudhishthira, the\r\nsoul of justice, heard the heart-rending lamentations of his brothers\r\nabiding in that region under the discipline of Yama. Then Dharma and\r\nIndra showed Yudhishthira the region appointed for sinners. Then\r\nYudhishthira, after leaving the human body by a plunge in the celestial\r\nGanges, attained to that region which his acts merited, and began to live\r\nin joy respected by Indra and all other gods. This is the eighteenth\r\nParva as narrated by the illustrious Vyasa. The number of slokas\r\ncomposed, O ascetics, by the great Rishi in this is two hundred and nine.\r\n\r\n"The above are the contents of the Eighteen Parvas. In the appendix\r\n(Khita) are the Harivansa and the Vavishya. The number of slokas\r\ncontained in the Harivansa is twelve thousand."\r\n\r\nThese are the contents of the section called Parva-sangraha. Sauti\r\ncontinued, "Eighteen Akshauhinis of troops came together for battle. The\r\nencounter that ensued was terrible and lasted for eighteen days. He who\r\nknows the four Vedas with all the Angas and Upanishads, but does not know\r\nthis history (Bharata), cannot be regarded as wise. Vyasa of immeasurable\r\nintelligence, has spoken of the Mahabharata as a treatise on Artha, on\r\nDharma, and on Kama. Those who have listened to his history can never\r\nbear to listen to others, as, indeed, they who have listened to the sweet\r\nvoice of the male Kokila can never hear the dissonance of the crow\'s\r\ncawing. As the formation of the three worlds proceedeth from the five\r\nelements, so do the inspirations of all poets proceed from this excellent\r\ncomposition. O ye Brahman, as the four kinds of creatures (viviparous,\r\noviparous, born of hot moisture and vegetables) are dependent on space\r\nfor their existence, so the Puranas depend upon this history. As all the\r\nsenses depend for their exercise upon the various modifications of the\r\nmind, so do all acts (ceremonials) and moral qualities depend upon this\r\ntreatise. There is not a story current in the world but doth depend on\r\nthis history, even as body upon the food it taketh. All poets cherish the\r\nBharata even as servants desirous of preferment always attend upon\r\nmasters of good lineage. Even as the blessed domestic Asrama can never be\r\nsurpassed by the three other Asramas (modes of life) so no poets can\r\nsurpass this poem.\r\n\r\n"Ye ascetics, shake off all inaction. Let your hearts be fixed on virtue,\r\nfor virtue is the one only friend of him that has gone to the other\r\nworld. Even the most intelligent by cherishing wealth and wives can never\r\nmake these their own, nor are these possessions lasting. The Bharata\r\nuttered by the lips of Dwaipayana is without a parallel; it is virtue\r\nitself and sacred. It destroyeth sin and produceth good. He that\r\nlisteneth to it while it is being recited hath no need of a bath in the\r\nsacred waters of Pushkara. A Brahmana, whatever sins he may commit during\r\nthe day through his senses, is freed from them all by reading the Bharata\r\nin the evening. Whatever sins he may commit also in the night by deeds,\r\nwords, or mind, he is freed from them all by reading Bharata in the first\r\ntwilight (morning). He that giveth a hundred kine with horns mounted with\r\ngold to a Brahmana well-posted up in the Vedas and all branches of\r\nlearning, and he that daily listeneth to the sacred narrations of the\r\nBharata, acquireth equal merit. As the wide ocean is easily passable by\r\nmen having ships, so is this extensive history of great excellence and\r\ndeep import with the help of this chapter called Parva sangraha."\r\n\r\nThus endeth the section called Parva-sangraha of the Adi Parva of the\r\nblessed Mahabharata.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION III\r\n\r\n(Paushya Parva)\r\n\r\nSauti said, "Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, was, with his brothers,\r\nattending his long sacrifice on the plains of Kurukshetra. His brothers\r\nwere three, Srutasena, Ugrasena, and Bhimasena. And as they were sitting\r\nat the sacrifice, there arrived at the spot an offspring of Sarama (the\r\ncelestial bitch). And belaboured by the brothers of Janamejaya, he ran\r\naway to his mother, crying in pain. And his mother seeing him crying\r\nexceedingly asked him, \'Why criest thou so? Who hath beaten thee? And\r\nbeing thus questioned, he said unto his mother, \'I have been belaboured\r\nby the brothers of Janamejaya.\' And his mother replied, \'Thou hast\r\ncommitted some fault for which hast thou been beaten!\' He answered, \'I\r\nhave not committed any fault. I have not touched the sacrificial butter\r\nwith my tongue, nor have I even cast a look upon it.\' His mother Sarama\r\nhearing this and much distressed at the affliction of her son went to the\r\nplace where Janamejaya with his brothers was at his long-extending\r\nsacrifice. And she addressed Janamejaya in anger, saying, \'This my son\r\nhath committed no fault: he hath not looked upon your sacrificial butter,\r\nnor hath he touched it with his tongue. Wherefore hath he been beaten?\'\r\nThey said not a word in reply; whereupon she said, \'As ye have beaten my\r\nson who hath committed no fault, therefore shall evil come upon ye, when\r\nye least expect it.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya, thus addressed by the celestial bitch, Sarama, became\r\nexceedingly alarmed and dejected. And after the sacrifice was concluded\r\nreturned to Hastinapura, and began to take great pains in searching for a\r\nPurohita who could by procuring absolution for his sin, neutralise the\r\neffect of the curse.\r\n\r\n"One day Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, while a-hunting, observed in a\r\nparticular part of his dominions a hermitage where dwelt a certain Rishi\r\nof fame, Srutasrava. He had a son named Somasrava deeply engaged in\r\nascetic devotions. Being desirous of appointing that son of the Rishi as\r\nhis Purohita, Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, saluted the Rishi and\r\naddressed him, saying, \'O possessor of the six attributes, let this thy\r\nson be my purohita.\' The Rishi thus addressed, answered Janamejaya, \'O\r\nJanamejaya, this my son, deep in ascetic devotions, accomplished in the\r\nstudy of the Vedas, and endued with the full force of my asceticism, is\r\nborn of (the womb of) a she-snake that had drunk my vital fluid. He is\r\nable to absolve thee from all offences save those committed against\r\nMahadeva. But he hath one particular habit, viz. he would grant to any\r\nBrahmana whatever might be begged of him. If thou canst put up with it,\r\nthen thou take him.\' Janamejaya thus addressed replied to the Rishi, \'It\r\nshall be even so.\' And accepting him for his Purohita, he returned to his\r\ncapital; and he then addressed his brothers saying, \'This is the person I\r\nhave chosen for my spiritual master; whatsoever he may say must be\r\ncomplied with by you without examination.\' And his brothers did as they\r\nwere directed. And giving these directions to his brothers, the king\r\nmarched towards Takshyashila and brought that country under his authority.\r\n\r\n"About this time there was a Rishi, Ayoda-Dhaumya by name. And\r\nAyoda-Dhaumya had three disciples, Upamanyu, Aruni, and Veda. And the\r\nRishi bade one of these disciples, Aruni of Panchala, to go and stop up a\r\nbreach in the water-course of a certain field. And Aruni of Panchala,\r\nthus ordered by his preceptor, repaired to the spot. And having gone\r\nthere he saw that he could not stop up the breach in the water-course by\r\nordinary means. And he was distressed because he could not do his\r\npreceptor\'s bidding. But at length he saw a way and said, \'Well, I will\r\ndo it in this way.\' He then went down into the breach and lay down\r\nhimself there. And the water was thus confined.\r\n\r\n"And some time after, the preceptor Ayoda-Dhaumya asked his other\r\ndisciples where Aruni of Panchala was. And they answered, \'Sir, he hath\r\nbeen sent by yourself saying, \'Go, stop up the breach in the water-course\r\nof the field,\' Thus reminded, Dhaumya, addressing his pupils, said, \'Then\r\nlet us all go to the place where he is.\'\r\n\r\n"And having arrived there, he shouted, \'Ho Aruni of Panchala! Where art\r\nthou? Come hither, my child.\' And Aruni hearing the voice of his\r\npreceptor speedily came out of the water-course and stood before his\r\npreceptor. And addressing the latter, Aruni said, \'Here I am in the\r\nbreach of the water-course. Not having been able to devise any other\r\nmeans, I entered myself for the purpose of preventing the water running\r\nout. It is only upon hearing thy voice that, having left it and allowed\r\nthe waters to escape, I have stood before thee. I salute thee, Master;\r\ntell me what I have to do.\'\r\n\r\n"The preceptor, thus addressed, replied, \'Because in getting up from the\r\nditch thou hast opened the water-course, thenceforth shalt thou be called\r\nUddalaka as a mark of thy preceptor\'s favour. And because my words have\r\nbeen obeyed by thee, thou shalt obtain good fortune. And all the Vedas\r\nshall shine in thee and all the Dharmasastras also.\' And Aruni, thus\r\naddressed by his preceptor, went to the country after his heart.\r\n\r\n"The name of another of Ayoda-Dhaumya\'s disciples was Upamanyu. And\r\nDhaumya appointed him saying, \'Go, my child, Upamanyu, look after the\r\nkine.\' And according to his preceptor\'s orders, he went to tend the kine.\r\nAnd having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to his\r\npreceptor\'s house and standing before him he saluted him respectfully.\r\nAnd his preceptor seeing him in good condition of body asked him,\r\n\'Upamanyu, my child, upon what dost thou support thyself? Thou art\r\nexceedingly plump.\' And he answered, \'Sir, I support myself by begging\'.\r\nAnd his preceptor said, \'What is obtained in alms should not be used by\r\nthee without offering it to me.\' And Upamanyu, thus told, went away. And\r\nhaving obtained alms, he offered the same to his preceptor. And his\r\npreceptor took from him even the whole. And Upamanyu, thus treated, went\r\nto attend the cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned in the\r\nevening to his preceptor\'s abode. And he stood before his preceptor and\r\nsaluted him with respect. And his preceptor perceiving that he still\r\ncontinued to be of good condition of body said unto him, \'Upamanyu, my\r\nchild, I take from thee even the whole of what thou obtainest in alms,\r\nwithout leaving anything for thee. How then dost thou, at present,\r\ncontrive to support thyself?\' And Upamanyu said unto his preceptor, \'Sir,\r\nhaving made over to you all that I obtain in alms, I go a-begging a\r\nsecond time for supporting myself.\' And his preceptor then replied, \'This\r\nis not the way in which thou shouldst obey the preceptor. By this thou\r\nart diminishing the support of others that live by begging. Truly having\r\nsupported thyself so, thou hast proved thyself covetous.\' And Upamanyu,\r\nhaving signified his assent to all that his preceptor said, went away to\r\nattend the cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned to his\r\npreceptor\'s house. And he stood before his preceptor and saluted him\r\nrespectfully. And his preceptor observing that he was still fat, said\r\nagain unto him, \'Upamanyu, my child, I take from thee all thou obtainest\r\nin alms and thou dost not go a-begging a second time, and yet art thou in\r\nhealthy condition. How dost thou support thyself?\' And Upamanyu, thus\r\nquestioned, answered, \'Sir, I now live upon the milk of these cows.\' And\r\nhis preceptor thereupon told him, \'It is not lawful for thee to\r\nappropriate the milk without having first obtained my consent.\' And\r\nUpamanyu having assented to the justice of these observations, went away\r\nto tend the kine. And when he returned to his preceptor\'s abode, he stood\r\nbefore him and saluted him as usual. And his preceptor seeing that he was\r\nstill fat, said, \'Upamanyu, my child, thou eatest no longer of alms, nor\r\ndost thou go a-begging a second time, not even drinkest of the milk; yet\r\nart thou fat. By what means dost thou contrive to live now? And Upamanyu\r\nreplied, \'Sir, I now sip the froth that these calves throw out, while\r\nsucking their mother\'s teats.\' And the preceptor said, \'These generous\r\ncalves, I suppose, out of compassion for thee, throw out large quantities\r\nof froth. Wouldst thou stand in the way of their full meals by acting as\r\nthou hast done? Know that it is unlawful for thee to drink the froth.\'\r\nAnd Upamanyu, having signified his assent to this, went as before to tend\r\nthe cows. And restrained by his preceptor, he feedeth not on alms, nor\r\nhath he anything else to eat; he drinketh not of the milk, nor tasteth he\r\nof the froth!\r\n\r\n"And Upamanyu, one day, oppressed by hunger, when in a forest, ate of the\r\nleaves of the Arka (Asclepias gigantea). And his eyes being affected by\r\nthe pungent, acrimonious, crude, and saline properties of the leaves\r\nwhich he had eaten, he became blind. And as he was crawling about, he\r\nfell into a pit. And upon his not returning that day when the sun was\r\nsinking down behind the summit of the western mountains, the preceptor\r\nobserved to his disciples that Upamanyu was not yet come. And they told\r\nhim that he had gone out with the cattle.\r\n\r\n"The preceptor then said, \'Upamanyu being restrained by me from the use\r\nof everything, is, of course, and therefore, doth not come home until it\r\nbe late. Let us then go in search of him.\' And having said this, he went\r\nwith his disciples into the forest and began to shout, saying, \'Ho\r\nUpamanyu, where art thou?\' And Upamanyu hearing his preceptor\'s voice\r\nanswered in a loud tone, \'Here I am at the bottom of a well.\' And his\r\npreceptor asked him how he happened to be there. And Upamanyu replied,\r\n\'Having eaten of the leaves of the Arka plant I became blind, and so have\r\nI fallen into this well.\' And his preceptor thereupon told him, \'Glorify\r\nthe twin Aswins, the joint physicians of the gods, and they will restore\r\nthee thy sight.\' And Upamanyu thus directed by his preceptor began to\r\nglorify the twin Aswins, in the following words of the Rig Veda:\r\n\r\n\'Ye have existed before the creation! Ye first-born beings, ye are\r\ndisplayed in this wondrous universe of five elements! I desire to obtain\r\nyou by the help of the knowledge derived from hearing, and of meditation,\r\nfor ye are Infinite! Ye are the course itself of Nature and intelligent\r\nSoul that pervades that course! Ye are birds of beauteous feathers\r\nperched on the body that is like to a tree! Ye are without the three\r\ncommon attributes of every soul! Ye are incomparable! Ye, through your\r\nspirit in every created thing, pervade the Universe!\r\n\r\n"Ye are golden Eagles! Ye are the essence into which all things\r\ndisappear! Ye are free from error and know no deterioration! Ye are of\r\nbeauteous beaks that would not unjustly strike and are victorious in\r\nevery encounter! Ye certainly prevail over time! Having created the sun,\r\nye weave the wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread of\r\nthe day and the black thread of the night! And with the cloth so woven,\r\nye have established two courses of action appertaining respectively to\r\nthe Devas and the Pitris. The bird of Life seized by Time which\r\nrepresents the strength of the Infinite soul, ye set free for delivering\r\nher unto great happiness! They that are in deep ignorance, as long as\r\nthey are under delusions of their senses, suppose you, who are\r\nindependent of the attributes of matter, to be gifted with form! Three\r\nhundred and sixty cows represented by three hundred and sixty days\r\nproduce one calf between them which is the year. That calf is the creator\r\nand destroyer of all. Seekers of truth following different routes, draw\r\nthe milk of true knowledge with its help. Ye Aswins, ye are the creators\r\nof that calf!\r\n\r\n"The year is but the nave of a wheel to which is attached seven hundred\r\nand twenty spokes representing as many days and nights. The circumference\r\nof this wheel represented by twelve months is without end. This wheel is\r\nfull of delusions and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures\r\nwhether to this or of the other worlds. Ye Aswins, this wheel of time is\r\nset in motion by you!\r\n\r\n"The wheel of Time as represented by the year has a nave represented by\r\nthe six seasons. The number of spokes attached to that nave is twelve as\r\nrepresented by the twelve signs of the Zodiac. This wheel of Time\r\nmanifests the fruits of the acts of all things. The presiding deities of\r\nTime abide in that wheel. Subject as I am to its distressful influence,\r\nye Aswins, liberate me from that wheel of Time. Ye Aswins, ye are this\r\nuniverse of five elements! Ye are the objects that are enjoyed in this\r\nand in the other world! Make me independent of the five elements! And\r\nthough ye are the Supreme Brahma, yet ye move over the Earth in forms\r\nenjoying the delights that the senses afford.\r\n\r\n"In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe! Then have\r\nye placed the Sun and the Sky above! The Rishis, according to the course\r\nof the same Sun, perform their sacrifices, and the gods and men,\r\naccording to what hath been appointed for them, perform their sacrifices\r\nalso enjoying the fruits of those acts!\r\n\r\n"Mixing the three colours, ye have produced all the objects of sight! It\r\nis from these objects that the Universe hath sprung whereon the gods and\r\nmen are engaged in their respective occupations, and, indeed, all\r\ncreatures endued with life!\r\n\r\n"Ye Aswins, I adore you! I also adore the Sky which is your handiwork! Ye\r\nare the ordainers of the fruits of all acts from which even the gods are\r\nnot free! Ye are yourselves free from the fruits of your acts!\r\n\r\n"Ye are the parents of all! As males and females it is ye that swallow\r\nthe food which subsequently develops into the life creating fluid and\r\nblood! The new-born infant sucks the teat of its mother. Indeed it is ye\r\nthat take the shape of the infant! Ye Aswins, grant me my sight to\r\nprotect my life!"\r\n\r\nThe twin Aswins, thus invoked, appeared and said, \'We are satisfied. Here\r\nis a cake for thee. Take and eat it.\' And Upamanyu thus addressed,\r\nreplied, \'Your words, O Aswins, have never proved untrue. But without\r\nfirst offering this cake to my preceptor I dare not take it.\' And the\r\nAswins thereupon told him, \'Formerly, thy preceptor had invoked us. We\r\nthereupon gave him a cake like this; and he took it without offering it\r\nto his master. Do thou do that which thy preceptor did.\' Thus addressed,\r\nUpamanyu again said unto them, \'O Aswins, I crave your pardon. Without\r\noffering it to my preceptor I dare not apply this cake.\' The Aswins then\r\nsaid, \'O, we are pleased with this devotion of thine to thy preceptor.\r\nThy master\'s teeth are of black iron. Thine shall be of gold. Thou shall\r\nbe restored to sight and shall have good fortune.\'\r\n\r\n"Thus spoken to by the Aswins he recovered his sight, and having gone to\r\nhis preceptor\'s presence he saluted him and told him all. And his\r\npreceptor was well-pleased with him and said unto him, \'Thou shalt obtain\r\nprosperity even as the Aswins have said. All the Vedas shall shine in\r\nthee and all the Dharma-sastras.\' And this was the trial of Upamanyu.\r\n\r\n"Then Veda the other disciple of Ayoda-Dhaumya was called. His preceptor\r\nonce addressed him, saying, \'Veda, my child, tarry some time in my house\r\nand serve thy preceptor. It shall be to thy profit.\' And Veda having\r\nsignified his assent tarried long in the family of his preceptor mindful\r\nof serving him. Like an ox under the burthens of his master, he bore heat\r\nand cold, hunger and thirst, at all times without a murmur. And it was\r\nnot long before his preceptor was satisfied. And as a consequence of that\r\nsatisfaction, Veda obtained good fortune and universal knowledge. And\r\nthis was the trial of Veda.\r\n\r\n"And Veda, having received permission from his preceptor, and leaving the\r\nlatter\'s residence after the completion of his studies, entered the\r\ndomestic mode of life. And while living in his own house, he got three\r\npupils. And he never told them to perform any work or to obey implicitly\r\nhis own behests; for having himself experienced much woe while abiding in\r\nthe family of his preceptor, he liked not to treat them with severity.\r\n\r\n"After a certain time, Janamejaya and Paushya, both of the order of\r\nKshatriyas, arriving at his residence appointed the Brahman. Veda, as\r\ntheir spiritual guide (Upadhyaya). And one day while about to depart upon\r\nsome business related to a sacrifice, he employed one of his disciples,\r\nUtanka, to take charge of his household. \'Utanka\', said he, \'whatsoever\r\nshould have to be done in my house, let it be done by thee without\r\nneglect.\' And having given these orders to Utanka, he went on his journey.\r\n\r\n"So Utanka always mindful of the injunction of his preceptor took up his\r\nabode in the latter\'s house. And while Utanka was residing there, the\r\nfemales of his preceptor\'s house having assembled addressed him and said,\r\n\'O Utanka, thy mistress is in that season when connubial connection might\r\nbe fruitful. The preceptor is absent; then stand thou in his place and do\r\nthe needful.\' And Utanka, thus addressed, said unto those women, \'It is\r\nnot proper for me to do this at the bidding of women. I have not been\r\nenjoined by my preceptor to do aught that is improper.\'\r\n\r\n"After a while, his preceptor returned from his journey. And his\r\npreceptor having learnt all that had happened, became well-pleased and,\r\naddressing Utanka, said, \'Utanka, my child, what favour shall I bestow on\r\nthee? I have been served by thee duly; therefore hath our friendship for\r\neach other increased. I therefore grant thee leave to depart. Go thou,\r\nand let thy wishes be accomplished!\'\r\n\r\n"Utanka, thus addressed, replied, saying, "Let me do something that you\r\nwish, for it hath been said, \'He who bestoweth instruction contrary to\r\nusage and he who receiveth it contrary to usage, one of the two dieth,\r\nand enmity springeth up between the two.--I, therefore, who have received\r\nthy leave to depart, am desirous of bringing thee some honorarium due to\r\na preceptor. His master, upon hearing this, replied, \'Utanka, my child,\r\nwait a while.\' Sometime after, Utanka again addressed his preceptor,\r\nsaying, \'Command me to bring that for honorarium, which you desire.\' And\r\nhis preceptor then said, \'My dear Utanka, thou hast often told me of your\r\ndesire to bring something by way of acknowledgment for the instruction\r\nthou hast received. Go then in and ask thy mistress what thou art to\r\nbring. And bring thou that which she directs.\' And thus directed by his\r\npreceptor Utanka addressed his preceptress, saying, \'Madam, I have\r\nobtained my master\'s leave to go home, and I am desirous of bringing\r\nsomething agreeable to thee as honorarium for the instruction I have\r\nreceived, in order that I may not depart as his debtor. Therefore, please\r\ncommand me what I am to bring.\' Thus addressed, his preceptress replied,\r\n\'Go unto King Paushya and beg of him the pair of ear-rings worn by his\r\nQueen, and bring them hither. The fourth day hence is a sacred day when I\r\nwish to appear before the Brahmanas (who may dine at my house) decked\r\nwith these ear-rings. Then accomplish this, O Utanka! If thou shouldst\r\nsucceed, good fortune shall attend thee; if not, what good canst thou\r\nexpect?\'\r\n\r\n"Utanka thus commanded, took his departure. And as he was passing along\r\nthe road he saw a bull of extraordinary size and a man of uncommon\r\nstature mounted thereon. And that man addressed Utanka and said, \'Eat\r\nthou of the dung of this bull.\' Utanka, however, was unwilling to comply.\r\nThe man said again, \'O Utanka, eat of it without scrutiny. Thy master ate\r\nof it before.\' And Utanka signified his assent and ate of the dung and\r\ndrank of the urine of that bull, and rose respectfully, and washing his\r\nhands and mouth went to where King Paushya was.\r\n\r\n\'On arriving at the palace, Utanka saw Paushya seated (on his throne).\r\nAnd approaching him Utanka saluted the monarch by pronouncing blessings\r\nand said, \'I am come as a petitioner to thee.\' And King Paushya, having\r\nreturned Utanka\'s salutations, said, \'Sir, what shall I do for thee?\' And\r\nUtanka said, \'I came to beg of thee a pair of ear-rings as a present to\r\nmy preceptor. It behoveth thee to give me the ear-rings worn by the\r\nQueen.\'\r\n\r\n"King Paushya replied, \'Go, Utanka, into the female apartments where the\r\nQueen is and demand them of her.\' And Utanka went into the women\'s\r\napartments. But as he could not discover the Queen, he again addressed\r\nthe king, saying, \'It is not proper that I should be treated by thee with\r\ndeceit. Thy Queen is not in the private apartments, for I could not find\r\nher.\' The king thus addressed, considered for a while and replied,\r\n\'Recollect, Sir, with attention whether thou art not in a state of\r\ndefilement in consequence of contact with the impurities of a repast. My\r\nQueen is a chaste wife and cannot be seen by any one who is impure owing\r\nto contact with the leavings of a repast. Nor doth she herself appear in\r\nsight of any one who is defiled.\'\r\n\r\n"Utanka, thus informed, reflected for a while and then said, \'Yes, it\r\nmust be so. Having been in a hurry I performed my ablutions (after meal)\r\nin a standing posture.\' King Paushya then said, \'Here is a transgression,\r\npurification is not properly effected by one in a standing posture, not\r\nby one while he is going along.\' And Utanka having agreed to this, sat\r\ndown with his face towards the east, and washed his face, hands, and feet\r\nthoroughly. And he then, without a noise, sipped thrice of water free\r\nfrom scum and froth, and not warm, and just sufficient to reach his\r\nstomach and wiped his face twice. And he then touched with water the\r\napertures of his organs (eyes, ears, etc.). And having done all this, he\r\nonce more entered the apartments of the women. And this time he saw the\r\nQueen. And as the Queen perceived him, she saluted him respectfully and\r\nsaid, \'Welcome, Sir, command me what I have to do.\' And Utanka said unto\r\nher, \'It behoveth thee to give me those ear-rings of thine. I beg them as\r\na present for my preceptor.\' And the Queen having been highly pleased\r\nwith Utanka\'s conduct and, considering that Utanka as an object of\r\ncharity could not be passed over, took off her ear-rings and gave them to\r\nhim. And she said, \'These ear-rings are very much sought after by\r\nTakshaka, the King of the serpents. Therefore shouldst thou carry them\r\nwith the greatest care.\'\r\n\r\n"And Utanka being told this, said unto the Queen, \'Lady, be under no\r\napprehension. Takshaka, Chief of the serpents, is not able to overtake\r\nme.\' And having said this, and taking leave of the Queen, he went back\r\ninto the presence of Paushya, and said, \'Paushya, I am gratified.\' Then\r\nPaushya said to Utanka, \'A fit object of charity can only be had at long\r\nintervals. Thou art a qualified guest, therefore do I desire to perform a\r\nsraddha. Tarry thou a little. And Utanka replied, \'Yes, I will tarry, and\r\nbeg that the clean provisions that are ready may be soon brought in.\' And\r\nthe king having signified his assent, entertained Utanka duly. And Utanka\r\nseeing that the food placed before him had hair in it, and also that it\r\nwas cold, thought it unclean. And he said unto Paushya, \'Thou givest me\r\nfood that is unclean, therefore shalt thou lose thy sight.\' And Paushya\r\nin answer said, \'And because dost thou impute uncleanliness to food that\r\nis clean, therefore shalt thou be without issue.\' And Utanka thereupon\r\nrejoined, \'It behoveth thee not, after having offered me unclean food, to\r\ncurse me in return. Satisfy thyself by ocular proof.\'\r\n\r\n"And Paushya seeing the food alleged to be unclean satisfied himself of\r\nits uncleanliness. And Paushya having ascertained that the food was truly\r\nunclean, being cold and mixed with hair, prepared as it was by a woman\r\nwith unbraided hair, began to pacify the Rishi Utanka, saying, \'Sir, the\r\nfood placed before thee is cold, and doth contain hair, having been\r\nprepared without sufficient care. Therefore I pray thee pardon me. Let me\r\nnot become blind.\' And Utanka answered, \'What I say must come to pass.\r\nHaving become blind, thou mayst, however, recover the sight before long.\r\nGrant that thy curse also doth not take effect on me.\' And Paushya said\r\nunto him, \'I am unable to revoke my curse. For my wrath even now hath not\r\nbeen appeased. But thou knowest not this. For a Brahmana\'s heart is soft\r\nas new-churned butter, even though his words bear a sharp-edged razor. It\r\nis otherwise in respect of these with the Kshatriya. His words are soft\r\nas new-churned butter, but his heart is like a sharp-edged tool, such\r\nbeing the case, I am unable, because of the hardness of my heart, to\r\nneutralise my curse. Then go thou thy own way.\' To this Utanka made\r\nanswer, "I showed thee the uncleanliness of the food offered to me, and I\r\nwas even now pacified by thee. Besides, saidst thou at first that because\r\nI imputed uncleanliness to food that was clean I should be without issue.\r\nBut the food truly unclean, thy curse cannot affect me. Of this I am\r\nsure.\' And Utanka having said this departed with the ear-rings.\r\n\r\n"On the road Utanka perceived coming towards him a naked idle beggar\r\nsometimes coming in view and sometimes disappearing. And Utanka put the\r\near-rings on the ground and went for water. In the meantime the beggar\r\ncame quickly to the spot and taking up the ear-rings ran away. And Utanka\r\nhaving completed his ablutions in water and purified himself and having\r\nalso reverently bowed down to the gods and his spiritual masters pursued\r\nthe thief with the utmost speed. And having with great difficulty\r\novertaken him, he seized him by force. But at that instant the person\r\nseized, quitting the form of a beggar and assuming his real form, viz.,\r\nthat of Takshaka, speedily entered a large hole open in the ground. And\r\nhaving got in, Takshaka proceeded to his own abode, the region of the\r\nserpents.\r\n\r\n"Now, Utanka, recollecting the words of the Queen, pursued the Serpent,\r\nand began to dig open the hole with a stick but was unable to make much\r\nprogress. And Indra beholding his distress sent his thunder-bolt (Vajra)\r\nto his assistance. Then the thunder-bolt entering that stick enlarged\r\nthat hole. And Utanka began to enter the hole after the thunder-bolt. And\r\nhaving entered it, he beheld the region of the serpents infinite in\r\nextent, filled with hundreds of palaces and elegant mansions with turrets\r\nand domes and gate-ways, abounding with wonderful places for various\r\ngames and entertainments. And Utanka then glorified the serpents by the\r\nfollowing slokas:\r\n\r\n"Ye Serpents, subjects of King Airavata, splendid in battle and showering\r\nweapons in the field like lightning-charged clouds driven by the winds!\r\nHandsome and of various forms and decked with many coloured ear-rings, ye\r\nchildren of Airavata, ye shine like the Sun in the firmament! On the\r\nnorthern banks of the Ganges are many habitations of serpents. There I\r\nconstantly adore the great serpents. Who except Airavata would desire to\r\nmove in the burning rays of the Sun? When Dhritarashtra (Airavata\'s\r\nbrother) goes out, twenty-eight thousand and eight serpents follow him as\r\nhis attendants. Ye who move near him and ye who stay at a distance from\r\nhim, I adore all of you that have Airavata for your elder brother.\r\n\r\n"I adore thee also, to obtain the ear-rings, O Takshaka, who formerly\r\ndwelt in Kurukshetra and the forest of Khandava! Takshaka and Aswasena,\r\nye are constant companions who dwell in Kurukshetra on the banks of the\r\nIkshumati! I also adore the illustrious Srutasena, the younger brother of\r\nTakshaka, who resided at the holy place called Mahadyumna with a view to\r\nobtaining the chiefship of the serpents.\r\n\r\n"The Brahmana Rishi Utanka having saluted the chief serpents in this\r\nmanner, obtained not, however, the ear-rings. And he thereupon became\r\nvery thoughtful. And when he saw that he obtained not the ear-rings even\r\nthough he had adored the serpents, he then looked about him and beheld\r\ntwo women at a loom weaving a piece of cloth with a fine shuttle; and in\r\nthe loom were black and white threads. And he likewise saw a wheel, with\r\ntwelve spokes, turned by six boys. And he also saw a man with a handsome\r\nhorse. And he began to address them the following mantras:\r\n\r\n"This wheel whose circumference is marked by twenty-four divisions\r\nrepresenting as many lunar changes is furnished with three hundred\r\nspokes! It is set in continual motion by six boys (the seasons)! These\r\ndamsels representing universal nature are weaving without intermission a\r\ncloth with threads black and white, and thereby ushering into existence\r\nthe manifold worlds and the beings that inhabit them! Thou wielder of the\r\nthunder, the protector of the universe, the slayer of Vritra and Namuchi,\r\nthou illustrious one who wearest the black cloth and displayest truth and\r\nuntruth in the universe, thou who ownest for thy carrier the horse which\r\nwas received from the depths of the ocean, and which is but another form\r\nof Agni (the god of fire), I bow to thee, thou supreme Lord, thou Lord of\r\nthe three worlds, O Purandara!\'\r\n\r\n"Then the man with the horse said unto Utanka, \'I am gratified by this\r\nthy adoration. What good shall I do to thee?\' And Utanka replied, \'Even\r\nlet the serpents be brought under my control.\' Then the man rejoined,\r\n\'Blow into this horse.\' And Utanka blew into that horse. And from the\r\nhorse thus blown into, there issued, from every aperture of his body,\r\nflames of fire with smoke by which the region of the Nagas was about to\r\nbe consumed. And Takshaka, surprised beyond measure and terrified by the\r\nheat of the fire, hastily came out of his abode taking the ear-rings with\r\nhim, and said unto Utanka, \'Pray, Sir, take back the ear-rings.\' And\r\nUtanka took them back.\r\n\r\n"But Utanka having recovered his ear-rings thought, \'O, this is that\r\nsacred day of my preceptress. I am at a distance. How can I, therefore,\r\nshow my regard for her? And when Utanka was anxious about this, the man\r\naddressed him and said, \'Ride this horse, Utanka, and he will in a moment\r\ncarry thee to thy master\'s abode.\' And Utanka having signified his\r\nassent, mounted the horse and presently reached his preceptor\'s house.\r\n\r\n"And his preceptress that morning after having bathed was dressing her\r\nhair sitting, thinking of uttering a curse on Utanka if he should not\r\nreturn within time. But, in the meantime, Utanka entered his preceptor\'s\r\nabode and paid his respects to his preceptress and presented her the\r\near-rings. \'Utanka\', said she, \'thou hast arrived at the proper time at\r\nthe proper place. Welcome, my child; thou art innocent and therefore I do\r\nnot curse thee! Good fortune is even before thee. Let thy wishes be\r\ncrowned with success!\'\r\n\r\n"Then Utanka waited on his preceptor. And his preceptor said, \'Thou art\r\nwelcome! What hath occasioned thy long absence?\' And Utanka replied to\r\nhis preceptor, \'Sir, in the execution of this my business obstruction was\r\noffered by Takshaka, the King of serpents. Therefore I had to go to the\r\nregion of the Nagas. There I saw two damsels sitting at a loom, weaving a\r\nfabric with black and white threads. Pray, what is that? There likewise I\r\nbeheld a wheel with twelve spokes ceaselessly turned by six boys. What\r\ntoo doth that import? Who is also the man that I saw? And what the horse\r\nof extraordinary size likewise beheld by me? And when I was on the road I\r\nalso saw a bull with a man mounted thereon, by whom I was endearingly\r\naccosted thus, \'Utanka, eat of the dung of this bull, which was also\r\neaten by thy master?\' So I ate of the dung of that bull according to his\r\nwords. Who also is he? Therefore, enlightened by thee, I desire to hear\r\nall about them.\'\r\n\r\n"And his preceptor thus addressed said unto him, \'The two damsels thou\r\nhast seen are Dhata and Vidhata; the black and white threads denote night\r\nand day; the wheel of twelve spokes turned by the six boys signified the\r\nyear comprising six seasons. The man is Parjanya, the deity of rain, and\r\nthe horse is Agni, the god of fire. The bull that thou hast seen on the\r\nroad is Airavata, the king of elephants; the man mounted thereon is\r\nIndra; and the dung of the bull which was eaten by thee was Amrita. It\r\nwas certainly for this (last) that thou hast not met with death in the\r\nregion of the Nagas; and Indra who is my friend having been mercifully\r\ninclined showed thee favour. It is for this that thou returnest safe,\r\nwith the ear-rings about thee. Then, O thou amiable one, I give thee\r\nleave to depart. Thou shall obtain good fortune.\'\r\n\r\n"And Utanka, having obtained his master\'s leave, moved by anger and\r\nresolved to avenge himself on Takshaka, proceeded towards Hastinapura.\r\nThat excellent Brahmana soon reached Hastinapura. And Utanka then waited\r\nupon King Janamejaya who had some time before returned victorious from\r\nTakshashila. And Utanka saw the victorious monarch surrounded on all\r\nsides by his ministers. And he pronounced benedictions on him in a proper\r\nform. And Utanka addressed the monarch at the proper moment in speech of\r\ncorrect accent and melodious sounds, saying, \'O thou the best of\r\nmonarchs! How is it that thou spendest thy time like a child when there\r\nis another matter that urgently demandeth thy attention?\'"\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The monarch Janamejaya, thus addressed, saluting that\r\nexcellent Brahmana replied unto him, \'In cherishing these my subjects I\r\ndo discharge the duties of my noble tribe. Say, what is that business to\r\nbe done by me and which hath brought thee hither.\'\r\n\r\n"The foremost of Brahmanas and distinguished beyond all for good deeds,\r\nthus addressed by the excellent monarch of large heart, replied unto him,\r\n\'O King! the business is thy own that demandeth thy attention; therefore\r\ndo it, please. O thou King of kings! Thy father was deprived of life by\r\nTakshaka; therefore do thou avenge thy father\'s death on that vile\r\nserpent. The time hath come, I think, for the act of vengeance ordained\r\nby the Fates. Go then avenge the death of thy magnanimous father who,\r\nbeing bitten without cause by that vile serpent, was reduced to five\r\nelements even like a tree stricken by thunder. The wicked Takshaka,\r\nvilest of the serpent race, intoxicated with power committed an\r\nunnecessary act when he bit the King, that god-like father, the protector\r\nof the race of royal saints. Wicked in his deeds, he even caused Kasyapa\r\n(the prince of physicians) to run back when he was coming for the relief\r\nof thy father. It behoveth thee to burn the wicked wretch in the blazing\r\nfire of a snake-sacrifice. O King! Give instant orders for the sacrifice.\r\nIt is thus thou canst avenge the death of thy father. And a very great\r\nfavour shall have also been shown to me. For by that malignant wretch, O\r\nvirtuous Prince, my business also was, on one occasion, obstructed, while\r\nproceeding on account of my preceptor."\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, The monarch, having heard these words, was enraged with\r\nTakshaka. By the speech of Utanka was inflamed the prince, even as the\r\nsacrificial fire with clarified butter. Moved by grief also, in the\r\npresence of Utanka, the prince asked his ministers the particulars of his\r\nfather\'s journey to the regions of the blessed. And when he heard all\r\nabout the circumstances of his father\'s death from the lips of Utanka, he\r\nwas overcome with pain and sorrow.\r\n\r\nAnd thus endeth the section called Paushya of the Adi Parva of the\r\nblessed Mahabharata."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION IV\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva)\r\n\r\n\'UGRASRAVA SAUTI, the son of Lomaharshana, versed in the Puranas, while\r\npresent in the forest of Naimisha, at the twelve years\' sacrifice of\r\nSaunaka, surnamed Kulapati, stood before the Rishis in attendance. Having\r\nstudied Puranas with meticulous devotion and thus being thoroughly\r\nacquainted with them, he addressed them with joined hands thus, \'I have\r\ngraphically described to you the history of Utanka which is one of the\r\ncauses of King Janamejaya\'s Snake-sacrifice. What, revered Sirs, do ye\r\nwish to hear now? What shall I relate to you?\' The holy men replied, \'O\r\nson of Lomaharshana, we shall ask thee about what we are anxious to hear\r\nand thou wilt recount the tales one by one. Saunaka, our revered master,\r\nis at present attending the apartment of the holy fire. He is acquainted\r\nwith those divine stories which relate to the gods and asuras. He\r\nadequately knoweth the histories of men, serpents, and Gandharvas.\r\nFurther, O Sauti, in this sacrifice that learned Brahmana is the chief.\r\nHe is able, faithful to his vows, wise, a master of the Sastras and the\r\nAranyaka, a speaker of truth, a lover of peace, a mortifier of the flesh,\r\nand an observer of the penances according to the authoritative decrees.\r\nHe is respected by us all. It behoveth us therefore to wait for him. And\r\nwhen he is seated on his highly respected seat, thou wilt answer what\r\nthat best of Dwijas shall ask of thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Be it so. And when the high-souled master hath been seated\r\nI shall narrate, questioned by him, sacred stories on a variety of\r\nsubjects." After a while that excellent Brahmana (Saunaka) having duly\r\nfinished all his duties, and having propitiated the gods with prayers and\r\nthe manes with oblations of water, came back to the place of sacrifice,\r\nwhere with Sauti seated before was the assembly of saints of rigid vows\r\nsitting at ease. And when Saunaka was seated in the midst of the Ritwiks\r\nand Sadhyas, who were also in their seats, he spake as followeth."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION V\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'Child, thy father formerly read the whole of the Puranas,\r\nO son of Lomaharshana, and the Bharata with Krishna-Dwaipayana. Hast thou\r\nalso made them thy study? In those ancient records are chronicled\r\ninteresting stories and the history of the first generations of the wise\r\nmen, all of which we heard being rehearsed by thy sire. In the first\r\nplace, I am desirous of hearing the history of the race of Bhrigu.\r\nRecount thou that history, we shall attentively listen to thee."\r\n\r\n"Sauti answered, \'By me hath been acquired all that was formerly studied\r\nby the high-souled Brahmanas including Vaisampayana and repeated by them;\r\nby me hath been acquired all that had been studied by my father. O\r\ndescendant of the Bhrigu race, attend then to so much as relateth to the\r\nexalted race of Bhrigu, revered by Indra and all the gods, by the tribes\r\nof Rishis and Maruts (Winds). O great Muni, I shall first properly\r\nrecount the story of this family, as told in the Puranas.\r\n\r\n"The great and blessed saint Bhrigu, we are informed, was produced by the\r\nself-existing Brahma from the fire at the sacrifice of Varuna. And Bhrigu\r\nhad a son, named Chyavana, whom he dearly loved. And to Chyavana was born\r\na virtuous son called Pramati. And Pramati had a son named Ruru by\r\nGhritachi (the celestial dancer). And to Ruru also by his wife\r\nPramadvara, was born a son, whose name was Sunaka. He was, O Saunaka, thy\r\ngreat ancestor exceedingly virtuous in his ways. He was devoted to\r\nasceticism, of great reputation, proficient in law, and eminent among\r\nthose having a knowledge of the Vedas. He was virtuous, truthful, and of\r\nwell-regulated fare.\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son of Suta, I ask thee why the illustrious son of\r\nBhrigu was named Chyavana. Do tell me all.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti replied, \'Bhrigu had a wife named Puloma whom he dearly loved. She\r\nbecame big with child by Bhrigu. And one day while the virtuous continent\r\nPuloma was in that condition, Bhrigu, great among those that are true to\r\ntheir religion, leaving her at home went out to perform his ablutions. It\r\nwas then that the Rakshasa called Puloma came to Bhrigu\'s abode. And\r\nentering the Rishi\'s abode, the Rakshasa saw the wife of Bhrigu,\r\nirreproachable in everything. And seeing her he became filled with lust\r\nand lost his senses. The beautiful Puloma entertained the Rakshasa thus\r\narrived, with roots and fruits of the forest. And the Rakshasa who burnt\r\nwith desire upon seeing her, became very much delighted and resolved, O\r\ngood sage, to carry her away who was so blameless in every respect.\r\n\r\n\'My design is accomplished,\' said the Rakshasa, and so seizing that\r\nbeautiful matron he carried her away. And, indeed, she of agreeable\r\nsmiles, had been betrothed by her father himself, to him, although the\r\nformer subsequently bestowed her, according to due rites, on Bhrigu. O\r\nthou of the Bhrigu race, this wound rankled deep in the Rakshasa\'s mind\r\nand he thought the present moment very opportune for carrying the lady\r\naway.\r\n\r\n"And the Rakshasa saw the apartment in which the sacrificial fire was\r\nkept burning brightly. The Rakshasa then asked the flaming element \'Tell\r\nme, O Agni, whose wife this woman rightfully is. Thou art the mouth of\r\ngods; therefore thou art bound to answer my question. This lady of\r\nsuperior complexion had been first accepted by me as wife, but her father\r\nsubsequently bestowed her on the false Bhrigu. Tell me truly if this fair\r\none can be regarded as the wife of Bhrigu, for having found her alone, I\r\nhave resolved to take her away by force from the hermitage. My heart\r\nburneth with rage when I reflect that Bhrigu hath got possession of this\r\nwoman of slender waist, first betrothed to me.\'"\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'In this manner the Rakshasa asked the flaming god of\r\nfire again and again whether the lady was Bhrigu\'s wife. And the god was\r\nafraid to return an answer. \'Thou, O god of fire,\' said he, residest\r\nconstantly within every creature, as witness of her or his merits and\r\ndemerits. O thou respected one, then answer my question truly. Has not\r\nBhrigu appropriated her who was chosen by me as my wife? Thou shouldst\r\ndeclare truly whether, therefore, she is my wife by first choice. After\r\nthy answer as to whether she is the wife of Bhrigu, I will bear her away\r\nfrom this hermitage even in sight of thee. Therefore answer thou truly.\'"\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The Seven flamed god having heard these words of the\r\nRakshasa became exceedingly distressed, being afraid of telling a\r\nfalsehood and equally afraid of Bhrigu\'s curse. And the god at length\r\nmade answer in words that came out slowly. \'This Puloma was, indeed,\r\nfirst chosen by thee, O Rakshasa, but she was not taken by thee with holy\r\nrites and invocations. But this far-famed lady was bestowed by her father\r\non Bhrigu as a gift from desire of blessing. She was not bestowed on thee\r\nO Rakshasa, this lady was duly made by the Rishi Bhrigu his wife with\r\nVedic rites in my presence. This is she--I know her. I dare not speak a\r\nfalsehood. O thou best of the Rakshasas, falsehood is never respected in\r\nthis world.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VI\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O Brahmana, having heard these words from the god of fire,\r\nthe Rakshasa assumed the form of a boar, and seizing the lady carried her\r\naway with the speed of the wind--even of thought. Then the child of\r\nBhrigu lying in her body enraged at such violence, dropped from his\r\nmother\'s womb, for which he obtained the name of Chyavana. And the\r\nRakshasa perceiving the infant drop from the mother\'s womb, shining like\r\nthe sun, quitted his grasp of the woman, fell down and was instantly\r\nconverted into ashes. And the beautiful Pauloma, distracted with grief, O\r\nBrahmana of the Bhrigu race, took up her offspring Chyavana, the son of\r\nBhrigu and walked away. And Brahma, the Grandfather of all, himself saw\r\nher, the faultless wife of his son, weeping. And the Grandfather of all\r\ncomforted her who was attached to her son. And the drops of tears which\r\nrolled down her eyes formed a great river. And that river began to follow\r\nthe foot-steps of the wife of the great ascetic Bhrigu. And the\r\nGrandfather of the worlds seeing that river follow the path of his son\'s\r\nwife gave it a name himself, and he called it Vadhusara. And it passeth\r\nby the hermitage of Chyavana. And in this manner was born Chyavana of\r\ngreat ascetic power, the son of Bhrigu.\r\n\r\n"And Bhrigu saw his child Chyavana and its beautiful mother. And the\r\nRishi in a rage asked her, \'By whom wast thou made known to that Rakshasa\r\nwho resolved to carry thee away? O thou of agreeable smiles, the Rakshasa\r\ncould not know thee as my wile. Therefore tell me who it was that told\r\nthe Rakshasa so, in order that I may curse him through anger.\' And\r\nPauloma replied, \'O possessor of the six attributes! I was identified to\r\nthe Rakshasa by Agni (the god of fire). And he (the Rakshasa) bore me\r\naway, who cried like the Kurari (female osprey). And it was only by the\r\nardent splendour of this thy son that I was rescued, for the Rakshasa\r\n(seeing this infant) let me go and himself falling to the ground was\r\nturned into ashes.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Bhrigu, upon hearing this account from Pauloma, became\r\nexceedingly enraged. And in excess of passion the Rishi cursed Agni,\r\nsaying, \'Thou shalt eat of all things.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the sixth section called "the curse on Agni" in the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VII\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'the god of fire enraged at the curse of Bhrigu, thus\r\naddressed the Rishi, \'What meaneth this rashness, O Brahmana, that thou\r\nhast displayed towards me? What transgression can be imputed to me who\r\nwas labouring to do justice and speak the truth impartially? Being asked\r\nI gave the true answer. A witness who when interrogated about a fact of\r\nwhich he hath knowledge, representeth otherwise than it is, ruineth his\r\nancestors and descendants both to the seventh generation. He, too, who,\r\nbeing fully cognisant of all the particulars of an affair, doth not\r\ndisclose what he knoweth, when asked, is undoubtedly stained with guilt.\r\nI can also curse thee, but Brahmanas are held by me in high respect.\r\nAlthough these are known to thee, O Brahmana, I will yet speak of them,\r\nso please attend! Having, by ascetic power, multiplied myself, I am\r\npresent in various forms, in places of the daily homa, at sacrifices\r\nextending for years, in places where holy rites are performed (such as\r\nmarriage, etc.), and at other sacrifices. With the butter that is poured\r\nupon my flame according to the injunctions prescribed in the Vedas, the\r\nDevas and the Pitris are appeased. The Devas are the waters; the Pitris\r\nare also the waters. The Devas have with the Pitris an equal right to the\r\nsacrifices called Darshas and Purnamasas. The Devas therefore are the\r\nPitris and the Pitris, the Devas. They are identical beings, worshipped\r\ntogether and also separately at the changes of the moon. The Devas and\r\nthe Pitris eat what is poured upon me. I am therefore called the mouth of\r\nthe Devas and the Pitris. At the new moon the Pitris, and at the full\r\nmoon the Devas, are fed through my mouth, eating of the clarified butter\r\nthat is poured on me. Being, as I am, their mouth, how am I to be an\r\neater of all things (clean and unclean)?\r\n\r\n"Then Agni, alter reflecting for a while, withdrew himself from all\r\nplaces; from places of the daily homa of the Brahmanas, from all\r\nlong-extending sacrifices, from places of holy rites, and from other\r\nceremonies. Without their Oms and Vashats, and deprived of their Swadhas\r\nand Swahas (sacrificial mantras during offerings), the whole body of\r\ncreatures became much distressed at the loss of their (sacrificial) fire.\r\nThe Rishis in great anxiety went to the gods and addressed them thus, \'Ye\r\nimmaculate beings! The three regions of the universe are confounded at\r\nthe cessation of their sacrifices and ceremonies in consequence of the\r\nloss of fire! Ordain what is to be done in tins matter, so that there may\r\nbe no loss of time.\' Then the Rishis and the gods went together to the\r\npresence of Brahma. And they represented to him all about the curse on\r\nAgni and the consequent interruption of all ceremonies. And they said, \'O\r\nthou greatly fortunate! Once Agni hath been cursed by Bhrigu for some\r\nreason. Indeed, being the mouth of the gods and also the first who eateth\r\nof what is offered in sacrifices, the eater also of the sacrificial\r\nbutter, how will Agni be reduced to the condition of one who eateth of\r\nall things promiscuously?\' And the creator of the universe hearing these\r\nwords of theirs summoned Agni to his presence. And Brahma addressed Agni,\r\nthe creator of all and eternal as himself, in these gentle words, \'Thou\r\nart the creator of the worlds and thou art their destroyer! Thou\r\npreserves! the three worlds and thou art the promoter of all sacrifices\r\nand ceremonies! Therefore behave thyself so that ceremonies be not\r\ninterrupted. And, O thou eater of the sacrificial butter, why dost thou\r\nact so foolishly, being, as thou art, the Lord of all? Thou alone art\r\nalways pure in the universe and thou art its stay! Thou shall not, with\r\nall thy body, be reduced to the state of one who eateth of all things\r\npromiscuously. O thou of flames, the flame that is in thy viler parts\r\nshall alone eat of all things alike. The body of thine which eateth of\r\nflesh (being in the stomach of all carnivorous animals) shall also eat of\r\nall things promiscuously. And as every thing touched by the sun\'s rays\r\nbecometh pure, so shall everything be pure that shall be burnt by thy\r\nflames. Thou art, O fire, the supreme energy born of thy own power. Then,\r\nO Lord, by that power of thine make the Rishi\'s curse come true. Continue\r\nto \'receive thy own portion and that of the gods, offered at thy mouth.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'Then Agni replied to the Grandfather, \'So be it.\' And\r\nhe then went away to obey the command of the supreme Lord. The gods and\r\nthe Rishis also returned in delight to the place whence they had come.\r\nAnd the Rishis began to perform as before their ceremonies and\r\nsacrifices. And the gods in heaven and all creatures of the world\r\nrejoiced exceedingly. And Agni too rejoiced in that he was free from the\r\nprospect of sin.\r\n\r\n"Thus, O possessor of the six attributes, had Agni been cursed in the\r\ndays of yore by Bhrigu. And such is the ancient history connected with\r\nthe destruction of the Rakshasa, Pauloma and the birth of Chyavana.\'"\r\n\r\nThus endeth the seventh section of the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva of\r\nthe blessed Mahabharata.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION VIII\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O Brahmana, Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu, begot a son in the\r\nwomb of his wife Sukanya. And that son was the illustrious Pramati of\r\nresplendent energy. And Pramati begot in the womb of Ghritachi a son\r\ncalled Ruru. And Ruru begot on his wife Pramadvara a son called Sunaka.\r\nAnd I shall relate to you in detail, O Brahmana, the entire history of\r\nRuru of abundant energy. O listen to it then in full!\r\n\r\n"Formerly there was a great Rishi called Sthulakesa possessed of ascetic\r\npower and learning and kindly disposed towards all creatures. At that\r\ntime, O Brahmana sage, Viswavasu, the King of the Gandharvas, it is said,\r\nhad intimacy with Menaka, the celestial dancing-girl. And the Apsara,\r\nMenaka, O thou of the Bhrigu race, when her time was come, brought forth\r\nan infant near the hermitage of Sthulakesa. And dropping the newborn\r\ninfant on the banks of the river, O Brahmana, Menaka, the Apsara, being\r\ndestitute of pity and shame, went away. And the Rishi, Sthulakesa, of\r\ngreat ascetic power, discovered the infant lying forsaken in a lonely\r\npart of the river-side. And he perceived that it was a female child,\r\nbright as the offspring of an Immortal and blazing, as it were, with\r\nbeauty: And the great Brahmana, Sthulakesa, the first of Munis, seeing\r\nthat female child, and filled with compassion, took it up and reared it.\r\nAnd the lovely child grew up in his holy habitation, the noble-minded and\r\nblessed Rishi Sthulakesa performing in due succession all the ceremonies\r\nbeginning with that at birth as ordained by the divine law. And because\r\nshe surpassed all of her sex in goodness, beauty, and every quality, the\r\ngreat Rishi called her by the name of Pramadvara. And the pious Ruru\r\nhaving seen Pramadvara in the hermitage of Sthulakesa became one whose\r\nheart was pierced by the god of love. And Ruru by means of his companions\r\nmade his father Pramati, the son of Bhrigu, acquainted with his passion.\r\nAnd Pramati demanded her of the far-famed Sthulakesa for his son. And her\r\nfoster-father betrothed the virgin Pramadvara to Ruru, fixing the\r\nnuptials for the day when the star Varga-Daivata (Purva-phalguni) would\r\nbe ascendant.\r\n\r\n"Then within a few days of the time fixed for the nuptials, the beautiful\r\nvirgin while at play with companions of her own sex, her time having\r\ncome, impelled by fate, trod upon a serpent which she did not perceive as\r\nit lay in coil. And the reptile, urged to execute the will of Fate,\r\nviolently darted its envenomed fangs into the body of the heedless\r\nmaiden. And stung by that serpent, she instantly dropped senseless on the\r\nground, her colour faded and all the graces of her person went off. And\r\nwith dishevelled hair she became a spectacle of woe to her companions and\r\nfriends. And she who was so agreeable to behold became on her death what\r\nwas too painful to look at. And the girl of slender waist lying on the\r\nground like one asleep--being overcome with the poison of the snake-once\r\nmore became more beautiful than in life. And her foster-father and the\r\nother holy ascetics who were there, all saw her lying motionless upon the\r\nground with the splendour of a lotus. And then there came many noted\r\nBrahmanas filled with compassion, and they sat around her. And\r\nSwastyatreya, Mahajana, Kushika, Sankhamekhala, Uddalaka, Katha, and\r\nSweta of great renown, Bharadwaja, Kaunakutsya, Arshtishena, Gautama,\r\nPramati, and Pramati\'s son Ruru, and other inhabitants of the forest,\r\ncame there. And when they saw that maiden lying dead on the ground\r\novercome with the poison of the reptile that had bitten her, they all\r\nwept filled with compassion. But Ruru, mortified beyond measure, retired\r\nfrom the scene.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the eighth section of the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva of the\r\nblessed Mahabharata.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION IX\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'While those illustrious Brahmanas were sitting around the\r\ndead body of Pramadvara, Ruru, sorely afflicted, retired into a deep wood\r\nand wept aloud. And overwhelmed with grief he indulged in much piteous\r\nlamentation. And, remembering his beloved Pramadvara, he gave vent to his\r\nsorrow in the following words, \'Alas! The delicate fair one that\r\nincreaseth my affliction lieth upon the bare ground. What can be more\r\ndeplorable to us, her friends? If I have been charitable, if I have\r\nperformed acts of penance, if I have ever revered my superiors, let the\r\nmerit of these arts restore to life my beloved one! If from my birth I\r\nhave been controlling my passions, adhered to my vows, let the fair\r\nPramadvara rise from the ground.\r\n\r\n"And while Ruru was indulging in these lamentations for the loss of his\r\nbride, a messenger from heaven came to him in the forest and addressed\r\nhim thus, \'The words thou utterest, O Ruru, in thy affliction are\r\ncertainly ineffectual. For, O pious man, one belonging to this world\r\nwhose days have run out can never come back to life. This poor child of a\r\nGandharva and Apsara has had her days run out! Therefore, O child, thou\r\nshouldst not consign thy heart to sorrow. The great gods, however, have\r\nprovided beforehand a means of her restoration to life. And if thou\r\ncompliest with it, thou mayest receive back thy Pramadvara.\'\r\n\r\n"And Ruru replied, O messenger of heaven! What is that which the gods\r\nhave ordained. Tell me in full so that (on hearing) I may comply with it.\r\nIt behoveth thee to deliver me from grief!\' And the celestial messenger\r\nsaid unto Ruru, \'Resign half of thy own life to thy bride, and then, O\r\nRuru of the race of Bhrigu, thy Pramadvara shall rise from the ground.\'\r\n\'O best of celestial messengers, I most willingly offer a moiety of my\r\nown life in favour of my bride. Then let my beloved one rise up once more\r\nin her dress and lovable form.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then the king of Gandharvas (the father of Pramadvara) and\r\nthe celestial messenger, both of excellent qualities, went to the god\r\nDharma (the Judge of the dead) and addressed him, saying, \'If it be thy\r\nwill, O Dharmaraja, let the amiable Pramadvara, the betrothed wife of\r\nRuru, now lying dead, rise up with a moiety of Ruru\'s life.\' And\r\nDharmaraja answered, \'O messenger of the gods, if it be thy wish, let\r\nPramadvara, the betrothed wife of Ruru, rise up endued with a moiety of\r\nRuru\'s life.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'And when Dharmaraja had said so, that maiden of\r\nsuperior complexion, Pramadvara, endued with a moiety of Ruru\'s life,\r\nrose as from her slumber. This bestowal by Ruru of a moiety of his own\r\nspan of life to resuscitate his bride afterwards led, as it would be\r\nseen, to a curtailment of Ruru\'s life.\r\n\r\n"And on an auspicious day their fathers gladly married them with due\r\nrites. And the couple passed their days, devoted to each other. And Ruru\r\nhaving obtained such a wife, as is hard to be found, beautiful and bright\r\nas the filaments of the lotus, made a vow for the destruction of the\r\nserpent-race. And whenever he saw a serpent he became filled with great\r\nwrath and always killed it with a weapon.\r\n\r\n"One day, O Brahmana, Ruru entered an extensive forest. And there he saw\r\nan old serpent of the Dundubha species lying stretched on the ground. And\r\nRuru thereupon lifted up in anger his staff, even like to the staff of\r\nDeath, for the purpose of killing it. Then the Dundubha, addressing Ruru,\r\nsaid, \'I have done thee no harm, O Brahmana! Then wherefore wilt thou\r\nslay me in anger?\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the ninth section of the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva of the\r\nblessed Mahabharata.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION X\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\nSauti said, \'And Ruru, on hearing those words, replied, \'My wife, dear to\r\nme as life, was bit by a snake; upon which, I took, O snake, a dreadful\r\nvow, viz., that I would kill every snake that I might come across.\r\nTherefore shall I smite thee and thou shalt be deprived of life.\'\r\n\r\n"And the Dundubha replied, \'O Brahmana, the snakes that bite man are\r\nquite different in type. It behoveth thee not to slay Dundubhas who are\r\nserpents only in name. Subject like other serpents to the same calamities\r\nbut not sharing their good fortune, in woe the same but in joy different,\r\nthe Dundubhas should not be slain by thee under any misconception.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'And the Rishi Ruru hearing these words of the serpent,\r\nand seeing that it was bewildered with fear, albeit a snake of the\r\nDundubha species, killed it not. And Ruru, the possessor of the six\r\nattributes, comforting the snake addressed it, saying, \'Tell me fully, O\r\nsnake, who art thou thus metamorphosed?\' And the Dundubha replied, \'O\r\nRuru! I was formerly a Rishi by name Sahasrapat. And it is by the curse\r\nof a Brahmana that I have been transformed into a snake. And Ruru asked,\r\n\'O thou best of snakes, for what wast thou cursed by a Brahmana in wrath?\r\nAnd how long also will thy form continue so?\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the tenth section of the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XI\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued \'The Dundubha then said, \'In former times, I had a\r\nfriend Khagama by name. He was impetuous in his speech and possessed of\r\nspiritual power by virtue of his austerities. And one day when he was\r\nengaged in the Agni-hotra (Fire-sacrifice), I made a mock snake of blades\r\nof grass, and in a frolic attempted to frighten him with it. And anon he\r\nfell into a swoon. On recovering his senses, that truth-telling and\r\nvow-observing ascetic, burning with wrath, exclaimed, \'Since thou hast\r\nmade a powerless mock snake to frighten me, thou shalt be turned even\r\ninto a venomless serpent thyself by my curse.\' O ascetic, I well knew the\r\npower of his penances; therefore with an agitated heart, I addressed him\r\nthus, bending low with joined hands, \'Friend, I did this by way of a\r\njoke, to excite thy laughter. It behoveth thee to forgive me and revoke\r\nthy curse.\' And seeing me sorely troubled, the ascetic was moved, and he\r\nreplied, breathing hot and hard. \'What I have said must come to pass.\r\nListen to what I say and lay it to thy heart. O pious one! when Ruru the\r\npure son of Pramati, will appear, thou shall be delivered from the curse\r\nthe moment thou seest him. Thou art the very Ruru and the son of Pramati.\r\nOn regaining my native form, I will tell thee something for thy good.\r\n\r\n"And that illustrious man and the best of Brahmanas then left his\r\nsnake-body, and attained his own form and original brightness. He then\r\naddressed the following words to Ruru of incomparable power, \'O thou\r\nfirst of created beings, verily the highest virtue of man is sparing the\r\nlife of others. Therefore a Brahmana should never take the life of any\r\ncreature. A Brahmana should ever be mild. This is the most sacred\r\ninjunction of the Vedas. A Brahmana should be versed in the Vedas and\r\nVedangas, and should inspire all creatures with belief in God. He should\r\nbe benevolent to all creatures, truthful, and forgiving, even as it is\r\nhis paramount duty to retain the Vedas in his memory. The duties of the\r\nKshatriya are not thine. To be stern, to wield the sceptre and to rule\r\nthe subjects properly are the duties of the Kshatriya. Listen, O Ruru, to\r\nthe account of the destruction of snakes at the sacrifice of Janamejaya\r\nin days of yore, and the deliverance of the terrified reptiles by that\r\nbest of Dwijas, Astika, profound in Vedic lore and might in spiritual\r\nenergy.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the eleventh section of the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XII\r\n\r\n(Pauloma Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Ruru then asked, \'O best of Dwijas, why was king\r\nJanamejaya bent upon destroying the serpents?--And why and how were they\r\nsaved by the wise Astika? I am anxious to hear all this in detail.\'\r\n\r\n"The Rishi replied, \'O Ruru, the important history of Astika you will\r\nlearn from the lips of Brahmanas.\' Saying this, he vanished.\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Ruru ran about in search of the missing Rishi, and\r\nhaving failed to find him in all the woods, fell down on the ground,\r\nfatigued. And revolving in his mind the words of the Rishi, he was\r\ngreatly confounded and seemed to be deprived of his senses. Regaining\r\nconsciousness, he came home and asked his father to relate the history in\r\nquestion. Thus asked, his father related all about the story.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the twelfth section in the Pauloma Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'For what reason did that tiger among kings, the royal\r\nJanamejaya, determine to take the lives of the snakes by means of a\r\nsacrifice? O Sauti, tell us in full the true story. Tell us also why\r\nAstika, that best of regenerate ones, that foremost of ascetics, rescued\r\nthe snakes from the blazing fire. Whose son was that monarch who\r\ncelebrated the snake-sacrifice? And whose son also was that best of\r\nregenerate ones?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O best of speakers, this story of Astika is long. I will\r\nduly relate it in full, O listen!\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'I am desirous of hearing at length the charming story of\r\nthat Rishi, that illustrious Brahmana named Astika.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'This history (first) recited by Krishna-Dwaipayana, is\r\ncalled a Purana by the Brahmanas. It was formerly narrated by my wise\r\nfather, Lomaharshana, the disciple of Vyasa, before the dwellers of the\r\nNaimisha forest, at their request. I was present at the recital, and, O\r\nSaunaka, since thou askest me, I shall narrate the history of Astika\r\nexactly as I heard it. O listen, as I recite in full that sin-destroying\r\nstory.\r\n\r\n"The father of Astika was powerful like Prajapati. He was a\r\nBrahma-charin, always engaged in austere devotions. He ate sparingly, was\r\na great ascetic, and had his lust under complete control. And he was\r\nknown by the name of Jaratkaru. That foremost one among the Yayavaras,\r\nvirtuous and of rigid vows, highly blessed and endued with great ascetic\r\npower, once undertook a journey over the world. He visited diverse\r\nplaces, bathed in diverse sacred waters, and rested where night overtook\r\nhim. Endued with great energy, he practised religious austerities, hard\r\nto be practised by men of unrestrained souls. The sage lived upon air\r\nonly, and renounced sleep for ever. Thus going about like a blazing fire,\r\none day he happened to see his ancestors, hanging heads down in a great\r\nhole, their feet pointing upwards. On seeing them, Jaratkaru addressed\r\nthem, saying:\r\n\r\n\'Who are you thus hanging heads down in this hole by a rope of virana\r\nfibres that is again secretly eaten into on all sides by a rat living\r\nhere?\'\r\n\r\n"The ancestors said, \'We are Rishis of rigid vows, called Yayavaras. We\r\nare sinking low into the earth for want of offspring. We have a son named\r\nJaratkaru. Woe to us! That wretch hath entered upon a life of austerities\r\nonly! The fool doth not think of raising offspring by marriage! It is for\r\nthat reason, viz., the fear of extinction of our race, that we are\r\nsuspended in this hole. Possessed of means, we fare like unfortunates\r\nthat have none! O excellent one, who art thou that thus sorrowest as a\r\nfriend on our account? We desire to learn, O Brahmana, who thou art that\r\nstandest by us, and why, O best of men, thou sorrowest for us that are so\r\nunfortunate.\'\r\n\r\n"Jaratkaru said, \'Ye are even my sires and grandsires I am that\r\nJaratkaru! O, tell me, how I may serve you.\'\r\n\r\n"The fathers then answered, \'Try thy best, O child, to beget a son to\r\nextend our line. Thou wilt then, O excellent one, have done a meritorious\r\nart for both thyself and us. Not by the fruits of virtue, not by ascetic\r\npenances well hoarded up, acquireth the merit which one doth by becoming\r\na father. Therefore, O child, by our command, set thy heart upon marriage\r\nand offspring. Even this is our highest good.\'\r\n\r\n"Jaratkaru replied, \'I shall not marry for my sake, nor shall I earn\r\nwealth for enjoyment, but I shall do so for your welfare only. According\r\nto this understanding, I shall, agreeably to the Sastric ordinance, take\r\na wife for attaining the end. I shall not act otherwise. If a bride may\r\nbe had of the same name with me, whose friends would, besides, willingly\r\ngive her to me as a gift in charity, I shall wed her duly. But who will\r\ngive his daughter to a poor man like me for wife. I shall, however,\r\naccept any daughter given to me as alms. I shall endeavour, ye sires,\r\neven thus to wed a girl! Having given my word, I will not act otherwise.\r\nUpon her I will raise offspring for your redemption, so that, ye fathers,\r\nye may attain to eternal regions (of bliss) and may rejoice as ye like.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'That Brahmana of rigid vows then wandered over the earth\r\nfor a wife but a wife found he not. One day he went into the forest, and\r\nrecollecting the words of his ancestors, he thrice prayed in a faint\r\nvoice for a bride. Thereupon Vasuki rose and offered his sister for the\r\nRishi\'s acceptance. But the Brahmana hesitated to accept her, thinking\r\nher not to be of the same name with himself. The high-souled Jaratkaru\r\nthought within himself, \'I will take none for wife who is not of the same\r\nname with myself.\' Then that Rishi of great wisdom and austere penances\r\nasked him, saying, \'Tell me truly what is the name of this thy sister, O\r\nsnake.\'\r\n\r\n"Vasuki replied, \'O Jaratkaru, this my younger sister is called\r\nJaratkaru. Given away by me, accept this slender-waisted damsel for thy\r\nspouse. O best of Brahmanas, for thee I reserved her. Therefore, take\r\nher.\' Saying this, he offered his beautiful sister to Jaratkaru who then\r\nespoused her with ordained rites.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O foremost of persons acquainted with Brahma, the mother of\r\nthe snakes had cursed them of old, saying, \'He that hath the Wind for his\r\ncharioteer (viz., Agni) shall burn you all in Janamejaya\'s sacrifice!\' It\r\nwas to neutralise that curse that the chief of the snakes married his\r\nsister to that high-souled Rishi of excellent vows. The Rishi wedded her\r\naccording to the rites ordained (in the scriptures), and from them was\r\nborn a high-souled son called Astika. An illustrious ascetic; versed in\r\nthe Vedas and their branches, he regarded all with an even eye, and\r\nremoved the fears of both his parents.\r\n\r\n"Then, after a long space of time, a king descending from the Pandava\r\nline celebrated a great sacrifice known as the Snake-sacrifice, After\r\nthat sacrifice had commenced for the destruction of the snakes, Astika\r\ndelivered the Nagas, viz., his brothers and maternal uncles and other\r\nsnakes (from a fiery death). And he delivered his fathers also by\r\nbegetting offspring. And by his austerities, O Brahmana, and various vows\r\nand study of the Vedas, he freed himself from all his debts. By\r\nsacrifices, at which various kinds of offerings were made, he propitiated\r\nthe gods. By practising the Brahmacharya mode of life he conciliated the\r\nRishis; and by begetting offspring he gratified his ancestors.\r\n\r\n"Thus Jaratkaru of rigid vows discharged the heavy debt he owed to his\r\nsires who being thus relieved from bondage ascended to heaven. Thus\r\nhaving acquired great religious merit, Jaratkaru, after a long course of\r\nyears, went to heaven, leaving Astika behind. There is the story of\r\nAstika that I have related duly Now, tell me, O tiger of Bhrigu\'s race,\r\nwhat else I shall narrate."\r\n\r\nSo ends the fifteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O Sauti, relate once more in detail this history of the\r\nlearned and virtuous Astika. Our curiosity for hearing it is great. O\r\namiable one, thou speakest sweetly, with proper accent and emphasis; and\r\nwe are well-pleased with thy speech. Thou speakest even as thy father.\r\nThy sire was ever ready to please us. Tell us now the story as thy father\r\nhad related it.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O thou that art blest with longevity, I shall narrate the\r\nhistory of Astika as I heard it from my father. O Brahmana, in the golden\r\nage, Prajapati had two daughters. O sinless one, the sisters were endowed\r\nwith wonderful beauty. Named Kadru and Vinata, they became the wives of\r\nKasyapa. Kasyapa derived great pleasure from his two wedded wives and\r\nbeing gratified he, resembling Prajapati himself, offered to give each of\r\nthem a boon. Hearing that their lord was willing to confer on them their\r\nchoice blessings, those excellent ladies felt transports of joy. Kadru\r\nwished to have for sons a thousand snakes all of equal splendour. And\r\nVinata wished to bring forth two sons surpassing the thousand offsprings\r\nof Kadru in strength, energy, size of body, and prowess. Unto Kadru her\r\nlord gave that boon about a multitude of offspring. And unto Vinata also,\r\nKasyapa said, \'Be it so!\' Then Vinata, having; obtained her prayer,\r\nrejoiced greatly. Obtaining two sons of superior prowess, she regarded\r\nher boon fulfilled. Kadru also obtained her thousand sons of equal\r\nsplendour. \'Bear the embryos carefully,\' said Kasyapa, and then he went\r\ninto the forest, leaving his two wives pleased with his blessings.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'O best of regenerate ones, after a long time, Kadru\r\nbrought forth a thousand eggs, and Vinata two. Their maid-servants\r\ndeposited the eggs separately in warm vessels. Five hundred years passed\r\naway, and the thousand eggs produced by Kadru burst and out came the\r\nprogeny. But the twins of Vinata did not appear. Vinata was jealous, and\r\ntherefore she broke one of the eggs and found in it an embryo with the\r\nupper part developed but the lower one undeveloped. At this, the child in\r\nthe egg became angry and cursed his mother, saying. \'Since thou hast\r\nprematurely broken this egg, thou shall serve as a slave. Shouldst thou\r\nwait five hundred years and not destroy, or render the other egg\r\nhalf-developed, by breaking it through impatience, then the illustrious\r\nchild within it will deliver thee from slavery! And if thou wouldst have\r\nthe child strong, thou must take tender care of the egg for all this\r\ntime!\' Thus cursing his mother, the child rose to the sky. O Brahmana,\r\neven he is the charioteer of Surya, always seen in the hour of morning!\r\n\r\n"Then at the expiration of the five hundred years, bursting open the\r\nother egg, out came Garuda, the serpent-eater. O tiger of Bhrigu\'s race,\r\nimmediately on seeing the light, that son of Vinata left his mother. And\r\nthe lord of birds, feeling hungry, took wing in quest of the food\r\nassigned to him by the Great Ordainer of all.".\r\n\r\nSo ends the sixteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O ascetic, about this time the two sisters saw approaching\r\nnear, that steed of complacent appearance named Uchchaihsravas who was\r\nworshipped by the gods, that gem of steeds, who arose at the churning of\r\nthe Ocean for nectar. Divine, graceful, perpetually young, creation\'s\r\nmaster-piece, and of irresistible vigour, it was blest with every\r\nauspicious mark.\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka asked, \'Why did the gods churn the Ocean for nectar, and under\r\nwhat circumstances and when as you say, did that best of steeds so\r\npowerful and resplendent spring?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'There is a mountain named Meru, of blazing appearance, and\r\nlooking like a heap of effulgence. The rays of the Sun falling on its\r\npeaks of golden lustre are dispersed by them. Decked with gold and\r\nexceedingly beautiful, that mountain is the haunt of the gods and the\r\nGandharvas. It is immeasurable and unapproachable by men of manifold\r\nsins. Dreadful beasts of prey wander over its breasts, and it is\r\nilluminated by many divine life-giving herbs. It stands kissing the\r\nheavens by its height and is the first of mountains. Ordinary people\r\ncannot even think of ascending it. It is graced with trees and streams,\r\nand resounds with the charming melody of winged choirs. Once the\r\ncelestials sat on its begemmed peak--in conclave. They who had practised\r\npenances and observed excellent vows for amrita now seemed to be eager\r\nseekers alter amrita (celestial ambrosia). Seeing the celestial assembly\r\nin anxious mood Nara-yana said to Brahman, \'Do thou churn the Ocean with\r\nthe gods and the Asuras. By doing so, amrita will be obtained as also all\r\ndrugs and gems. O ye gods, chum the Ocean, ye will discover amrita.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the seventeenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XVIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'There is a mountain called Mandara adorned with cloud-like\r\npeaks. It is the best of mountains, and is covered all over with\r\nintertwining herbs. There countless birds pour forth their melodies, and\r\nbeasts of prey roam about. The gods, the Apsaras and the Kinnaras visit\r\nthe place. Upwards it rises eleven thousand yojanas, and descends\r\ndownwards as much. The gods wanted to tear it up and use it as a churning\r\nrod but failing to do so same to Vishnu and Brahman who were sitting\r\ntogether, and said unto them, \'Devise some efficient scheme, consider, ye\r\ngods, how Mandara may be dislodged for our good.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'O son of Bhrigu! Vishnu with Brahman assented to it.\r\nAnd the lotus-eyed one (Vishnu) laid the hard task on the mighty Ananta,\r\nthe prince of snakes. The powerful Ananta, directed thereto both by\r\nBrahman and Narayana, O Brahmana, tore up the mountain with the woods\r\nthereon and with the denizens of those woods. And the gods came to the\r\nshore of the Ocean with Ananta and addressed the Ocean, saying, \'O Ocean;\r\nwe have come to churn thy waters for obtaining nectar.\' And the Ocean\r\nreplied, \'Be it so, as I shall not go without a share of it. I am able to\r\nbear the prodigious agitation of my waters set up by the mountain.\' The\r\ngods then went to the king of tortoises and said to him, \'O\r\nTortoise-king, thou wilt have to hold the mountain on thy back!\' The\r\nTortoise-king agreed, and Indra contrived to place the mountain on the\r\nformer\'s back.\r\n\r\n"And the gods and the Asuras made of Mandara a churning staff and Vasuki\r\nthe cord, and set about churning the deep for amrita. The Asuras held\r\nVasuki by the hood and the gods held him by the tail. And Ananta, who was\r\non the side of the gods, at intervals raised the snake\'s hood and\r\nsuddenly lowered it. And in consequence of the stretch Vasuki received at\r\nthe hands of the gods and the Asuras, black vapours with flames issued\r\nfrom his mouth. These, turned into clouds charged with lightning, poured\r\nshowers that refreshed the tired gods. And flowers that also fell on all\r\nsides of the celestials from the trees on the whirling Mandara, refreshed\r\nthem.\r\n\r\n"Then, O Brahmana, out of the deep came a tremendous roar like unto the\r\nroar of the clouds at the Universal Dissolution. Diverse aquatic animals\r\nbeing crushed by the great mountain gave up the ghost in the salt waters.\r\nAnd many denizens of the lower regions and the world of Varuna were\r\nkilled. Large trees with birds on the whirling Mandara were torn up by\r\nthe roots and fell into the water. The mutual friction of those trees\r\nalso produced fires that blazed up frequently. The mountain thus looked\r\nlike a mass of dark clouds charged with lightning. O Brahmana, the fire\r\nspread, and consumed the lions, elephants and other creatures that were\r\non the mountain. Then Indra extinguished that fire by pouring down heavy\r\nshowers.\r\n\r\n"After the churning, O Brahmana, had gone on for some time, gummy\r\nexudations of various trees and herbs vested with the properties of\r\namrita mingled with the waters of the Ocean. And the celestials attained\r\nto immortality by drinking of the water mixed with those gums and with\r\nthe liquid extract of gold. By degrees, the milky water of the agitated\r\ndeep turned into clarified butter by virtue of those gums and juices. But\r\nnectar did not appear even then. The gods came before the boon-granting\r\nBrahman seated on his seat and said, \'Sire, we are spent up, we have no\r\nstrength left to churn further. Nectar hath not yet arisen so that now we\r\nhave no resource save Narayana.\'\r\n\r\n"On hearing them, Brahman said to Narayana, \'O Lord, condescend to grant\r\nthe gods strength to churn the deep afresh.\'\r\n\r\n"Then Narayana agreeing to grant their various prayers, said, \'Ye wise\r\nones, I grant you sufficient strength. Go, put the mountain in position\r\nagain and churn the water.\'\r\n\r\n\'Re-established thus in strength, the gods recommenced churning. After a\r\nwhile, the mild Moon of a thousand rays emerged from the Ocean.\r\nThereafter sprung forth Lakshmi dressed in white, then Soma, then the\r\nWhite Steed, and then the celestial gem Kaustubha which graces the breast\r\nof Narayana. Then Lakshmi, Soma and the Steed, fleet as the mind, all\r\ncame before the gods on high. Then arose the divine Dhanwantari himself\r\nwith the white vessel of nectar in his hand. And seeing him, the Asuras\r\nset up a loud cry, saying, \'It be ours.\'\r\n\r\n"And at length rose the great elephant, Airavata, of huge body and with\r\ntwo pair of white tusks. And him took Indra the wielder of the\r\nthunderbolt. But with the churning still going on, the poison Kalakuta\r\nappeared at last. Engulfing the Earth it suddenly blazed up like a fire\r\nattended with fumes. And by the scent of the fearful Kalakuta, the three\r\nworlds were stupefied. And then Siva, being solicited by Brahman,\r\nswallowed that poison for the safety of the creation. The divine\r\nMaheswara held it in his throat, and it is said that from that time he is\r\ncalled Nilakantha (blue-throated). Seeing all these wondrous things, the\r\nAsuras were filled with despair, and got themselves prepared for entering\r\ninto hostilities with the gods for the possession of Lakshmi and Amrita.\r\nThereupon Narayana called his bewitching Maya (illusive power) to his\r\naid, and assuming the form of an enticing female, coquetted with the\r\nDanavas. The Danavas and the Daityas charmed with her exquisite beauty\r\nand grace lost their reason and unanimously placed the Amrita in the\r\nhands of that fair damsel.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the eighteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XIX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then the Daityas and the Danauas equipped with first-class\r\narmours and various weapons attacked the gods. In the meantime the\r\nvaliant Lord Vishnu in the form of an enchantress accompanied by Nara\r\ndeceived the mighty Danavas and took away the Amrita from their hands.\r\n\r\n"And all the gods at that time of great fright drank the Amrita with\r\ndelight, receiving it from Vishnu. And while the gods were partaking of\r\nit, after which they had so much hankered, a Danava named Rahu was also\r\ndrinking it among them in the guise of a god. And when the Amrita had\r\nreached Rahu\'s throat only, Surya and Soma (recognised him and) intimated\r\nthe fact to the gods. And Narayana instantly cut off with his discus the\r\nwell-adorned head of the Danava who was drinking the Amrita without\r\npermission. And the huge head of the Danava, cut off by the discus and\r\nresembling a mountain peak, then rose up to the sky and began to utter\r\ndreadful cries. And the Danava\'s headless trunk, falling upon the ground\r\nand rolling thereon, made the Earth tremble with her mountains, forests\r\nand islands. And from that time there is a long-standing quarrel between\r\nRahu\'s head and Surya and Soma. And to this day it swalloweth Surya and\r\nSoma (during solar and lunar eclipses).\r\n\r\n"Then Narayana quitting his enchanting female form and hurling many\r\nterrible weapons at the Danavas, made them tremble. And thus on the\r\nshores of the salt-water sea, commenced the dreadful battle of the gods\r\nand the Asuras. And sharp-pointed javelins and lances and various weapons\r\nby thousands began to be discharged on all sides. And mangled with the\r\ndiscus and wounded with swords, darts and maces, the Asuras in large\r\nnumbers vomited blood and lay prostrate on the earth. Cut off from the\r\ntrunks with sharp double-edged swords, heads adorned with bright gold,\r\nfell continually on the field of battle. Their bodies drenched in gore,\r\nthe great Asuras lay dead everywhere. It seemed as if red-dyed mountain\r\npeaks lay scattered all around. And when the Sun rose in his splendour,\r\nthousands of warriors struck one another with weapons. And cries of\r\ndistress were heard everywhere. The warriors fighting at a distance from\r\none another brought one another down by sharp iron missiles, and those\r\nfighting at close quarters slew one another with blows of their fists.\r\nAnd the air was filled with shrieks of distress. Everywhere were heard\r\nthe alarming sounds,--\'cut\', \'pierce\', \'at them\', \'hurl down\', \'advance\'.\r\n\r\n\'And when the battle was raging fiercely, Nara and Narayana entered the\r\nfield. And Narayana seeing the celestial bow in the hand of Nara, called\r\nto mind his own weapon, the Danava-destroying discus. And lo! the discus,\r\nSudarsana, destroyer of enemies, like to Agni in effulgence and dreadful\r\nin battle, came from the sky as soon as thought of. And when it came,\r\nNarayana of fierce energy, possessing arms like the trunk of an elephant,\r\nhurled with great force that weapon of extraordinary lustre, effulgent as\r\nblazing fire, dreadful and capable of destroying hostile towns. And that\r\ndiscus blazing like the fire that consumeth all things at the end of\r\nYuga, hurled with force from the hands of Narayana, and falling\r\nconstantly everywhere, destroyed the Daityas and the Danavas by\r\nthousands. Sometimes it blazed like fire and consumed them all; sometimes\r\nit struck them down as it coursed through the sky; and sometimes, falling\r\non the earth, it drank their life-blood like a goblin.\r\n\r\n"On the other hand, the Danavas, white as the clouds from which the rain\r\nhath dropped, possessing great strength and bold hearts, ascended the\r\nsky, and by hurling down thousands of mountains, continually harassed the\r\ngods. And those dreadful mountains, like masses of clouds, with their\r\ntrees and flat tops, falling from the sky, collided with one another and\r\nproduced a tremendous roar. And when thousands of warriors shouted\r\nwithout intermission in the field of battle and mountains with the woods\r\nthereon began to fall around, the earth with her forests trembled. Then\r\nthe divine Nara appeared at the scene of the dreadful conflict between\r\nthe Asuras and the Ganas (the followers of Rudra), and reducing to dust\r\nthose rocks by means of his gold-headed arrows, he covered the heavens\r\nwith dust. Thus discomfited by the gods, and seeing the furious discus\r\nscouring the fields of heaven like a blazing flame, the mighty Danavas\r\nentered the bowels of the earth, while others plunged into the sea of\r\nsalt-waters.\r\n\r\n"And having gained the victory, the gods offered due respect to Mandara\r\nand placed him again on his own base. And the nectar-bearing gods made\r\nthe heavens resound with their shouts, and went to their own abodes. And\r\nthe gods, on returning to the heavens, rejoiced greatly, and Indra and\r\nthe other deities made over to Narayana the vessel of Amrita for careful\r\nkeeping.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the nineteenth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Thus have I recited to you the whole story of how Amrita\r\nwas churned out of the Ocean, and the occasion on which the horse\r\nUchchaihsravas of great beauty and incomparable prowess was obtained. It\r\nwas this horse about which Kadru asked Vinata, saying, \'Tell me, amiable\r\nsister, without taking much time, of what colour Uchchaishravas is.\' And\r\nVinata answered, \'That prince of steeds is certainly white. What dost\r\nthou think, sister? Say thou what is its colour. Let us lay a wager upon\r\nit.\' Kadru replied, then, \'O thou of sweet smiles. I think that horse is\r\nblack in its tail. Beauteous one, bet with me that she who loseth will\r\nbecome the other\'s slave.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'Thus wagering with each other about menial service as\r\na slave, the sisters went home, and resolved to satisfy themselves by\r\nexamining the horse next day. And Kadru, bent upon practising a\r\ndeception, ordered her thousand sons to transform themselves into black\r\nhair and speedily cover the horse\'s tail in order that she might not\r\nbecome a slave. But her sons, the snakes, refusing to do her bidding, she\r\ncursed them, saying, \'During the snake-sacrifice of the wise king\r\nJanamejaya of the Pandava race, Agni shall consume you all.\' And the\r\nGrandsire (Brahman) himself heard this exceedingly cruel curse pronounced\r\nby Kadru, impelled by the fates. And seeing that the snakes had\r\nmultiplied exceedingly, the Grandsire, moved by kind consideration for\r\nhis creatures, sanctioned with all the gods this curse of Kadru. Indeed,\r\nas the snakes were of virulent poison, great prowess and excess of\r\nstrength, and ever bent on biting other creatures, their mother\'s conduct\r\ntowards them--those persecutors of all creatures,--was very proper for\r\nthe good of all creatures. Fate always inflicts punishment of death on\r\nthose who seek the death of other creatures. The gods, having exchanged\r\nsuch sentiments with one another, supported Kadru\'s action (and went\r\naway). And Brahman, calling Kasyapa to him, spake unto him these words,\r\n\'O thou pure one who overcomest all enemies, these snakes begotten by\r\nyou, who are of virulent poison and huge bodies, and ever intent on\r\nbiting other creatures, have been cursed by their mother. O son, do not\r\ngrieve for it in the least. The destruction of the snakes in the\r\nsacrifice hath, indeed, been ordained long ago\' Saying this, the divine\r\nCreator of the Universe comforted Kasyapa and imparted to that\r\nillustrious one the knowledge of neutralising poison."\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twentieth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said. \'Then when the night had passed away and the sun had risen\r\nin the morning, O thou whose wealth is asceticism, the two sisters Kadru\r\nand Vinata, having laid a wager about slavery, went with haste and\r\nimpatience to view the steed Uchchaishravas from a near point. On their\r\nway they saw the Ocean, that receptacle of waters, vast and deep, rolling\r\nand tremendously roaring, full of fishes large enough to swallow the\r\nwhale, and abounding with huge makaras and creatures of various forms by\r\nthousands, and rendered inaccessible by the presence of other terrible,\r\nmonster-shaped, dark, and fierce aquatic animals, abounding with\r\ntortoises and crocodiles, the mine of all kinds of gems, the home of\r\nVaruna (the water-God), the excellent and beautiful residence of the\r\nNagas, the lord of all rivers, the abode of the subterranean fire, the\r\nfriend (or asylum) of the Asuras, the terror of all creatures, the grand\r\nreservoir of water, and ever immutable. It is holy, beneficial to the\r\ngods, and is the great source of nectar; without limits, inconceivable,\r\nsacred, and highly wonderful. It is dark, terrible with the sound of\r\naquatic creatures, tremendously roaring, and full of deep whirl-pools. It\r\nis an object of terror to all creatures. Moved by the winds blowing from\r\nits shores and heaving high, agitated and disturbed, it seems to dance\r\neverywhere with uplifted hands represented by its surges. Full of\r\nswelling billows caused by the waxing and waning of the moon the parent\r\nof Vasudeva\'s great conch called Panchajanya, the great mine of gems, its\r\nwaters were formerly disturbed in consequence of the agitation caused\r\nwithin them by the Lord Govinda of immeasurable prowess when he had\r\nassumed the form of a wild boar for raising the (submerged) Earth. Its\r\nbottom, lower than the nether regions, the vow observing regenerate Rishi\r\nAtri could not fathom after (toiling for) a hundred years. It becomes the\r\nbed of the lotus-naveled Vishnu when at the termination of every Yuga\r\nthat deity of immeasurable power enjoys yoga-nidra, the deep sleep under\r\nthe spell of spiritual meditation. It is the refuge of Mainaka fearful of\r\nfalling thunder, and the retreat of the Asuras overcome in fierce\r\nencounters. It offers water as sacrificial butter to the blazing fire\r\nissuing from the mouth of Varava (the Ocean-mare). It is fathomless and\r\nwithout limits, vast and immeasurable, and the lord of rivers.\r\n\r\n"And they saw that unto it rushed mighty rivers by thousands with proud\r\ngait, like amorous competitors, each eager for meeting it, forestalling\r\nthe others. And they saw that it was always full, and always dancing in\r\nits waves. And they saw that it was deep and abounding with fierce whales\r\nand makaras. And it resounded constantly with the terrible sounds of\r\naquatic creatures. And they saw that it was vast, and wide as the expanse\r\nof space, unfathomable, and limitless, and the grand reservoir of water.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twenty-first section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The Nagas after consultation arrived at the conclusion that\r\nthey should do their mother\'s bidding, for if she failed in obtaining her\r\ndesire she might withdraw her affection and burn them all. If, on the\r\nother hand, she were graciously inclined, she might free them from her\r\ncurse. They said, \'We will certainly render the horse\'s tail black.\' And\r\nit is said that they then went and became hairs in the horse\'s tail.\r\n\r\n"Now the two co-wives had laid the wager. And having laid the wager, O\r\nbest of Brahmanas, the two sisters Kadru and Vinata, the daughters of\r\nDaksha, proceeded in great delight along the sky to see the other side of\r\nthe Ocean. And on their way they saw the Ocean, that receptacle of\r\nwaters, incapable of being easily disturbed, mightily agitated all of a\r\nsudden by the wind, and roaring tremendously; abounding with fishes\r\ncapable of swallowing the whale and full of makaras; containing also\r\ncreatures of diverse forms counted by thousands; frightful from the\r\npresence of horrible monsters, inaccessible, deep, and terrible, the mine\r\nof all kinds of gems, the home of Varuna (the water-god), the wonderful\r\nhabitations of the Nagas, the lord of rivers, the abode of the\r\nsubterranean fire; the residence of the Asuras and of many dreadful\r\ncreatures; the reservoir of water, not subject to decay, aromatic, and\r\nwonderful, the great source of the amrita of the celestials; immeasurable\r\nand inconceivable, containing waters that are holy, filled to the brim by\r\nmany thousands of great rivers, dancing as it were in waves. Such was the\r\nOcean, full of rolling waves, vast as the expanse of the sky, deep, of\r\nbody lighted with the flames of subterranean fire, and roaring, which the\r\nsisters quickly passed over.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twenty-second section in the Astika Parva of the Adi\r\nParva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Having crossed the Ocean, Kadru of swift speed, accompanied\r\nby Vinata, soon alighted near the horse. They then both beheld that\r\nforemost of steeds of great speed, with body white as the rays of the\r\nmoon but having black hairs (in the tail). And observing many black hairs\r\nin the tail, Kadru put Vinata, who was deeply dejected, into slavery. And\r\nthus Vinata having lost the wager, entered into a state of slavery and\r\nbecame exceedingly sorry.\r\n\r\n"In the meantime, when his time came, burst forth from the egg without\r\n(the help of his) mother, Garuda of great splendour, enkindling all the\r\npoints of the universe, that mighty being endued with strength, that bird\r\ncapable of assuming at will any form, of going at will everywhere, and of\r\ncalling to his aid at will any measure of energy. Effulgent like a heap\r\nof fire, he shone terribly. Of lustre equal to that of the fire at the\r\nend of the Yuga, his eyes were bright like the lightning-flash. And soon\r\nafter birth, that bird grew in size and increasing his body ascended the\r\nskies. Fierce and vehemently roaring, he looked as terrible as second\r\nOcean-fire. And all the deities seeing him, sought the protection of\r\nVibhavasu (Agni). And they bowed down to that deity of manifold forms\r\nseated on his seat and spake unto him these words, \'O Agni, extend not\r\nthy body! Wilt thou consume us? Lo, this huge heap of thy flames is\r\nspreading wide!\' And Agni replied, \'O, ye persecutors of the Asuras, it\r\nis not as ye imagine. This is Garuda of great strength and equal to me in\r\nsplendour, endued with great energy, and born to promote the joy of\r\nVinata. Even the sight of this heap of effulgence hath caused this\r\ndelusion in you. He is the mighty son of Kasyapa, the destroyer of the\r\nNagas, engaged in the well-being of the gods, and the foe of the Daityas\r\nand the Rakshasas. Be not afraid of it in the least. Come with me and\r\nsee.\' Thus addressed, the gods from a distance.\r\n\r\n"The gods said, \'Thou art a Rishi (i.e., one cognisant of all mantras),\r\nshare of the largest portion in sacrifices, ever resplendent, the\r\ncontroller along with the Rishi wended their way towards Garuda and\r\nadored him of birds, the presiding spirit of the animate and the\r\ninanimate universe. Thou art the destroyer of all, the creator of all;\r\nthou art the very Hiranyagarbha; thou art the progenitor of creation in\r\nthe form of Daksha and the other Prajapatis; thou art Indra (the king of\r\nthe gods), thou art Hayagriva the steed necked incarnation of Vishnu;\r\nthou art the arrow (Vishnu himself, as he became such in the hands of\r\nMahadeva at the burning of Tripura); thou art the lord of the universe;\r\nthou art the mouth of Vishnu; thou art the four-faced Padmaja; thou art\r\nthe Brahmana (i.e., wise), thou art Agni, Pavana, etc. (i.e., the\r\npresiding deity of every object in the universe). Thou art knowledge,\r\nthou art the illusion to which we are all subject; thou art the\r\nall-pervading spirit; thou art the lord of the gods; thou art the great\r\nTruth; thou art fearless; thou art ever unchanged; thou art Brahma\r\nwithout attributes; thou art the energy of the Sun; thou art the\r\nintellectual functions; thou art our great protector; thou art the ocean\r\nof holiness; thou art purity; thou art bereft of the attributes of\r\ndarkness; thou art the possessor of the six high attributes; thou art he\r\nwho cannot be withstood in contest. From thee have emanated all things;\r\nthou art of excellent deeds; thou art all that hath not been and all that\r\nhath been. Thou art pure knowledge; thou displayest to us, as Surya does\r\nby his rays, this animate and inanimate universe; thou darkenest the\r\nsplendour of Surya at every moment, and thou art the destroyer of all;\r\nthou art all that is perishable and all that is imperishable. O thou\r\nresplendent as Agni, thou burnest all even as Surya in his anger burneth\r\nall creatures. O terrible one, thou resistest even as the fire that\r\ndestroys everything at the time of the Universal Dissolution. O mighty\r\nGaruda who movest in the skies, we seek thy protection. O lord of birds\r\nthy energy is extraordinary, thy splendour is that of fire, thy\r\nbrightness is like that of the lightning that no darkness can approach.\r\nThou reachest the very clouds, and art both the cause and the effect; the\r\ndispenser of boons and invincible in prowess. O Lord, this whole universe\r\nis rendered hot by thy splendour, bright as the lustre of heated gold.\r\nProtect these high-souled gods, who overcome by thee and terrified\r\nwithal, are flying along the heavens in different directions on their\r\ncelestial cars. O thou best of birds, thou Lord of all, thou art the son\r\nof the merciful and high-souled Rishi Kasyapa; therefore, be not wroth\r\nbut have mercy on the universe. Thou art Supreme. O pacify thy anger and\r\npreserve us. At thy voice, loud as the roar of the thunder, the ten\r\npoints, the skies, the heavens, the Earth and our hearts, O bird, thou\r\nart continuously shaking. O, diminish this thy body resembling Agni. At\r\nthe sight of the splendour resembling that of Yama when in wrath, our\r\nhearts lose all equanimity and quake. O thou lord of birds, be propitious\r\nto us who solicit thy mercy! O illustrious one, bestow on us good fortune\r\nand joy.\'\r\n\r\nAnd that bird of fair feathers, thus adored by the deities and diverse\r\nsections of Rishis, reduced his own energy and splendour.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd thus ends the twenty-third section in the Astika Parva of the Adi\r\nParva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then hearing of and beholding his own body, that bird of\r\nbeautiful feathers diminished its size.\'\r\n\r\n"And Garuda said, \'Let no creature be afraid; as ye are in a fright at\r\nthe sight of my terrible form, I shall diminish my energy.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then that bird capable of going everywhere at will,\r\nthat ranger of the skies capable of calling to his aid any measure of\r\nenergy, bearing Aruna on his back, wended from his father\'s home and\r\narrived at his mother\'s side on the other shore of the great ocean. And\r\nhe placed Aruna of great splendour in the eastern regions, just at a time\r\nwhen Surya had resolved to burn the worlds with his fierce rays.\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'When did the revered Surya resolve at the time to burn\r\nthe worlds? What wrong was done to him by the gods that provoked his\r\nire?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O sinless one, when Rahu was drinking nectar among the gods\r\nat the time of the churning of the ocean he was pointed out to the gods\r\nby Surya and Soma, and from that time he conceived an enmity towards\r\nthose deities. And upon this Rahu sought to devour his afflictor (Surya),\r\nbecame wroth, and thought, \'Oh, this enmity of Rahu towards me hath\r\nsprung from my desire of benefiting the gods. And this dire consequence I\r\nalone have to sustain. Indeed, at this pass help I obtain not. And before\r\nthe very eyes of the denizens of heaven I am going to be devoured and\r\nthey brook it quietly. Therefore, for the destruction of the worlds must\r\nI strive.\' And with this resolution he went to the mountains of the west.\r\n\r\n"And from that place he began to radiate his heat around for the\r\ndestruction of the world. And then the great Rishis, approaching the\r\ngods, spake unto them, \'Lo, in the middle of the night springeth a great\r\nheat striking terror into every heart, and destructive of the three\r\nworlds.\' Then the gods, accompanied by the Rishis, wended to the\r\nGrandsire, and said unto him, \'O what is this great heat today that\r\ncauseth such panic? Surya hath not yet risen, still the destruction (of\r\nthe world) is obvious. O Lord, what will happen when he doth rise?" The\r\nGrandsire replied, \'Indeed, Surya is prepared to rise today for the\r\ndestruction of the world. As soon as he will appear he will burn\r\neverything into a heap of ashes. By me, however, hath the remedy been\r\nprovided beforehand. The intelligent son of Kasyapa is known to all by\r\nthe name of Aruna. He is huge of body and of great splendour; he shall\r\nstay in front of Surya, doing the duty of his charioteer and taking away\r\nall the energy of the former. And this will ensure the welfare of the\r\nworlds, of the Rishis, and of the dwellers in heaven.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Aruna, at the behest of the Grandsire, did all that he\r\nwas ordered to do. And Surya rose veiled by Aruna\'s person. I have told\r\nthee now why Surya was in wrath, and how Aruna, the brother of Garuda,\r\nwas appointed as his charioteer. Hear next of that other question asked\r\nby thee a little while ago.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twenty-fourth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi\r\nParva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then that bird of great strength and energy and capable of\r\ngoing at will to every place repaired to his mother\'s side on the other\r\nshore of the great ocean. Thither lived Vinata in affliction, defeated in\r\nwager and put into a state of slavery. Once Kadru calling Vinata who had\r\nprostrated herself before the former, addressed her these words in the\r\npresence of her son, \'O gentle Vinata, there is in the midst of the\r\nocean, in a remote quarter, a delightful and fair region inhabited by the\r\nNagas. Bear me thither!\' At this that mother of the bird of fair feathers\r\nbore (on her shoulders) the mother of the snakes. And Garuda also,\r\ndirected by his mother\'s words, carried (on his back) the snakes. And\r\nthat ranger of the skies born of Vinata began to ascend towards the Sun.\r\nAnd thereupon the snakes, scorched by the rays of the Sun, swooned away.\r\nAnd Kadru seeing her sons in that state prayed to Indra, saying, \'I bow\r\nto thee, thou Lord of all the gods! I bow to thee, thou slayer of Vritra!\r\nI bow to thee, thou slayer of Namuchi! O thou of a thousand eyes, consort\r\nof Sachi! By thy showers, be thou the protector of the snakes scorched by\r\nthe Sun. O thou best of the deities, thou art our great protector. O\r\nPurandara, thou art able to grant rain in torrents. Thou art Vayu (the\r\nair), the clouds, fire, and the lightning of the skies. Thou art the\r\npropeller of the clouds, and hast been called the great cloud (i.e., that\r\nwhich will darken the universe at the end of Yuga). Thou art the fierce\r\nand incomparable thunder, and the roaring clouds. Thou art the Creator of\r\nthe worlds and their Destroyer. Thou art unconquered. Thou art the light\r\nof all creatures, Aditya, Vibhavasu, and the wonderful elements. Thou art\r\nthe ruler of all the gods. Thou art Vishnu. Thou hast a thousand eyes.\r\nThou art a god, and the final resource. Thou art, O deity, all amrita,\r\nand the most adored Soma. Thou art the moment, the lunar day, the bala\r\n(minute), thou art the kshana (4 minutes). Thou art the lighted\r\nfortnight, and also the dark fortnight. Thou art kala, thou kashtha, and\r\nthou Truti.[1] Thou art the year, the seasons, the months, the nights,\r\nand the days. Thou art the fair Earth with her mountains and forests.\r\nThou art also the firmament, resplendent with the Sun. Thou art the great\r\nOcean with heaving billows and abounding with whales, swallowers of\r\nwhales, and makaras, and various fishes. Thou art of great renown, always\r\nadored by the wise and by the great Rishis with minds rapt in\r\ncontemplation. Thou drinkest, for the good of all creatures, the Soma\r\njuice in sacrifices and the clarified butter offered with sacred\r\ninvocation. Thou art always worshipped at sacrifices by Brahmanas moved\r\nby desire of fruit. O thou of incomparable mass of strength, thou art\r\nsung in the Vedas and Vedangas. It is for that reason that learned\r\nBrahmanas bent upon performing sacrifices, study the Vedas with every\r\ncare.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twenty-fifth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'And then Indra, the king of gods, having the best of horses\r\nfor his bearer, thus adored by Kadru, covered the entire firmament with\r\nmasses of blue clouds. And he commanded the clouds, saying, Pour ye, your\r\nvivifying and blessed drops!\' And those clouds, luminous with lightning,\r\nand incessantly roaring against each other in the welkin, poured abundant\r\nwater. And the sky, in consequence of those wonderful and\r\nterribly-roaring clouds that were incessantly begetting vast quantities\r\nof water, looked as if the end of Yuga had come. And in consequence of\r\nthe myriads of waves caused in the falling torrents, the deep roar of the\r\nclouds, the flashes of lightning, the violence of the wind, and the\r\ngeneral agitation, the sky looked as if dancing in madness. The sky\r\nbecame overcast, and the rays of the Sun and the Moon totally disappeared\r\nin consequence of that incessant downpour.\r\n\r\n"And upon Indra\'s causing that downpour, the Nagas became exceedingly\r\ndelighted. And the Earth was filled with water all around. And the cool,\r\nclear water reached even the nether regions. And there were countless\r\nwaves of water all over the Earth. And the snakes with their mother\r\nreached (in safety) the island called Ramaniyaka."\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the twenty-sixth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'And then the Nagas drenched by that shower, became\r\nexceedingly glad. And borne by that bird of fair feathers, they soon\r\narrived at the island. That island had been fixed by the Creator of the\r\nUniverse as the abode of the makaras. There they saw the terrible Lavana\r\nSamudra (ocean of salt). On arriving there with Garuda, they saw there a\r\nbeautiful forest washed by the waters of the sea and resounding with the\r\nmusic of winged choirs. And there were clusters of trees all around laden\r\nwith various fruits and flowers. And there were also fair mansions all\r\naround; and many tanks full of lotuses. And it was also adorned with many\r\nlakes of pure water. And it was refreshed with pure incense-breathing\r\nbreezes. And it was adorned with many a tree that grew only on the hills\r\nof Malaya, and seemed by their tallness to reach the very heavens. And\r\nthere were also various other trees whose flowers were scattered all\r\naround by the breeze. And that forest was charming and dear to the\r\nGandharvas and always gave them pleasure. And it was full of bees\r\nmaddened with the honey they sucked. And the sight of all this was\r\nexceedingly delightful. And in consequence of many things there, capable\r\nof charming everybody, that forest was fair, delightful, and holy. And,\r\nechoing with the notes of various birds, it delighted greatly the sons of\r\nKadru.\r\n\r\n"And the snakes, after arriving at that forest, began to enjoy\r\nthemselves. And they commanded the lord of birds, viz., Garuda, of great\r\nenergy, saying, \'Convey us to some other fair island with pure water.\r\nThou ranger of the skies, thou must have seen many fair regions while\r\ncoursing (through the air).\' Garuda, alter reflecting for a few moments,\r\nasked his mother Vinata, saying, \'Why, mother, have I to do the bidding\r\nof the snakes?\' Vinata thus questioned by him spake unto that ranger of\r\nthe skies, her son, invested with every virtue, of great energy, and\r\ngreat strength, as follows: "Vinata said, \'O thou best of birds, I have\r\nbecome, from misfortune, the slave of my co-wife. The snakes, by an act\r\nof deception, caused me to lose my bet and have made me so.\' When his\r\nmother had told him the reason, that ranger of the skies, dejected with\r\ngrief, addressed the snakes, saying, \'Tell me, ye snakes, by bringing\r\nwhat thing, gaining a knowledge of what thing, or doing what act of\r\nprowess, we may be freed from this state of bondage to you.\'" Sauti\r\ncontinued, \'The snakes, hearing him, said, \'Bring thou amrita by force.\r\nThen O bird, shall you be freed from bondage.\'" And so ends the\r\ntwenty-seventh section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXVIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Garuda, thus addressed by the snakes, then said unto his\r\nmother, \'I shall go to bring amrita, I desire to eat something in the\r\nway. Direct me to it.\' Vinata replied, \'In a remote region in the midst\r\nof the ocean, the Nishadas have their fair home. Having eaten the\r\nthousands of Nishadas that live there, bring thou amrita. But let not thy\r\nheart be ever set on taking the life of a Brahmana. Of all creatures a\r\nBrahmana must not be slain. He is, indeed, like fire. A Brahmana, when\r\nangry, becomes like fire or the Sun, like poison or an edged weapon. A\r\nBrahmana, it has been said, is the master of all creatures. For these and\r\nother reasons, a Brahmana is the adored of the virtuous. O child, he is\r\nnever to be slain by thee even in anger. Hostility with Brahmanas,\r\ntherefore, would not be proper under any circumstances. O sinless one,\r\nneither Agni nor Surya truly can consume so much as does a Brahmana of\r\nrigid vows, when angry. By these various indications must thou know a\r\ngood Brahmana. Indeed, a brahmana is the first-born of all creatures, the\r\nforemost of the four orders, the father and the master of all.\'" Garuda\r\nthen asked, \'O mother, of what form is a Brahmana, of what behaviour, and\r\nof what prowess? Doth he shine like fire, or is he of tranquil mien? And,\r\nO mother, it behoveth thee to tell my inquiring self, those auspicious\r\nsigns by which I may recognise a Brahmana.\'" Vinata replied, saying, \'O\r\nchild, him shouldst thou know as the best amongst Brahmanas who having\r\nentered thy throat would torture thee as a fish-hook or burn thee as\r\nblazing charcoal. A Brahmana must never be slain by thee even in anger.\'\r\nAnd Vinata out of affection for her son, again told him these words, \'Him\r\nshouldst thou know as a good Brahmana who would not be digested in thy\r\nstomach.\' Although she knew the incomparable strength of her son, yet she\r\nblessed him heartily, for, deceived by the snakes, she was very much\r\nafflicted by woe. And she said. \'Let Marut (the god of the winds) protect\r\nthy wings, and Surya and Soma thy vertebral regions; let Agni protect thy\r\nhead, and the Vasus thy whole body. I also, O child (engaged in\r\nbeneficial ceremonies), shall sit here for your welfare. Go then, O\r\nchild, in safety to accomplish thy purpose.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then Garuda, having heard the words of his mother,\r\nstretched his wings and ascended the skies. And endued with great\r\nstrength, he soon fell upon the Nishadas, hungry and like another Yama.\r\nAnd bent upon slaying the Nishadas, he raised a great quantity of dust\r\nthat overspread the firmament, and sucking up water from amid the ocean,\r\nshook the trees growing on the adjacent mountains. And then that lord of\r\nbirds obstructed the principal thoroughfares of the town of the Nishadas\r\nby his mouth, increasing its orifice at will. And the Nishadas began to\r\nfly in great haste in the direction of the open mouth of the great\r\nserpent-eater. And as birds in great affliction ascend by thousand into\r\nthe skies when the trees in a forest are shaken by the winds, so those\r\nNishadas blinded by the dust raised by the storm entered the\r\nwide-extending cleft of Garuda\'s mouth open to receive them. And then the\r\nhungry lord of all rangers of the skies, that oppressor of enemies,\r\nendued with great strength, and moving with greatest celerity to achieve\r\nhis end, closed his mouth, killing innumerable Nishadas following the\r\noccupation of fishermen.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the twenty-eighth section in the Astika Parva of Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXIX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'A certain Brahmana with his wife had entered the\r\nthroat of that ranger of the skies. The former began to burn the bird\'s\r\nthroat like a piece of flaming charcoal. Him Garuda addressed, saying, \'O\r\nbest of Brahmanas, come out soon from my mouth which I open for thee. A\r\nBrahmana must never be slain by me, although he may be always engaged in\r\nsinful practices.\' Unto Garuda who had thus addressed him that Brahmana\r\nsaid, \'O, let this woman of the Nishada caste, who is my wife, also come\r\nout with me.\' And Garuda said, \'Taking the woman also of the Nishada\r\ncaste with thee, come out soon. Save thyself without delay since thou\r\nhast not yet been digested by the heat of my stomach.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'And then that Brahmana, accompanied by his wife of the\r\nNishada caste, came out, and praising Garuda wended whatever way he\r\nliked. And when that Brahmana had come out with his wife, that lord of\r\nbirds, fleet as the mind, stretching his wings ascended the skies. He\r\nthen saw his father, and, hailed by him, Garuda, of incomparable prowess\r\nmade proper answers. And the great Rishi (Kasyapa) then asked him, \'O\r\nchild, is it well with thee? Dost thou get sufficient food every day? Is\r\nthere food in plenty for thee in the world of men?\'\r\n\r\n"Garuda replied, \'My mother is ever well. And so is my brother, and so am\r\nI. But, father, I do not always obtain plenty of food, for which my peace\r\nis incomplete. I am sent by the snakes to fetch the excellent amrita.\r\nIndeed, I shall fetch it today for emancipating my mother from her\r\nbondage. My mother command me, saying, \'Eat thou the Nishadas.\' I have\r\neaten them by thousands, but my hunger is not appeased. Therefore, O\r\nworshipful one, point out to me some other food, by eating which, O\r\nmaster, I may be strong enough to bring away amrita by force. Thou\r\nshouldst indicate some food wherewith I may appease my hunger and thirst.\'\r\n\r\n"Kasyapa replied, \'This lake thou seest is sacred. It hath been heard, of\r\neven in the heavens. There is an elephant, with face downwards, who\r\ncontinually draggeth a tortoise, his elder brother. I shall speak to you\r\nin detail of their hostility in former life. Just listen as I tell you\r\nwhy they are here.\r\n\r\n"There was of old a great Rishi of the name of Vibhavasu. He was\r\nexceedingly wrathful. He had a younger brother of the name of Supritika.\r\nThe latter was averse to keeping his wealth jointly with his brother\'s.\r\nAnd Supritika would always speak of partition. After some time his\r\nbrother Vibhavasu told Supritika, \'It is from great foolishness that\r\npersons blinded by love of wealth always desire to make a partition of\r\ntheir patrimony. After effecting a partition they fight with each other,\r\ndeluded by wealth. Then again, enemies in the guise of friends cause\r\nestrangements between ignorant and selfish men alter they become\r\nseparated in wealth, and pointing out faults confirm their quarrels, so\r\nthat the latter soon fall one by one. Absolute ruin very soon overtakes\r\nthe separated. For these reasons the wise never speak approvingly of\r\npartition amongst brothers who, when divided, do not regard the most\r\nauthoritative Sastras and live always in fear of each other. But as thou,\r\nSupritika, without regarding my advice impelled by desire of separation,\r\nalways wishest to make an arrangement about your property, thou shall\r\nbecome an elephant.\' Supritika, thus cursed, then spake unto Vibhavasu,\r\n\'Thou also shall become a tortoise moving in the midst of the waters.\'\r\n\r\n"And thus on account of wealth those two fools, Supritika and Vibhavasu,\r\nfrom each other\'s curse, have become an elephant and a tortoise\r\nrespectively. Owing to their wrath, they have both become inferior\r\nanimals. And they are engaged in hostilities with each other, proud of\r\ntheir excessive strength and the weight of their bodies. And in this lake\r\nthose two beings of huge bodies are engaged in acts according to their\r\nformer hostility. Look here, one amongst them, the handsome elephant of\r\nhuge body, is even now approaching. Hearing his roar, the tortoise also\r\nof huge body, living within the waters, cometh out, agitating the lake\r\nviolently. And seeing him the elephant, curling his trunk, rusheth into\r\nthe water. And endued with great energy, with motion of his tusks and\r\nfore-part of his trunk and tail and feet, he agitates the water of the\r\nlake abounding with fishes. And the tortoise also of great strength, with\r\nupraised head, cometh forward for an encounter. And the elephant is six\r\nyojanas in height and twice that measure in circumference. And the height\r\nof the tortoise also is three yojanas and his circumference ten. Eat thou\r\nup both of them that are madly engaged in the encounter and bent upon\r\nslaying each other, and then accomplish the task that thou desirest.\r\nEating that fierce elephant which looketh like a huge mountain and\r\nresembleth a mass of dark clouds, bring thou amrita.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Having said so unto Garuda, he (Kasyapa) blessed him,\r\nsaying, \'Blest be thou when thou art in combat with the gods. Let water\r\npitchers filled to the brim, Brahmanas, kine, and other auspicious\r\nobjects, bless thee, thou oviparous one. And, O thou of great strength,\r\nwhen thou art engaged with the gods in combat, let the Riks, the Yajus,\r\nthe Samas, the sacred sacrificial butter, all the mysteries (Upanishads),\r\nconstitute thy strength.\'\r\n\r\n"Garuda, thus addressed by his father, wended to the side of that lake.\r\nHe saw that expanse of clear water with birds of various kinds all\r\naround. And remembering the words of his father, that ranger of the skies\r\npossessed of great swiftness of motion, seized the elephant and the\r\ntortoise, one in each claw. And that bird then soared high into the air.\r\nAnd he came upon a sacred place called Alamva and saw many divine trees.\r\nAnd struck by the wind raised by his wings, those trees began to shake\r\nwith fear. And those divine trees having golden boughs feared that they\r\nwould break. And the ranger of the skies seeing that those trees capable\r\nof granting every wish were quaking with fear, went to other trees of\r\nincomparable appearance. And those gigantic trees were adorned with\r\nfruits of gold and silver and branches of precious gems. And they were\r\nwashed with the water of the sea. And there was a large banian among\r\nthem, which had grown into gigantic proportions, that spoke unto that\r\nlord of bird coursing towards it with the fleetness of the mind, \'Sit\r\nthou on this large branch of mine extending a hundred yojanas and eat the\r\nelephant and the tortoise.\' When that best of birds, of great swiftness\r\nand of body resembling a mountain, quickly alighted upon a bough of that\r\nbanian tree, the resort of thousands of winged creatures-that bough also\r\nfull of leaves shook and broke down.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the twenty-ninth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'At the very touch by Garuda of great might with his feet,\r\nthe branch of the tree broke as it was caught by Garuda. Casting his eyes\r\naround in wonder he saw Valakhilya Rishis hanging therefrom with heads\r\ndownwards and engaged in ascetic penances. Reflecting that if that bough\r\nfell down, the Rishis would be slain, the mighty one held the elephant\r\nand the tortoise still more firmly with his claws. And from fear of\r\nslaying the Rishis and desire of saving them, held that bough in his\r\nbeaks, and rose on his wings. The great Rishis were struck with wonder at\r\nthe sight of that act of his which was beyond even the power of the gods,\r\nand gave that mighty bird a name. And they said, \'As this ranger of the\r\nskies rises on its wings bearing a heavy burden, let this foremost of\r\nbirds having snakes for his food be called Garuda (bearer of heavy\r\nweight).\'\r\n\r\n"And shaking the mountains by his wings, Garuda leisurely coursed through\r\nthe skies. And as he soared with the elephant and the tortoise (in his\r\nclaws), he beheld various regions underneath. Desiring as he did to save\r\nthe Valakhilyas, he saw not a spot whereon to sit. At last he went to\r\nthat foremost of mountains called Gandhamadana. There he saw his father\r\nKasyapa engaged in ascetic devotions. Kasyapa also saw his son, that\r\nranger of the skies, of divine form, possessed of great splendour, and\r\nenergy and strength, and endued with the speed of the wind or the mind,\r\nhuge as a mountain peak, a ready smiter like the curse of a Brahmana,\r\ninconceivable, indescribable, frightful to all creatures, possessed of\r\ngreat prowess, terrible, of the splendour of Agni himself, and incapable\r\nof being overcome by the deities, Danavas, and invincible Rakshasas,\r\ncapable of splitting mountain summits and sucking the ocean itself and\r\ndestroying the three worlds, fierce, and looking like Yama himself. The\r\nillustrious Kasyapa, seeing him approach and knowing also his motive,\r\nspoke unto him these words:\r\n\r\n"Kasyapa said, \'O child, do not commit a rash act, for then thou wouldst\r\nhave to suffer pain. The Valakhilyas, supporting themselves by drinking\r\nthe rays of the sun, might, if angry, blast thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Kasyapa then propitiated, for the sake of his son, the\r\nValakhilyas of exceeding good fortune and whose sins had been destroyed\r\nby ascetic penances.\' And Kasyapa said, \'Ye whose wealth is asceticism,\r\nthe essay of Garuda is for the good of all creatures. The task is great\r\nthat he is striving to accomplish. It behoveth you to accord him your\r\npermission.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Those ascetics thus addressed by the illustrious\r\nKasyapa, abandoned that bough and went to the sacred mountain of Himavat\r\nfor purposes of ascetic penances. After those Rishis had gone away, the\r\nson of Vinata, with voice obstructed by the bough in his beaks, asked his\r\nfather Kasyapa saying, \'O illustrious one, where shall I throw this arm\r\nof the tree? O illustrious one, indicate to me some region without human\r\nbeings.\' Then Kasyapa spoke of a mountain without human beings with caves\r\nand dales always covered with snow and incapable of approach by ordinary\r\ncreatures even in thought. And the great bird bearing that branch, that\r\nelephant, and that tortoise, proceeded with great speed towards that\r\nmountain. The great arm of the tree with which that bird of huge body\r\nflew away could not be girt round with a cord made of a hundred (cow)\r\nhides. Garuda, the lord of birds, then flew away for hundreds of thousand\r\nof yojanas within--the shortest time. And going according to the\r\ndirections of his father to that mountain almost in a moment, that ranger\r\nof the skies let fall the gigantic bough. And it fell with a great noise.\r\nAnd that Prince of mountains shook, struck with the storm raised by\r\nGaruda\'s wings. And the trees thereon dropped showers of flowers. And the\r\npeaks decked with gems and gold adorning that great mountain itself, were\r\nloosened and tell down on all sides. And the falling bough struck down\r\nnumerous trees which, with golden flowers amid dark foliage, shone there\r\nlike clouds charged with lightning. And those trees, bright as gold,\r\nfalling down upon the ground and, dyed with mountain metals, shone as if\r\nthey were bathed in the rays of the sun.\r\n\r\n"Then that best of birds, Garuda, perching on the summit of that\r\nmountain, ate both the elephant and the tortoise, rose on his wings with\r\ngreat speed from the top of the mountain.\r\n\r\n"And various omens began to appear among the gods foreboding fear.\r\nIndra\'s favourite thunderbolt blazed up in a fright. Meteors with flames\r\nand smoke, loosened from the welkin, shot down during the day. And the\r\nweapons of the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, the Sabhyas, the Maruts,\r\nand other gods, began to spend their force against one another. Such a\r\nthing had never happened even during the war between the gods and the\r\nAsuras. And the winds blew accompanied with thunder, and meteors fell by\r\nthousands. And the sky, though cloudless, roared tremendously. And even\r\nhe who was the god of gods shed showers of blood. And the flowery\r\ngarlands on the necks of the gods faded and their prowess suffered\r\ndiminution. And terrible masses of clouds dropped thick showers of blood.\r\nAnd the dust raised by the winds darkened the splendour of the very\r\ncoronets of the gods. And He of a thousand sacrifices (Indra), with the\r\nother gods, perplexed with fear at the sight of those dark forebodings\r\nspoke unto Vrihaspati thus, \'Why, O worshipful one, have these natural\r\ndisturbances suddenly arisen? No foe do I behold who would oppress us in\r\nwar.\' Vrihaspati answered, \'O chief of the gods, O thou of a thousand\r\nsacrifices, it is from thy fault and carelessness, and owing also to the\r\nascetic penance of the high-souled great Rishis, the Valakhilyas, that\r\nthe son of Kasyapa and Vinata, a ranger of the skies endued with great\r\nstrength and possessing the capacity of assuming at will any form, is\r\napproaching to take away the Soma. And that bird, foremost among all\r\nendued with great strength, is able to rob you of the Soma. Everything is\r\npossible with him; the unachievable he can achieve.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Indra, having heard these words, then spoke unto those\r\nthat guarded the amrita, saying, \'A bird endued with great strength and\r\nenergy has set his heart on taking away the amrita. I warn you beforehand\r\nso that he may not succeed in taking it away by force. Vrihaspati has\r\ntold me that his strength is immeasurable.\' And the gods hearing of it\r\nwere amazed and took precautions. And they stood surrounding the amrita\r\nand Indra also of great prowess, the wielder of the thunder, stood with\r\nthem. And the gods wore curious breastplates of gold, of great value, and\r\nset with gems, and bright leathern armour of great toughness. And the\r\nmighty deities wielded various sharp-edged weapons of terrible shapes,\r\ncountless in number, emitting, even all of them, sparks of fire with\r\nsmoke. And they were also armed with many a discus and iron mace\r\nfurnished with spikes, and trident, battle-axe, and various kinds of\r\nsharp-pointed missiles and polished swords and maces of terrible form,\r\nall befitting their respective bodies. And decked with celestial\r\nornaments and resplendent with those bright arms, the gods waited there,\r\ntheir fears allayed. And the gods, of incomparable strength, energy, and\r\nsplendour, resolved to protect the amrita. Capable of splitting the towns\r\nof the Asuras, all displayed themselves in forms resplendent as the fire.\r\nAnd in consequence of the gods standing there, that (would be)\r\nbattle-field, owing to hundreds of thousands of maces furnished with iron\r\nspikes, shone like another firmament illumined by the rays of the Sun.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirtieth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son of Suta, what was Indra\'s fault, what his act of\r\ncarelessness? How was Garuda born in consequence of the ascetic penances\r\nof the Valakhilyas? Why also Kasyapa--a Brahman--had the king of birds\r\nfor a son? Why, too, was he invincible of all creatures and unslayable of\r\nall? Why also was that ranger of the skies capable of going into every\r\nplace at will and of mustering at will any measure of energy? If these\r\nare described in the Purana, I should like to hear them.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'What thou askest me is, indeed, the subject of the Purana.\r\nO twice-born one, listen as I briefly recite it all.\r\n\r\n"Once upon a time, when the lord of creation, Kasyapa, was engaged in a\r\nsacrifice from desire of offspring, the Rishis, the gods, and the\r\nGandharvas, all gave him help. And Indra was appointed by Kasyapa to\r\nbring the sacrificial fuel; and with him those ascetics the Valakhilyas,\r\nand all the other deities. And the lord Indra, taking up according to his\r\nown strength, a weight that was mountain-like, brought it without any\r\nfatigue. And he saw on the way some Rishis, of bodies of the measure of\r\nthe thumb, all together carrying one single stalk of a Palasa (Butea\r\nfrondosa) leaf. And those Rishis were, from want of food, very lean and\r\nalmost merged in their own bodies. And they were so weak that they were\r\nmuch afflicted when sunk in the water that collected in an indentation on\r\nthe road produced by the hoof of a cow. And Purandara, proud of his\r\nstrength, beheld them with surprise, and laughing at them in derision\r\nsoon left them behind insulting them, besides, by passing over their\r\nheads. And those Rishis being thus insulted were filled with rage and\r\nsorrow. And they made preparations for a great sacrifice at which Indra\r\nwas terrified. Hear, O Saunaka, of the wish for accomplishment of which\r\nthose vow-observing wise, and excellent ascetics poured clarified butter\r\nof the sacrificial fire with loudly uttered mantras, \'There shall be\r\nanother Indra of all gods, capable of going everywhere at will, and of\r\nmustering at will any measure of energy, and striking tear into the\r\n(present) king of the gods. By the fruit of our ascetic penance, let one\r\narise, fleet as the mind, and fierce withal.\' And the lord of the\r\ncelestials of a hundred sacrifices, having come to know of this, became\r\nvery much alarmed and sought the protection of the vow-observing Kasyapa.\r\nAnd the Prajapati Kasyapa, hearing everything from Indra, went to the\r\nValakhilyas and asked them if their sacrifice had been successful. And\r\nthose truth-speaking Rishis replied to him, saying, \'Let it be as thou\r\nsayest!\' And the Prajapati Kasyapa pacifying them, spake unto them as\r\nfollows, \'By the word of Brahman, this one (Indra) hath been made the\r\nLord of the three worlds. Ye ascetics, ye also are striving to create\r\nanother Indra! Ye excellent ones, it behoveth you not to falsify the word\r\nof Brahman. Let not also this purpose, for (accomplishing) which ye are\r\nstriving, be rendered futile. Let there spring an Indra (Lord) of winged\r\ncreatures, endued with excess of strength! Be gracious unto Indra who is\r\na suppliant before you.\' And the Valakhilyas, thus addressed by Kasyapa,\r\nafter offering reverence to that first of the Munis, viz., the Prajapati\r\nKasyapa, spake unto him:\r\n\r\n"The Valakhilyas said, \'O Prajapati, this sacrifice of us all is for an\r\nIndra! Indeed this hath also been meant for a son being born unto thee!\r\nLet this task be now left to thee. And in this matter do whatsoever thou\r\nseest to be good and proper.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Meanwhile, moved by the desire of offspring, the good\r\ndaughter of Daksha, the vow-observing, amiable, and fortunate Vinata, her\r\nascetic penances over, having purified herself with a bath in that season\r\nwhen connubial companionship might prove fruitful, approached her lord.\r\nAnd Kasyapa spake unto her, \'Respected one, the sacrifice commenced by me\r\nhath borne fruit. What hath been desired by thee shall come to pass. Two\r\nheroic sons, shall be born unto thee, who shall be the lords of the three\r\nworlds. By the penances of the Valakhilyas and by virtue of the desire\r\nwith which I commenced my sacrifice, those sons shall be of exceedingly\r\ngood fortune and worshipped in the three worlds!\' And the illustrious\r\nKasyapa spake unto her again, \'Bear thou these auspicious seeds with\r\ngreat care. These two will be the lords of all winged creatures. These\r\nheroic rangers of the skies will be respected in all the worlds, and\r\ncapable of assuming any form at will.\r\n\r\n"And the Prajapati, gratified with all that took place, then addressed\r\nIndra of a hundred sacrifices, saying, \'Thou shalt have two brothers of\r\ngreat energy and prowess, who shall be to thee even as the helpmates.\r\nFrom them no injury shall result unto thee. Let thy sorrow cease; thou\r\nshalt continue as the lord of all. Let not, however, the utterers of the\r\nname of Brahma be ever again slighted by thee. Nor let the very wrathful\r\nones, whose words are even the thunderbolt, be ever again insulted by\r\nthee. Indra, thus addressed, went to heaven, his fears dispelled. And\r\nVinata also, her purpose fulfilled, was exceedingly glad. And she gave\r\nbirth to two sons, Aruna and Garuda. And Aruna, of undeveloped body,\r\nbecame the fore-runner of the Sun. And Garuda was vested with the\r\nlordship over the birds. O thou of Bhrigu\'s race, hearken now to the\r\nmighty achievement of Garuda.\'"\r\n\r\n"So ends the thirty-first section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O foremost of Brahmanas, the gods having prepared for\r\nbattle in that way, Garuda, the king of birds, soon came upon those wise\r\nones. And the gods beholding him of excessive strength began to quake\r\nwith fear, and strike one another with all their weapons. And amongst\r\nthose that guarded the Soma was Brahmana (the celestial architect), of\r\nmeasureless might, effulgent as the electric fire and of great energy.\r\nAnd after a terrific encounter lasting only a moment, managed by the lord\r\nof birds with his talons, beak, and wings, he lay as dead on the fields.\r\nAnd the ranger of the skies making the worlds dark with the dust raised\r\nby the hurricane of his wings, overwhelmed the celestials with it. And\r\nthe latter, overwhelmed with that dust, swooned away. And the immortals\r\nwho guarded the amrita, blinded by that dust, could no longer see Garuda.\r\nEven thus did Garuda agitate the region of the heavens. And even thus he\r\nmangled the gods with the wounds inflicted by his wings and beak.\r\n\r\n"Then the god of a thousand eyes commanded Vayu (the god of wind),\r\nsaying, \'Dispel thou this shower of dust soon. O Maruta, this is indeed,\r\nthy task. Then the mighty Vayu soon drove away that dust. And when the\r\ndarkness had disappeared, the celestials attacked Garuda. And as he of\r\ngreat might was attacked by the gods, he began to roar aloud, like the\r\ngreat cloud that appeareth in the sky at the end of the Yuga, frightening\r\nevery creature. And that king of birds, of great energy, that slayer of\r\nhostile heroes, then rose on his wings. All the wise ones (the\r\ncelestials) with Indra amongst them armed with double-edged broad swords,\r\niron maces furnished with sharp spikes, pointed lances, maces, bright\r\narrows, and many a discus of the form of the sun, saw him over head. And\r\nthe king of birds, attacked them on all sides with showers of various\r\nweapons and fought exceedingly hard without wavering for a moment. And\r\nthe son of Vinata, of great prowess blazing in the sky, attacked the gods\r\non all sides with his wings and breast. And blood began to flow copiously\r\nfrom the bodies of the gods mangled by the talons and the beak of Garuda.\r\nOvercome by the lord of birds, the Sadhyas with the Gandharvas fled\r\neastwards, the Vasus with the Rudras towards the south, the Adityas\r\ntowards the west, and the twin Aswins towards the north. Gifted with\r\ngreat energy, they retreated fighting, looking back every moment on their\r\nenemy.\r\n\r\n"And Garuda had encounters with the Yakshas, Aswakranda of great courage,\r\nRainuka, the bold Krathanaka, Tapana, Uluka, Swasanaka, Nimesha, Praruja,\r\nand Pulina. And the son of Vinata mangled them with his wings, talons,\r\nand beak, like Siva himself, that chastiser of enemies, and the holder of\r\nPinaka in rage at the end of the Yuga. And those Yakshas of great might\r\nand courage, mangled all over by that ranger of the skies, looked like\r\nmasses of black clouds dropping thick showers of blood.\r\n\r\n"And Garuda, depriving them of life, and then went to where the amrita\r\nwas. And he saw that it was surrounded on all sides by fire. And the\r\nterrible flames of that fire covered the entire sky. And moved by violent\r\nwinds, they seemed bent on burning the Sun himself. The illustrious\r\nGaruda then assumed ninety times ninety mouths and quickly drinking the\r\nwaters of many rivers with those mouths and returning with great speed,\r\nthat chastiser of enemies, having wings for his vehicle extinguished that\r\nfire with that water. And extinguishing that fire, he assumed a very\r\nsmall form, desirous of entering into (the place where the Soma was).\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirty-second section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Santi said, \'And that bird, assuming a golden body bright as the rays of\r\nthe Sun, entered with great force (the region where the Soma was), like a\r\ntorrent entering the ocean. And he saw, placed near the Soma, a wheel of\r\nsteel keen-edged, and sharp as the razor, revolving incessantly. And that\r\nfierce instrument, of the splendour of the blazing sun and of terrible\r\nform, had been devised by the gods for cutting in pieces all robbers of\r\nthe Soma. Garuda, seeing a passage through it, stopped there for a\r\nmoment. Diminishing his body, in an instant he passed through the spokes\r\nof that wheel. Within the line of the wheel, he beheld, stationed there\r\nfor guarding the Soma two great snakes of the effulgence of blazing fire,\r\nwith tongues bright as the lightning-flash, of great energy, with mouth\r\nemitting fire, with blazing eyes, containing poison, very terrible,\r\nalways in anger, and of great activity. Their eyes were ceaselessly\r\ninflamed with rage and were also winkless. He who may be seen by even one\r\nof the two would instantly be reduced to ashes. The bird of fair feathers\r\nsuddenly covered their eyes with dust. And unseen by them he attacked\r\nthem from all sides. And the son of Vinata, that ranger of the skies,\r\nattacking their bodies, mangled them into pieces. He then approached the\r\nSoma without loss of time. Then the mighty son of Vinata, taking up the\r\nAmrita from the place where it was kept, rose on his wings with great\r\nspeed, breaking into pieces the machine that had surrounded it. And the\r\nbird soon came out, taking the Amrita but without drinking it himself.\r\nAnd he then wended on his way without the least fatigue, darkening the\r\nsplendour of the Sun.\r\n\r\n"And the son of Vinata then met Vishnu on his way along the sky. And\r\nNarayana was gratified at that act of self-denial on the part of Garuda.\r\nAnd that deity, knowing no deterioration, said unto the ranger of the\r\nskies, \'O, I am inclined to grant thee a boon.\' The ranger of the skies\r\nthereupon said, \'I shall stay above thee.\' And he again spake unto\r\nNarayana these words, \'I shall be immortal and free from disease without\r\n(drinking) Amrita.\' Vishnu said unto the son of Vinata, \'Be it so.\'\r\nGaruda, receiving those two boons, told Vishnu, \'I also shall grant thee\r\na boon; therefore, let the possessor of the six attributes ask of me.\'\r\nVishnu then asked the mighty Garuda to become his carrier. And he made\r\nthe bird sit on the flagstaff of his car, saying, \'Even thus thou shalt\r\nstay above me.\' And the ranger of the skies, of great speed, saying unto\r\nNarayana, \'Be it so,\' swiftly wended on his way, mocking the wind with\r\nhis fleetness.\r\n\r\n"And while that foremost of all rangers of the skies, that first of\r\nwinged creatures, Garuda, was coursing through the air after wresting the\r\nAmrita, Indra hurled at him his thunderbolt. Then Garuda, the lord of\r\nbirds, struck with thunderbolt, spake laughingly unto Indra engaged in\r\nthe encounter, in sweet words, saying, \'I shall respect the Rishi\r\n(Dadhichi) of whose bone the Vajra hath been made. I shall also respect\r\nthe Vajra, and thee also of a thousand sacrifices. I cast this feather of\r\nmine whose end thou shalt not attain. Struck with thy thunder I have not\r\nfelt the slightest pain.\' And having said this, the king of birds cast a\r\nfeather of his. And all creatures became exceedingly glad, beholding that\r\nexcellent feather of Garuda so cast off. And seeing that the feather was\r\nvery beautiful, they said, \'Let this bird be called Suparna (having fair\r\nfeathers). And Purandara of a thousand eyes, witnessing this wonderful\r\nincident, thought that bird to be some great being and addressed him\r\nthus.\'\r\n\r\n"And Indra said, \'O best of birds, I desire to know the limit of thy\r\ngreat strength. I also desire eternal friendship with thee.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirty-third section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'Garuda then said, \'O Purandara, let there be\r\nfriendship between thee and me as thou desirest. My strength, know thou,\r\nis hard to bear. O thou of a thousand sacrifices, the good never approve\r\nof speaking highly of their own strength, nor do they speak of their own\r\nmerits. But being made a friend, and asked by thee, O friend, I will\r\nanswer thee, although self-praise without reason is ever improper. I can\r\nbear, on a single feather of mine, O Sakra, this Earth, with her\r\nmountains and forests and with the waters of the ocean, and with thee\r\nalso stationed thereon. Know thou, my strength is such that I can bear\r\nwithout fatigue even all the worlds put together, with their mobile and\r\nimmobile objects.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'O Saunaka, after Garuda of great courage had thus\r\nspoken, Indra the chief of the gods, the wearer of the (celestial) crown,\r\never bent upon the good of the worlds, replied, saying, \'It is as thou\r\nsayest. Everything is possible in thee. Accept now my sincere and hearty\r\nfriendship. And if thou hast no concern with the Soma, return it to me.\r\nThose to whom thou wouldst give it would always oppose us.\' Garuda\r\nanswered, \'There is a certain reason for which the Soma is being carried\r\nby me. I shall not give the Soma to any one for drink. But, O thou of a\r\nthousand eyes, after I have placed it down, thou, O lord of the heavens,\r\ncanst then, taking it up, instantly bring it away.\' Indra then said, \'O\r\noviparous one, I am highly gratified with these words now spoken by thee.\r\nO best of all rangers of the skies; accept from me any boon that thou\r\ndesirest.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then Garuda, recollecting the sons of Kadru and\r\nremembering also the bondage of his mother caused by an act of deception\r\nowing to the well-known reason (viz., the curse of Aruna), said,\r\n\'Although I have power over all creatures, yet I shall do your bidding.\r\nLet, O Sakra, the mighty snakes become my food.\' The slayer of the\r\nDanavas having said unto him, \'Be it so,\' then went to Hari, the god of\r\ngods, of great soul, and the lord of Yogins. And the latter sanctioned\r\neverything that had been said by Garuda. And the illustrious lord of\r\nheaven again said unto Garuda, \'I shall bring away the Soma when thou\r\nplacest it down.\' And having said so, he bade farewell to Garuda. And the\r\nbird of fair feathers then went to the presence of his mother with great\r\nspeed.\r\n\r\n"And Garuda in joy then spake unto all the snakes, \'Here have I brought\r\nthe Amrita. Let me place it on some Kusa grass. O ye snakes, sitting\r\nhere, drink of it after ye have performed your ablutions and religious\r\nrites. As said by you, let my mother become, from this day, free, for I\r\nhave accomplished your bidding.\' The snakes having said unto Garuda, \'Be\r\nit so,\' then went to perform their ablutions. Meanwhile, Sakra taking up\r\nthe Amrita, wended back to heaven. The snakes after performing their\r\nablutions, their daily devotions, and other sacred rites, returned in\r\njoy, desirous of drinking the Amrita. They saw that the bed of kusa grass\r\nwhereon the Amrita had been placed was empty, the Amrita itself having\r\nbeen taken away by a counter-act of deception. And they began to lick\r\nwith their tongues the kusa grass, as the Amrita had been placed thereon.\r\nAnd the tongues of the snakes by that act became divided in twain. And\r\nthe kusa grass, too, from the contact with Amrita, became sacred\r\nthenceforth. Thus did the illustrious Garuda bring Amrita (from the\r\nheavens) for the snakes, and thus were the tongues of snakes divided by\r\nwhat Garuda did.\r\n\r\n"Then the bird of fair feathers, very much delighted, enjoyed himself in\r\nthose woods accompanied by his mother. Of grand achievements, and deeply\r\nreverenced by all rangers of the skies, he gratified his mother by\r\ndevouring the snakes.\r\n\r\n"That man who would listen to this story, or read it out to an assembly\r\nof good Brahmanas, must surely go to heaven, acquiring great merit from\r\nthe recitation of (the feats of) Garuda.\'"\r\n\r\nAnd so ends the thirty-fourth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi\r\nParva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son of Suta, thou hast told us the reason why the\r\nsnakes were cursed by their mother, and why Vinata also was cursed by her\r\nson. Thou hast also told us about the bestowal of boons, by their\r\nhusband, on Kadru and Vinata. Thou hast likewise told us the names of\r\nVinata\'s sons. But thou hast not yet recited to us the names of the\r\nsnakes. We are anxious to hear the names of the principal ones.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, O thou whose wealth is asceticism, from fear of being\r\nlengthy, I shall not mention the names of all the snakes. But I will\r\nrecite the names of the chief ones. Listen to me!\r\n\r\n"Sesha was born first, and then Vasuki. (Then were born) Airavata,\r\nTakshaka, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Kalakeya, the serpent Mani, Purana,\r\nPinjaraka, and Elapatra, Vamana, Nila, Anila, Kalmasha, Savala, Aryaka,\r\nUgra, Kalasapotaka, Suramukha, Dadhimukha, Vimalapindaka, Apta, Karotaka,\r\nSamkha, Valisikha, Nisthanaka, Hemaguha, Nahusha, Pingala, Vahyakarna,\r\nHastipada, Mudgarapindaka, Kamvala Aswatara, Kaliyaka, Vritta,\r\nSamvartaka, Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhamukha, Kushmandaka, Kshemaka,\r\nPindaraka, Karavira, Pushpadanshtraka, Vilwaka, Vilwapandara, Mushikada,\r\nSankhasiras, Purnabhadra, Haridraka, Aparajita, Jyotika, Srivaha,\r\nKauravya, Dhritarashtra, Sankhapinda, Virajas, Suvahu, Salipinda,\r\nPrabhakara, Hastipinda, Pitharaka, Sumuksha, Kaunapashana, Kuthara,\r\nKunjara, Kumuda, Kumudaksha, Tittri, Halika, Kardama, Vahumulaka,\r\nKarkara, Akarkara, Kundodara, and Mahodara.\r\n\r\n"Thus, O best of regenerate ones, have I said the names of the principal\r\nserpents. From fear of being tedious I do not give names of the rest. O\r\nthou whose wealth is asceticism, the sons of these snakes, with their\r\ngrandsons, are innumerable. Reflecting upon this, I shall not name them\r\nto thee. O best ascetics, in this world the number of snakes baffles\r\ncalculation, there being many thousands and millions of them.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirty-fifth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O child, thou hast named many of the serpents gifted with\r\ngreat energy and incapable of being easily overcome. What did they do\r\nafter hearing of that curse?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The illustrious Sesha amongst them, of great renown,\r\nleaving his mother practised hard penances, living upon air and rigidly\r\nobserving his vows. He practised these ascetic devotions, repairing to\r\nGandhamadana, Vadri, Gokarna, the woods of Pushkara, and the foot of\r\nHimavat. And he passed his days in those sacred regions, some of which\r\nwere sacred for their water and others for their soil in the rigid\r\nobservance of his vows, with singleness of aim, and his passions under\r\ncomplete control. And the Grandsire of all, Brahma, saw that ascetic with\r\nknotted hair, clad in rags, and his flesh, skin, and sinews dried up\r\nowing to the hard penances he was practising. And the Grandsire\r\naddressing him, that penance-practising one of great fortitude, said,\r\n\'What is that thorn doest, O Sesha? Let the welfare of the creatures of\r\nthe worlds also engage thy thoughts. O sinless one, thou art afflicting\r\nall creatures by thy hard penances. O Sesha, tell me the desire implanted\r\nin thy breast.\'\r\n\r\n"And Sesha replied, \'My uterine brothers are all of wicked hearts. I do\r\nnot desire to live amongst them. Let this be sanctioned by thee. Like\r\nenemies they are always jealous of one another. I am, therefore, engaged\r\nin ascetic devotions. I will not see them even. They never show any\r\nkindness for Vinata and her son. Indeed, Vinata\'s son capable of ranging\r\nthrough the skies, is another brother of ours. They always envy him. And\r\nhe, too, is much stronger owing to the bestowal of that boon by our\r\nfather, the high-souled Kasyapa. For these, I engaged in ascetic\r\npenances, and I will cast off this body of mine, so that I may avoid\r\ncompanionship with them, even in another state of life.\'\r\n\r\n"Unto Sesha who had said so, the Grandsire said, \'O Sesha, I know the\r\nbehaviour of all thy brothers and their great danger owing to their\r\noffence against their mother. But O Snake, a remedy (for this) hath been\r\nprovided by me even beforehand. It behoveth thee not to grieve for thy\r\nbrothers. O Sesha, ask of me the boon thou desirest. I have been highly\r\ngratified with thee and I will grant thee today a boon. O best of snakes,\r\nit is fortunate that thy heart hath been set on virtue. Let thy heart be\r\nmore and more firmly set on virtue.\'\r\n\r\n"Then Sesha replied, \'O divine Grandsire, this is the boon desired by me;\r\nviz., may my heart always delight in virtue and in blessed ascetic\r\npenances, O Lord of all!\'\r\n\r\n"Brahman said, \'O Sesha, I am exceedingly gratified with this thy\r\nself-denial and love of peace. But, at my command, let this act be done\r\nby thee for the good of my creatures. Bear thou, O Sesha, properly and\r\nwell this Earth so unsteady with her mountains and forests, her seas and\r\ntowns and retreats, so that she may be steady.\'\r\n\r\n"Sesha said, \'O divine Lord of all creatures, O bestower of boons, O lord\r\nof the Earth, lord of every created thing, lord of the universe, I will,\r\neven as thou sayest hold the Earth steady. Therefore, O lord of all\r\ncreatures, place her on my head.\'\r\n\r\n"Brahman said, \'O best of snakes, go underneath the Earth. She will\r\nherself give thee a crevice to pass through. And, O Sesha, by holding the\r\nEarth, thou shalt certainly do what is prized by me very greatly.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then the elder brother of the king of the snakes,\r\nentering a hole, passed to the other side of the Earth, and holding her,\r\nsupported with his head that goddess with her belt of seas passing all\r\nround.\'\r\n\r\n"Brahman said, \'O Sesha, O best of snakes, thou art the god Dharma,\r\nbecause alone, with thy huge body, thou supportest the Earth with\r\neverything on her, even as I myself, or Valavit (Indra), can.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The snake, Sesha, the lord Ananta, of great prowess,\r\nlives underneath the Earth, alone supporting the world at the command of\r\nBrahman. And the illustrious Grandsire, the best of the immortals, then\r\ngave unto Ananta the bird of fair feathers, viz., the son of Vinata, for\r\nAnanta\'s help.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirty-sixth section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'That best of snakes, viz., Vasuki, hearing the curse of his\r\nmother, reflected how to render it abortive. He held a consultation with\r\nall his brothers, Airavata and others, intent upon doing what they deemed\r\nbest for themselves.\'\r\n\r\n"And Vasuki said, \'O ye sinless ones, the object of this curse is known\r\nto you. It behoveth us to strive to neutralise it. Remedies certainly\r\nexist for all curses, but no remedy can avail those cursed by their\r\nmother. Hearing that this curse hath been uttered in the presence of the\r\nImmutable, the Infinite, and the True one, my heart trembleth. Surely,\r\nour annihilation hath come. Otherwise why should not the Immutable Lord\r\nprevent our mother while uttering the curse? Therefore, let us consult\r\ntoday how we may secure the safety of the snakes. Let us not waste time.\r\nAll of you are wise and discerning. We will consult together and find out\r\nthe means of deliverance as (did) the gods of yore to regain lost Agni\r\nwho had concealed himself within a cave, so that Janamejaya\'s sacrifice\r\nfor the destruction of the snakes may not take place, and so that we may\r\nnot meet with destruction.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Thus addressed all the offspring of Kadru assembled\r\ntogether, and, wise in counsels, submitted their opinions to one another.\r\nOne party of the serpents said, \'We should assume the guise of superior\r\nBrahmanas, and beseech Janamejaya, saying, \'This (intended) sacrifice of\r\nyours ought not to take place.\' Other snakes thinking themselves wise,\r\nsaid, \'We should all become his favourite counsellors. He will then\r\ncertainly ask for our advice in all projects. And we will then give him\r\nsuch advice that the sacrifice may be obstructed. The king, the foremost\r\nof wise men, thinking us of sterling worth will certainly ask us about\r\nhis sacrifice. We will say, \'It must not be!\' And pointing to many\r\nserious evils in this and the next worlds, we will take care that the\r\nsacrifice may not take place. Or, let one of the snakes, approaching,\r\nbite the person who, intending the monarch\'s good, and well-acquainted\r\nwith the rites of the snake-sacrifice, may be appointed as the\r\nsacrificial priest, so that he will die. The sacrificial priest dying,\r\nthe sacrifice will not be completed. We will also bite all those who,\r\nacquainted with the rites of the snake-sacrifice, may be appointed\r\nRitwiks of the sacrifice, and by that means attain our object.\' Other\r\nsnakes, more virtuous and kind, said, \'O, this counsel of yours is evil.\r\nIt is not meet to kill Brahmanas. In danger, that remedy is proper, which\r\nis blessed on the practices of the righteous. Unrighteousness finally\r\ndestroyeth the world.\' Other serpents said, \'We will extinguish the\r\nblazing sacrificial fire by ourselves becoming clouds luminous with\r\nlightning and pouring down showers.\' Other snakes, the best of their\r\nkind, proposed, \'Going, by night, let us steal away the vessel of Soma\r\njuice. That will disturb the rite. Or, at that sacrifice, let the snakes,\r\nby hundreds and thousands, bite the people, and spread terror around. Or,\r\nlet the serpents defile the pure food with their food-defiling urine and\r\ndung.\' Others said, \'Let us become the king\'s Ritwiks, and obstruct his\r\nsacrifice by saying at the outset, \'Give us the sacrificial fee.\' He (the\r\nking), being placed in our power, will do whatever we like.\' Others there\r\nsaid, \'When the king will sport in the waters, we will carry him to our\r\nhome and bind him, so that that sacrifice will not take place!\' Other\r\nserpents who deemed themselves wise, said, \'Approaching the king, let us\r\nbite him, so that our object will be accomplished. By his death the root\r\nof all evil will be torn up. This is the final deliberation of us all, O\r\nthou who hearest with thy eyes! Then, do speedily what thou deemest\r\nproper.\' Having said this, they looked intently at Vasuki, that best of\r\nsnakes. And Vasuki also, after reflecting, answered saying, \'Ye snakes,\r\nthis final determination of you doth not seem worthy of adoption. The\r\nadvice of you all is not to my liking. What shall I say which would be\r\nfor your good? I think the grace of the illustrious Kasyapa (our father)\r\ncan alone do us good. Ye snakes, my heart doth not know which of all your\r\nsuggestions is to be adopted for the welfare of my race as also of me.\r\nThat must be done by me which would be to your weal. It is this that\r\nmakes me so anxious, for the credit or the discredit (of the measure) is\r\nmine alone.\'"\r\n\r\nSo ends the thirty-seventh section in the Astika Parva of the Adi Parva.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXVIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Hearing the respective speeches of all the snakes, and\r\nhearing also the words of Vasuki, Elapatra began to address them, saying,\r\n\'That sacrifice is not one that can be prevented. Nor is king Janamejaya\r\nof the Pandava race from whom this fear proceedeth, such that he can be\r\nhindered. The person, O king, who is afflicted by fate hath recourse to\r\nfate alone; nothing else can be his refuge. Ye best of snakes, this fear\r\nof ours hath fate for its root. Fate alone must be our refuge in this.\r\nListen to what I say. When that curse was uttered, ye best of snakes, in\r\nfear I lay crouching on the lap of our mother. Ye best of snakes, and O\r\nlord (Vasuki) of great splendour, from that place I heard the words the\r\nsorrowing gods spake unto the Grandsire. The gods said, \'O Grandsire,\r\nthou god of gods who else than the cruel Kadru could thus, after getting\r\nsuch dear children, curse them so, even in thy presence? And, O\r\nGrandsire, by thee also hath been spoken, with reference to those words\r\nof hers, \'Be it so.\' We wish to know the reason why thou didst not\r\nprevent her.\' Brahman replied, \'The snakes have multiplied. They are\r\ncruel, terrible in form and highly poisonous. From desire of the good of\r\nmy creatures, I did not prevent Kadru then. Those poisonous serpents and\r\nothers who are sinful, biting others for no faults, shall, indeed, be\r\ndestroyed, but not they who are harmless and virtuous. And hear also,\r\nhow, when the hour comes, the snakes may escape this dreadful calamity.\r\nThere shall be born in the race of the Yayavaras a great Rishi known by\r\nthe name of Jaratkaru, intelligent, with passions under complete control.\r\nThat Jaratkaru shall have a son of the name of Astika. He shall put a\r\nstop to that sacrifice. And those snakes who shall be virtuous shall\r\nescape therefrom. The gods said, \'O thou truth-knowing one, on whom will\r\nJaratkaru, that foremost Muni, gifted with great energy and asceticism,\r\nbeget that illustrious son?\' Brahma answered, \'Gifted with great energy,\r\nthat best Brahmana shall beget a son possessed of great energy on a wife\r\nof the same name as his. Vasuki, the king of the snakes, hath a sister of\r\nthe name of Jaratkaru; the son, of whom I speak, shall be born of her,\r\nand he shall liberate the snakes.\'\r\n\r\n"Elapatra continued, \'The gods then said unto the Grandsire, \'Be it so.\'\r\nAnd the lord Brahman, having said so unto the gods, went to heaven. O\r\nVasuki, I see before me that sister of thine known by the name of\r\nJaratkaru. For relieving us from fear, give her as alms unto him (i.e.,\r\nthe Rishi), Jaratkaru, of excellent vows, who shall roam abegging for a\r\nbride. This means of release hath been heard of by me!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XXXIX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O best of regenerate ones, hearing these words of Elapatra,\r\nall the serpents, in great delight, exclaimed, \'Well said, well said!\'\r\nAnd from that time Vasuki set about carefully bringing up that maiden,\r\nviz., his sister Jaratkaru. And he took great delight in rearing her.\r\n\r\n"And much time did not elapse from this, when the gods and the Asuras,\r\nassembling together, churned the abode of Varuna. And Vasuki, the\r\nforemost of all gifted with strength, became the churning-cord. And\r\ndirectly the work was over, the king of the snakes presented himself\r\nbefore the Grandsire. And the gods, accompanied by Vasuki, addressed the\r\nGrandsire, saying, \'O lord, Vasuki is suffering great affliction from\r\nfear of (his mother\'s curse). It behoveth thee to root out the sorrow,\r\nbegotten of the curse of his mother, that hath pierced the heart of\r\nVasuki desirous of the weal of his race. The king of the snakes is ever\r\nour friend and benefactor. O Lord of the gods, be gracious unto him and\r\nassuage his mind\'s fever.\'\r\n\r\n"Brahman replied, \'O ye immortals, I have thought, in my mind, of what ye\r\nhave said. Let the king of the snakes do that which hath been\r\ncommunicated to him before by Elapatra. The time hath arrived. Those only\r\nshall be destroyed that are wicked, not those that are virtuous.\r\nJaratkaru hath been born, and that Brahmana is engaged in hard ascetic\r\npenances. Let Vasuki, at the proper time, bestow on him his sister. Ye\r\ngods, what hath been spoken by the snake Elapatra for the weal of the\r\nsnakes is true and not otherwise.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then the king of the snakes, Vasuki, afflicted with\r\nthe curse of his mother, hearing these words of the Grandsire, and\r\nintending to bestow his sister of the Rishi Jaratkaru, commanded all the\r\nserpents, a large numbers of whom were ever attentive to their duties, to\r\nwatch the Rishi Jaratkaru, saying, \'When the lord Jaratkaru will ask for\r\na wife, come immediately and inform me of it. The weal of our race\r\ndepends upon it.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XL\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son of Suta, I desire to know the reason why the\r\nillustrious Rishi whom thou hast named Jaratkaru came to be so called on\r\nearth. It behoveth thee to tell us the etymology of the name Jaratkaru.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Jara is said to mean waste, and Karu implies huge. This\r\nRishi\'s body had been huge, and he gradually reduced it by severe ascetic\r\npenances. For the same reason, O Brahmanas, the sister of Vasuki was\r\ncalled Jaratkaru.\'\r\n\r\nThe virtuous Saunaka, when he heard this, smiled and addressing\r\nUgrasravas said, \'It is even so.\'\r\n\r\nSaunaka then said, \'I have heard all that thou hast before recited. I\r\ndesire to know how Astika was born.\'\r\n\r\nSauti, on hearing these words, began to relate according to what was\r\nwritten in the Sastras.\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Vasuki, desirous of bestowing his sister upon the Rishi\r\nJaratkaru, gave the snakes (necessary) orders. But days went on, yet that\r\nwise Muni of rigid vows, deeply engaged in ascetic devotions, did not\r\nseek for a wife. That high-souled Rishi, engaged in studies and deeply\r\ndevoted to asceticism, his vital seed under full control, fearlessly\r\nwandered over the whole earth and had no wish for a wife.\r\n\r\n"Afterwards, once upon a time, there was a king, O Brahmana, of the name\r\nof Parikshit, born in the race of the Kauravas. And, like his\r\ngreat-grandfather Pandu of old, he was of mighty arms, the first of all\r\nbearers of bows in battle, and fond of hunting. And the monarch wandered\r\nabout, hunting deer, and wild boars, and wolves, and buffaloes and\r\nvarious other kinds of wild animals. One day, having pierced a deer with\r\na sharp arrow and slung his bow on his back, he penetrated into the deep\r\nforest, searching for the animal here and there, like the illustrious\r\nRudra himself of old pursuing in the heavens, bow in hand, the deer which\r\nwas Sacrifice, itself turned into that shape, after the piercing. No deer\r\nthat was pierced by Parikshit had ever escaped in the wood with life.\r\nThis deer, however wounded as before, fled with speed, as the (proximate)\r\ncause of the king\'s attainment to heaven. And the deer that\r\nParikshit--that king of men--had pierced was lost to his gaze and drew\r\nthe monarch far away into the forest. And fatigued and thirsty, he came\r\nacross a Muni, in the forest, seated in a cow-pen and drinking to his\r\nfill the froth oozing out of the mouths of calves sucking the milk of\r\ntheir dams. And approaching him hastily, the monarch, hungry and\r\nfatigued, and raising his bow, asked that Muni of rigid vows, saying, \'O\r\nBrahmana, I am king Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu. A deer pierced by me\r\nhath been lost. Hast thou seen it?\' But that Muni observing then the vow\r\nof silence, spoke not unto him a word. And the king in anger thereupon\r\nplaced upon his shoulder a dead snake, taking it up with the end of his\r\nbow. The Muni suffered him to do it without protest. And he spoke not a\r\nword, good or bad. And the king seeing him in that state, cast off his\r\nanger and became sorry. And he returned to his capital but the Rishi\r\ncontinued in the same state. The forgiving Muni, knowing that the monarch\r\nwho was a tiger amongst kings was true to the duties of his order, cursed\r\nhim not, though insulted. That tiger amongst monarchs, that foremost one\r\nof Bharata\'s race, also did not know that the person whom he had so\r\ninsulted was a virtuous Rishi. It was for this that he had so insulted\r\nhim.\r\n\r\n"That Rishi had a son by name Sringin, of tender years, gifted with great\r\nenergy, deep in ascetic penances, severe in his vows, very wrathful, and\r\ndifficult to be appeased. At times, he worshipped with great attention\r\nand respect his preceptor seated with ease on his seat and ever engaged\r\nin the good of creatures.\r\n\r\n"And commanded by his preceptor, he was coming home when, O best of\r\nBrahmanas, a companion of his, a Rishi\'s son named Krisa in a playful\r\nmood laughingly spoke unto him. And Sringin, wrathful and like unto\r\npoison itself, hearing these words in reference to his father, blazed up\r\nin rage.\'\r\n\r\n"And Krisa said, \'Be not proud, O Sringin, for ascetic as thou art and\r\npossessed of energy, thy father bears on his shoulders a dead snake.\r\nHenceforth speak not a word to sons of Rishis like ourselves who have\r\nknowledge of the truth, are deep in ascetic penances, and have attained\r\nsuccess. Where is that manliness of thine, those high words of thine\r\nbegotten of pride, when thou must have to behold thy father bearing a\r\ndead snake? O best of all the Munis, thy father too had done nothing to\r\ndeserve this treatment, and it is for this that I am particularly sorry\r\nas if the punishment were mine.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Being thus addressed, and hearing that his sire was bearing\r\na dead snake, the powerful Sringin burned with wrath. And looking at\r\nKrisa, and speaking softly, he asked him, \'Pray, why doth my father bear\r\ntoday a dead snake?\' And Krisa replied, \'Even as king Parikshit was\r\nroving, for purpose of hunting, O dear one, he placed the dead snake on\r\nthe shoulder of thy sire.\'\r\n\r\n"And Sringin asked, \'What wrong was done to that wicked monarch by my\r\nfather? O Krisa, tell me this, and witness the power of my asceticism.\'\r\n\r\n"And Krisa answered, \'King Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu, while\r\nhunting, had wounded a fleet stag with an arrow and chased it alone. And\r\nthe king lost sight of the animal in that extensive wilderness. Seeing\r\nthen thy sire, he immediately accosted him. Thy sire was then observing\r\nthe vow of silence. Oppressed by hunger, thirst and labour, the prince\r\nagain and again asked thy sire sitting motionless, about the missing\r\ndeer. The sage, being under the vow of silence, returned no reply. The\r\nking thereupon placed the snake on thy sire\'s shoulder with the end of\r\nhis bow. O Sringin, thy sire engaged in devotion is in the same posture\r\nstill. And the king also hath gone to his capital which is named after\r\nthe elephant!\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Having heard of a dead snake placed upon his\r\n(father\'s) shoulders, the son of the Rishi, his eyes reddened with anger,\r\nblazed up with rage. And possessed by anger, the puissant Rishi then\r\ncursed the king, touching water and overcome with wrath.\'\r\n\r\n"And Sringin said, \'That sinful wretch of a monarch who hath placed a\r\ndead snake on the shoulders of my lean and old parent, that insulter of\r\nBrahmanas and tarnisher of the fame of the Kurus, shall be taken within\r\nseven nights hence to the regions of Yama (Death) by the snake Takshaka,\r\nthe powerful king of serpents, stimulated thereto by the strength of my\r\nwords!\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'And having thus cursed (the king) from anger, Sringin\r\nwent to his father, and saw the sage sitting in the cow-pen, bearing the\r\ndead snake. And seeing his parent in that plight, he was again inflamed\r\nwith ire. And he shed tears of grief, and addressed his sire, saying,\r\n\'Father, having been informed of this thy disgrace at the hands of that\r\nwicked wretch, king Parikshit, I have from anger even cursed him; and\r\nthat worst of Kurus hath richly deserved my potent curse. Seven days\r\nhence, Takshaka, the lord of snakes, shall take the sinful king to the\r\nhorrible abode of Death.\' And the father said to the enraged son, \'Child,\r\nI am not pleased with thee. Ascetics should not act thus. We live in the\r\ndomains of that great king. We are protected by him righteously. In all\r\nhe does, the reigning king should by the like of us forgiven. If thou\r\ndestroy Dharma, verily Dharma will destroy thee. If the king do not\r\nproperly protect us, we fare very ill; we cannot perform our religious\r\nrites according to our desire. But protected by righteous sovereigns, we\r\nattain immense merit, and they are entitled to a share thereof.\r\nTherefore, reigning royalty is by all means to be forgiven. And Parikshit\r\nlike unto his great-grandsire, protecteth us as a king should protect his\r\nsubjects. That penance-practising monarch was fatigued and oppressed with\r\nhunger. Ignorant of my vow (of silence) he did this. A kingless country\r\nalways suffereth from evils. The king punisheth offenders, and fear of\r\npunishments conducteth to peace; and people do their duties and perform\r\ntheir rites undisturbed. The king establisheth religion--establisheth the\r\nkingdom of heaven. The king protecteth sacrifices from disturbance, and\r\nsacrifices to please the gods. The gods cause rain, and rain produceth\r\ngrains and herbs, which are always useful to man. Manu sayeth, a ruler of\r\nthe destinies of men is equal (in dignity) to ten Veda-studying priests.\r\nFatigued and oppressed with hunger, that penance-practising prince hath\r\ndone this through ignorance of my vow. Why then hast thou rashly done\r\nthis unrighteous action through childishness? O son, in no way doth the\r\nking deserve a curse from us.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'And Sringin then replied to his father, saying, \'Whether\r\nthis be an act of rashness, O father, or an improper act that I have\r\ndone, whether thou likest it or dislikest it, the words spoken by me\r\nshall never be in vain. O father, I tell thee (a curse) can never be\r\notherwise. I have never spoken a lie even in jest.\'\r\n\r\n"And Samika said, \'Dear child, I know that thou art of great prowess, and\r\ntruthful in speech. Thou hast never spoken falsehood before, so that thy\r\ncurse shall never be falsified. The son, even when he attaineth to age,\r\nshould yet be always counselled by the father, so that crowned with good\r\nqualities he may acquire great renown. A child as thou art, how much more\r\ndost thou stand in need of counsel? Thou art ever engaged in ascetic\r\npenances. The wrath of even the illustrious ones possessing the six\r\nattributes increaseth greatly. O thou foremost of ordinance-observing\r\npersons, seeing that thou art my son and a minor too, and beholding also\r\nthy rashness, I see that I must counsel thee. Live thou, O son, inclined\r\nto peace and eating fruits and roots of the forest. Kill this thy anger\r\nand destroy not the fruit of thy ascetic acts in this way. Wrath surely\r\ndecreaseth the virtue that ascetics acquire with great pains. And then\r\nfor those deprived of virtue, the blessed state existeth not.\r\nPeacefulness ever giveth success to forgiving ascetics. Therefore,\r\nbecoming forgiving in thy temper and conquering thy passions, shouldst\r\nthou always live. By forgiveness shalt thou obtain worlds that are beyond\r\nthe reach of Brahman himself. Having adopted peacefulness myself, and\r\nwith a desire also for doing good as much as lies in my power, I must do\r\nsomething; even must I send to that king, telling him, \'O monarch, thou\r\nhast been cursed by my son of tender years and undeveloped intellect, in\r\nwrath, at seeing thy act of disrespect towards myself.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'And that great ascetic, observer of vows, moved by\r\nkindness, sent with proper instructions a disciple of his to king\r\nParikshit. And he sent his disciple Gaurmukha of good manners and engaged\r\nalso in ascetic penances, instructing him to first enquire about the\r\nwelfare of the king and then to communicate the real message. And that\r\ndisciple soon approached that monarch, the head of the Kuru race. And he\r\nentered the king\'s palace having first sent notice of his arrival through\r\nthe servant in attendance at the gate.\r\n\r\n"And the twice-born Gaurmukha was duly worshipped by the monarch. And\r\nafter resting for a while, he detailed fully to the king, in the presence\r\nof his ministers, the words of Samika, of cruel import, exactly as he had\r\nbeen instructed.\'\r\n\r\n"And Gaurmukha said, \'O king of kings, there is a Rishi, Samika, by name,\r\nof virtuous soul, his passions under control, peaceful, and given up to\r\nhard ascetic devotions, living in thy dominions! By thee, O tiger among\r\nmen, was placed on the shoulders of that Rishi observing at present the\r\nvow of silence, a dead snake, with the end of thy bow! He himself forgave\r\nthee that act. But his son could not. And by the latter hast thou today\r\nbeen cursed, O king of kings, without the knowledge of his father, to the\r\neffect that within seven nights hence, shall (the snake) Takshaka cause\r\nthy death. And Samika repeatedly asked his son to save thee, but there is\r\nnone to falsify his son\'s curse. And because he hath been unable to\r\npacify his son possessed by anger, therefore have I been sent to thee, O\r\nking, for thy good!\'\r\n\r\n"And that king of the Kuru race, himself engaged in ascetic practices,\r\nhaving heard these cruel words and recollecting his own sinful act,\r\nbecame exceedingly sorry. And the king, learning that foremost of Rishis\r\nin the forest had been observing the vow of silence, was doubly afflicted\r\nwith sorrow and seeing the kindness of the Rishi Samika, and considering\r\nhis own sinful act towards him, the king became very repentant. And the\r\nking looking like a very god, did not grieve so much for hearing of his\r\ndeath as for having done that act to the Rishi.\'\r\n\r\n"And then the king sent away Gaurmukha, saying, \'Let the worshipful one\r\n(Samika) be gracious to me!\' And when Gaurmukha had gone away, the king,\r\nin great anxiety, without loss of time, consulted his ministers. And\r\nhaving consulted them, the king, himself wise in counsels, caused a\r\nmansion to be erected upon one solitary column. It was well-guarded day\r\nand night. And for its protection were placed there physicians and\r\nmedicines, and Brahmanas skilled in mantras all around. And the monarch,\r\nprotected on all sides, discharged his kingly duties from that place\r\nsurrounded by his virtuous ministers. And no one could approach that best\r\nof kings there. The air even could not go there, being prevented from\r\nentering.\r\n\r\n"And when the seventh day had arrived, that best of Brahmanas, the\r\nlearned Kasyapa was coming (towards the king\'s residence), desirous of\r\ntreating the king (after the snake-bite). He had heard all that had taken\r\nplace, viz., that Takshaka, that first of snakes, would send that best of\r\nmonarchs to the presence of Yama (Death). And he thought, I would cure\r\nthe monarch after he is bit by that first of snakes. By that I may have\r\nwealth and may acquire virtue also.\' But that prince of snakes, Takshaka,\r\nin the form of an old Brahmana, saw Kasyapa approaching on his way, his\r\nheart set upon curing the king. And the prince of snakes then spake unto\r\nthat bull among Munis, Kasyapa, saying, \'Whither dost thou go with such\r\nspeed? What, besides, is the business upon which thou art intent?\'\r\n\r\n"And Kasyapa, thus addressed, replied, \'Takshaka, by his poison, will\r\ntoday burn king Parikshit of the Kuru race, that oppressor of all\r\nenemies. I go with speed, O amiable one, to cure, without loss of time,\r\nthe king of immeasurable prowess, the sole representative of the Pandava\r\nrace, after he is bit by the same Takshaka like to Agni himself in\r\nenergy.\' And Takshaka answered, \'I am that Takshaka, O Brahmana, who\r\nshall burn that lord of the earth. Stop, for thou art unable to cure one\r\nbit by me.\' And Kasyapa rejoined, \'I am sure that, possessed (that I am)\r\nof the power of learning, going thither I shall cure that monarch bit by\r\nthee.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'And Takshaka, after this, answered, \'If, indeed, thou art\r\nable to cure any creature bitten by me, then, O Kasyapa, revive thou this\r\ntree bit by me. O best of Brahmanas, I burn this banian in thy sight. Try\r\nthy best and show me that skill in mantras of which thou hast spoken.\'\r\n\r\n"And Kasyapa said, If thou art so minded, bite thou then, O king of\r\nsnakes, this tree. O snake, I shall revive it, though bit by thee.\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'That king of snakes, thus addressed by the illustrious\r\nKasyapa, bit then that banian tree. And that tree, bit by the illustrious\r\nsnake, and penetrated by the poison of the serpent, blazed up all around.\r\nAnd having burnt the banian so, the snake then spake again unto Kasyapa,\r\nsaying, \'O first of Brahmanas, try thy best and revive this lord of the\r\nforest.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The tree was reduced to ashes by the poison of that\r\nking of snakes. But taking up those ashes, Kasyapa spoke these words. \'O\r\nking of snakes, behold the power of my knowledge as applied to this lord\r\nof the forest! O snake, under thy very nose I shall revive it.\' And then\r\nthat best of Brahmanas, the illustrious and learned Kasyapa, revived, by\r\nhis vidya, that tree which had been reduced to a heap of ashes. And first\r\nhe created the sprout, then he furnished it with two leaves, and then he\r\nmade the stem, and then the branches, and then the full-grown tree with\r\nleaves and all. And Takshaka, seeing the tree revived by the illustrious\r\nKasyapa, said unto him, \'It is not wonderful in thee that thou shouldst\r\ndestroy my poison or that of any one else like myself. O thou whose\r\nwealth is asceticism, desirous of what wealth, goest thou thither? The\r\nreward thou hopest to have from that best of monarchs, even I will give\r\nthee, however difficult it may be to obtain it. Decked with fame as thou\r\nart, thy success may be doubtful on that king affected by a Brahmana\'s\r\ncurse and whose span of life itself hath been shortened. In that case,\r\nthis blazing fame of thine that hath overspread the three worlds will\r\ndisappear like the Sun when deprived of his splendour (on the occasion of\r\nthe eclipse).\'\r\n\r\n"Kasyapa said, \'I go there for wealth, give it unto me, O snake, so that\r\ntaking thy gold. I may return.\' Takshaka replied, \'O best of regenerate\r\nones, even I will give thee more than what thou expectest from that king.\r\nTherefore do not go.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'That best of Brahmanas, Kasyapa, of great prowess and\r\nintelligence, hearing those words of Takshaka, sat in yoga meditation\r\nover the king. And that foremost of Munis, viz., Kasyapa, of great\r\nprowess and gifted with spiritual knowledge, ascertaining that the period\r\nof life of that king of the Pandava race had really run out, returned,\r\nreceiving from Takshaka as much wealth as he desired.\r\n\r\n"And upon the illustrious Kasyapa\'s retracing his steps, Takshaka at the\r\nproper time speedily entered the city of Hastinapura. And on his way he\r\nheard that the king was living very cautiously, protected by means of\r\npoison-neutralising mantras and medicines.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The snake thereupon reflected thus, \'The monarch must\r\nbe deceived by me with power of illusion. But what must be the means?\'\r\nThen Takshaka sent to the king some snakes in the guise of ascetics\r\ntaking with them fruits, kusa grass, and water (as presents). And\r\nTakshaka, addressing them, said, \'Go ye all to the king, on the pretext\r\nof pressing business, without any sign of impatience, as if to make the\r\nmonarch only accept the fruits and flowers and water (that ye shall carry\r\nas presents unto him).\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Those snakes, thus commanded by Takshaka, acted\r\naccordingly. And they took to the king, Kusa grass and water, and fruits.\r\nAnd that foremost of kings, of great prowess, accepted those offerings.\r\nAnd after their business was finished, he said upto them, \'Retire.\' Then\r\nafter those snakes disguised as ascetics had gone away, the king\r\naddressed his ministers and friends, saying, \'Eat ye, with me, all these\r\nfruits of excellent taste brought by the ascetics.\' Impelled by Fate and\r\nthe words of the Rishi, the king, with his ministers, felt the desire of\r\neating those fruits. The particular fruit, within which Takshaka had\r\nentered, was taken by the king himself for eating. And when he was eating\r\nit, there appeared, O Saunaka, an ugly insect out of it, of shape\r\nscarcely discernible, of eyes black, and of coppery colour. And that\r\nforemost of kings, taking that insect, addressed his councillors, saying,\r\n\'The sun is setting; today I have no more tear from poison. Therefore,\r\nlet this insect become Takshaka and bite me, so that my sinful act may be\r\nexpiated and the words of the ascetic rendered true.\' And those\r\ncouncillors also, impelled by Fate, approved of that speech. And then the\r\nmonarch smiled, losing his senses, his hour having come. And he quickly\r\nplaced that insect on his neck. And as the king was smiling, Takshaka,\r\nwho had (in the form of that insect) come out of the fruit that had been\r\noffered to the king, coiled himself round the neck of the monarch. And\r\nquickly coiling round the king\'s neck and uttering a tremendous roar,\r\nTakshaka, that lord of snakes, bit that protector of the earth.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then the councillors beholding the king in the coils of\r\nTakshaka, became pale with fear and wept in exceeding grief. And hearing\r\nthe roar of Takshaka, the ministers all fled. And as they were flying\r\naway in great grief, they saw Takshaka, the king of snakes, that\r\nwonderful serpent, coursing through the blue sky like a streak of the hue\r\nof the lotus, and looking very much like the vermilion-coloured line on a\r\nwoman\'s crown dividing the dark masses of her hair in the middle.\r\n\r\n"And the mansion in which the king was living blazed up with Takshaka\'s\r\npoison. And the king\'s councillors, on beholding it, fled away in all\r\ndirections. And the king himself fell down, as if struck by lightning.\r\n\r\n"And when the king was laid low by Takshaka\'s poison, his councillors\r\nwith the royal priest--a holy Brahmana--performed all his last rites. All\r\nthe citizens, assembling together, made the minor son of the deceased\r\nmonarch their king. And the people called their new king, that slayer of\r\nall enemies, that hero of the Kuru race, by the name of Janamejaya. And\r\nthat best of monarchs, Janamejaya, though a child, was wise in mind. And\r\nwith his councillors and priest, the eldest son Parikshita, that bull\r\namongst the Kurus, ruled the kingdom like his heroic great-grand-father\r\n(Yudhishthira). And the ministers of the youthful monarch, beholding that\r\nhe could now keep his enemies in check, went to Suvarnavarman, the king\r\nof Kasi, and asked him his daughter Vapushtama for a bride. And the king\r\nof Kasi, after due inquiries, bestowed with ordained rites, his daughter\r\nVapushtama on that mighty hero of Kuru race. And the latter, receiving\r\nhis bride, became exceedingly glad. And he gave not his heart at any time\r\nto any other woman. And gifted with great energy, he wandered in pursuit\r\nof pleasure, with a cheerful heart, on expanses of water and amid woods\r\nand flowery fields. And that first of monarchs passed his time in\r\npleasure as Pururavas of old did, on receiving the celestial damsel\r\nUrvasi. Herself fairest of the fair, the damsel Vapushtama too, devoted\r\nto her lord and celebrated for her beauty having gained a desirable\r\nhusband, pleased him by the excess of her affection during the period he\r\nspent in the pursuit of pleasure.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Meanwhile the great ascetic Jaratkaru wandered over the whole earth\r\nmaking the place where evening fell his home for the night. And gifted\r\nwith ascetic power, he roamed, practising various vows difficult to be\r\npractised by the immature, and bathing also in various sacred waters. And\r\nthe Muni had air alone for his food and was free from desire of worldly\r\nenjoyment. And he became daily emaciated and grew lean-fleshed. And one\r\nday he saw the spirits of his ancestors, heads down, in a hole, by a cord\r\nof virana roots having only one thread entire. And that even single\r\nthread was being gradually eaten away by a large rat dwelling in that\r\nhole. And the Pitris in that hole were without food, emaciated, pitiable,\r\nand eagerly desirous of salvation. And Jaratkaru, approaching the\r\npitiable one, himself in humble guise, asked them, \'Who are ye hanging by\r\nthis cord of virana roots? The single weak root that is still left in\r\nthis cord of virana roots already eaten away by the rat, dwelling in this\r\nhole, is itself being gradually eaten away by the same rat with his sharp\r\nteeth. The little that remains of that single thread will soon be cut\r\naway. It is clear ye shall then have to fall down into this pit with\r\nfaces downwards. Seeing you with faces downwards, and overtaken by this\r\ngreat calamity, my pity hath been excited. What good can I do to you.\r\nTell me quickly whether this calamity can be averted by a fourth, a\r\nthird, or even by the sacrifice of a half of this my asceticism, O,\r\nrelieve yourselves even with the whole of my asceticism. I consent to all\r\nthis. Do ye as ye please.\'\r\n\r\n"The Pitris said, \'Venerable Brahmacharin, thou desirest to relieve us.\r\nBut, O foremost of Brahmanas, thou canst not dispel our affliction by thy\r\nasceticism. O child, O first of speakers, we too have the fruits of our\r\nasceticism. But, O Brahmana, it is for the loss of children that we are\r\nfalling down into this unholy hell. The grandsire himself hath said that\r\na son is a great merit. As we are about to be cast in this hole, our\r\nideas are no longer clear. Therefore, O child, we know thee not, although\r\nthy manhood is well-known on earth. Venerable thou art and of good\r\nfortune, thou who thus from kindness grievest for us worthy of pity and\r\ngreatly afflicted. O Brahmana, listen, who we are. We are Rishis of the\r\nYayavara sect, of rigid vows. And, O Muni, from loss of children, we have\r\nfallen down from a sacred region. Our severe penances have not been\r\ndestroyed; we have a thread yet. But we have only one thread now. It\r\nmatters little, however, whether he is or is not. Unfortunate as we are,\r\nwe have a thread in one, known as Jaratkaru. The unfortunate one has gone\r\nthrough the Vedas and their branches and is practising asceticism alone.\r\nHe being one with soul under complete control, desires set high,\r\nobservant of vows, deeply engaged in ascetic penances, and free from\r\ngreed for the merits or asceticism, we have been reduced to this\r\ndeplorable state. He hath no wife, no son, no relatives. Therefore, do we\r\nhang in this hole, our consciousness lost, like men having none to take\r\ncare of them. If thou meetest him, O, tell him, from thy kindness to\r\nourselves, Thy Pitris, in sorrow, are hanging with faces downwards in a\r\nhole. Holy one, take a wife and beget children. O thou of ascetic wealth,\r\nthou art, O amiable one, the only thread that remaineth in the line of\r\nthy ancestors. O Brahmana, the cord of virana roots that thou seest we\r\nare hanging by, is the cord representing our multiplied race. And, O\r\nBrahmana, these threads of the cord of virana roots that thou seest as\r\neaten away, are ourselves who have been eaten up by Time. This root thou\r\nseest hath been half-eaten and by which we are hanging in this hole is he\r\nthat hath adopted asceticism alone. The rat that thou beholdest is Time\r\nof infinite strength. And he (Time) is gradually weakening the wretch\r\nJaratkaru engaged in ascetic penances tempted by the merits thereof, but\r\nwanting in prudence and heart. O excellent one, his asceticism cannot\r\nsave us. Behold, our roots being torn, cast down from higher regions,\r\ndeprived of consciousness by Time, we are going downwards like sinful\r\nwretches. And upon our going down into this hole with all our relatives,\r\neaten up by Time, even he shall sink with us into hell. O child, whether\r\nit is asceticism, or sacrifice, or whatever else there be of very holy\r\nacts, everything is inferior. These cannot count with a son. O child,\r\nhaving seen all, speak unto that Jaratkaru of ascetic wealth. Thou\r\nshouldst tell him in detail everything that thou hast beheld. And, O\r\nBrahmana, from thy kindness towards us, thou shouldst tell him all that\r\nwould induce him to take a wife and beget children. Amongst his friends,\r\nor of our own race, who art thou, O excellent one, that thus grievest for\r\nus all like a friend? We wish to hear who thou art that stayest here.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said. \'Jaratkaru, hearing all this, became excessively dejected.\r\nAnd from sorrow he spoke unto those Pitris in words obstructed by tears.\'\r\nAnd Jaratkaru said, \'Ye are even my fathers and grand-fathers gone\r\nbefore. Therefore, tell me what I must do for your welfare. I am that\r\nsinful son of yours, Jaratkaru! Punish me for my sinful deeds, a wretch\r\nthat I am.\'\r\n\r\n"The Pitris replied, saying, \'O son, by good luck hast thou arrived at\r\nthis spot in course of thy rambles. O Brahmana, why hast thou not taken a\r\nwife?\'\r\n\r\n"Jaratkaru said. \'Ye Pitris, this desire hath always existed in my heart\r\nthat I would, with vital seed drawn up, carry this body to the other\r\nworld. My mind hath been possessed with the idea that I would not take a\r\nwife. But ye grandsires, having seen you hanging like birds, I have\r\ndiverted my mind from the Brahmacharya mode of life. I will truly do what\r\nyou like. I will certainly marry, if ever I meet with a maiden of my own\r\nname. I shall accept her who, bestowing herself of her own accord, will\r\nbe as aims unto me, and whom I shall not have to maintain. I shall marry\r\nif I get such a one; otherwise, I shall not. This is the truth, ye\r\ngrandsires! And the offspring that will be begot upon her shall be your\r\nsalvation. And ye Pitris of mine, ye shall live for ever in blessedness\r\nand without fear.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'The Muni, having said so unto the Pitris, wandered\r\nover the earth again. And, O Saunaka, being old, he obtained no wife. And\r\nhe grieved much that he was not successful. But directed (as before) by\r\nhis ancestors, he continued the search. And going into the forest, he\r\nwept loudly in great grief. And having gone into the forest, the wise\r\none, moved by the desire of doing good to his ancestors, said, \'I will\r\nask for a bride,\' distinctly repeating these words thrice. And he said,\r\n\'Whatever creatures are here, mobile and immobile, so whoever there be\r\nthat are invisible, O, hear my words! My ancestors, afflicted with grief,\r\nhave directed me that am engaged in the most severe penances, saying,\r\n\'Marry thou for (the acquisition of) a son.\' \'O ye, being directed by my\r\nancestors, I am roaming in poverty and sorrow, over the wide world for\r\nwedding a maiden that I may obtain as alms. Let that creature, amongst\r\nthose I have addressed, who hath a daughter, bestow on me that am roaming\r\nfar and near. Such a bride as is of same name with me, to be bestowed on\r\nme as alms, and whom, besides, I shall not maintain, O bestow on me!\'\r\nThen those snakes that had been set upon Jaratkaru track, ascertaining\r\nhis inclination, gave information to Vasuki. And the king of the snakes,\r\nhearing their words, took with him that maiden decked with ornaments, and\r\nwent into the forest unto that Rishi. And, O Brahmana, Vasuki, the king\r\nof the snakes, having gone there, offered that maiden as alms unto that\r\nhigh-souled Rishi. But the Rishi did not at once accept her. And the\r\nRishi, thinking her not to be of the same name with himself, and seeing\r\nthat the question of her maintenance also was unsettled, reflected for a\r\nfew moments, hesitating to accept her. And then, O son of Bhrigu, he\r\nasked Vasuki the maiden\'s name, and also said unto him, \'I shall not\r\nmaintain her.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then Vasuki spake unto the Rishi Jaratkaru these words, \'O\r\nbest of Brahmanas, this maiden is of the same name with thee. She is my\r\nsister and hath ascetic merit. I will maintain thy wife; accept her. O\r\nthou of ascetic wealth, I shall protect her with all my ability. And, O\r\nforemost of the great Munis, she hath been reared by me for thee.\' And\r\nthe Rishi replied, \'This is agreed between us that I shall not maintain\r\nher; and she shall not do aught that I do not like. If she do, I leave\r\nher!\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'When the snake had promised, saying, \'I shall maintain\r\nmy sister,\' Jaratkaru then went to the snake\'s house. Then that first of\r\nmantra-knowing Brahmanas, observing rigid vows, that virtuous and veteran\r\nascetic, took her hand presented to him according to shastric rites. And\r\ntaking his bride with him, adored by the great Rishi, he entered the\r\ndelightful chamber set apart for him by the king of the snakes. And in\r\nthat chamber was a bed-stead covered with very valuable coverlets. And\r\nJaratkaru lived there with his wife. And the excellent Rishi made an\r\nagreement with his wife, saying, \'Nothing must ever be done or said by\r\nthee that is against my liking. And in case of thy doing any such thing,\r\nI will leave thee and no longer continue to stay in thy house. Bear in\r\nmind these words that have been spoken by me.\'\r\n\r\n"And then the sister of the king of the snakes in great anxiety and\r\ngrieving exceedingly, spoke unto him, saying, \'Be it so.\' And moved by\r\nthe desire of doing good to her relatives, that damsel, of unsullied\r\nreputation, began to attend upon her lord with the wakefulness of a dog,\r\nthe timidity of a deer, and knowledge of signs possessed by the crow. And\r\none day, after the menstrual period, the sister of Vasuki, having\r\npurified herself by a bath according to custom, approached her lord the\r\ngreat Muni; And thereupon she conceived. And the embryo was like unto a\r\nflame of fire, possessed of great energy, and resplendent as fire itself.\r\nAnd it grew like the moon in the bright fortnight.\r\n\r\n"And one day, within a short time, Jaratkaru of great fame, placing his\r\nhead on the lap of his wife, slept, looking like one fatigued. And as he\r\nwas sleeping, the sun entered his chambers in the Western mountain and\r\nwas about to set. And, O Brahmana, as the day was fading, she, the\r\nexcellent sister of Vasuki, became thoughtful, fearing the loss of her\r\nhusband\'s virtue. And she thought, \'What should I now do? Shall I wake my\r\nhusband or not? He is exacting and punctilious in his religious duties.\r\nHow can I act as not to offend him? The alternatives are his anger and\r\nthe loss of virtue of a virtuous man. The loss of virtue, I ween, is the\r\ngreater of the two evils. Again, if I wake him, he will be angry. But if\r\ntwilight passeth away without his prayers being said, he shall certainly\r\nsustain loss of virtue.\'\r\n\r\n\'And having resolved at last, the sweet-speeched Jaratkaru, the sister of\r\nVasuki, spake softly unto that Rishi resplendent with ascetic penances,\r\nand lying prostrate like a flame of fire, \'O thou of great good fortune,\r\nawake, the sun is setting. O thou of rigid vows, O illustrious one, do\r\nyour evening prayer after purifying yourself with water and uttering the\r\nname of Vishnu. The time for the evening sacrifice hath come. Twilight, O\r\nlord, is even now gently covering the western side.\'\r\n\r\n"The illustrious Jaratkaru of great ascetic merit, thus addressed, spake\r\nunto his wife these words, his upper lip quivering in anger, \'O amiable\r\none of the Naga race, thou hast insulted me. I shall no longer abide with\r\nthee, but shall go where I came from. O thou of beautiful thighs, I\r\nbelieve in my heart that the sun hath no power to set in the usual time,\r\nif I am asleep. An insulted person should never live where he hath met\r\nwith the insult, far less should I, a virtuous person, or those that are\r\nlike me.\' Jaratkaru, the sister of Vasuki, thus addressed by her lord,\r\nbegan to quake with terror, and she spake unto him, saying, \'O Brahmana,\r\nI have not waked thee from desire of insult; but I have done it so that\r\nthy virtue may not sustain any loss.\'\r\n\r\n"The Rishi Jaratkaru, great in ascetic merit, possessed with anger and\r\ndesirous of forsaking his spouse, thus addressed, spake unto his wife,\r\nsaying, O thou fair one, never have I spoken a falsehood. Therefore, go I\r\nshall. This was also settled between ourselves. O amiable one, I have\r\npassed the time happily with thee. And, O fair one, tell thy brother,\r\nwhen I am gone, that I have left thee. And upon my going away, it\r\nbehoveth thee not to grieve for me.\'\r\n\r\n"Thus addressed Jaratkaru, the fair sister of Vasuki, of faultless\r\nfeatures, filled with anxiety and sorrow, having mustered sufficient\r\ncourage and patience, though her heart was still quaking, then spake unto\r\nRishi Jaratkaru. Her words were obstructed with tears and her face was\r\npale with fear. And the palms of her hands were joined together, and her\r\neyes were bathed in tears. And she said, \'It behoveth thee not to leave\r\nme without a fault. Thou treadest over the path of virtue. I too have\r\nbeen in the same path, with heart fixed on the good of my relatives. O\r\nbest of Brahmanas, the object for which I was bestowed on thee hath not\r\nbeen accomplished yet. Unfortunate that I am, what shall Vasuki say unto\r\nme? O excellent one, the offspring desired of by my relatives afflicted\r\nby a mother\'s curse, do not yet appear! The welfare of my relatives\r\ndependeth on the acquisition of offspring from thee. And in order that my\r\nconnection with thee may not be fruitless, O illustrious Brahmana, moved\r\nby the desire of doing good to my race do I entreat thee. O excellent\r\none, high-souled thou art; so why shall thou leave me who am faultless?\r\nThis is what is not just clear to me.\'\r\n\r\n"Thus addressed, the Muni of great ascetic merit spake unto his wife\r\nJaratkaru these words that were proper and suitable to the occasion. And\r\nhe said, \'O fortunate one, the being thou hast conceived, even like unto\r\nAgni himself is a Rishi of soul highly virtuous, and a master of the\r\nVedas and their branches.\'\r\n\r\n"Having said so, the great Rishi, Jaratkaru of virtuous soul, went away,\r\nhis heart firmly fixed on practising again the severest penances.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLVIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'O thou of ascetic wealth, soon after her lord had left her,\r\nJaratkaru went to her brother. And she told him everything that had\r\nhappened. And the prince of snakes, hearing the calamitous news, spake\r\nunto his miserable sister, himself more miserable still.\'\r\n\r\n"And he said, \'Thou knowest, \'O amiable one, the purpose of thy bestowal,\r\nthe reason thereof. If, from that union, for the welfare of the snakes, a\r\nson be born, then he, possessed of energy, will save us all from the\r\nsnake-sacrifice. The Grandsire had said so, of old, in the midst of the\r\ngods. O fortunate one, hast thou conceived from thy union with that best\r\nof Rishis? My heart\'s desire is that my bestowal of thee on that wise one\r\nmay not be fruitless. Truly, it is not proper for me to ask thee about\r\nthis. But from the gravity of the interests I ask thee this. Knowing also\r\nthe obstinacy of thy lord, ever engaged in severe penances, I shall not\r\nfollow him, for he may curse me. Tell me in detail all that thy lord, O\r\namiable one, hath done, and extract that terribly afflicting dart that\r\nlies implanted for a long time past in my heart.\'\r\n\r\n"Jaratkaru, thus addressed, consoling Vasuki, the king of the snakes, at\r\nlength replied, saying, \'Asked by me about offspring, the high-souled and\r\nmighty ascetic said, \'There is,\'--and then he went away. I do not\r\nremember him to have ever before speak even in jest aught that is false.\r\nWhy should he, O king, speak a falsehood on such a serious occasion? He\r\nsaid, \'Thou shouldst not grieve, O daughter of the snake race, about the\r\nintended result of our union. A son shall be born to thee, resplendent as\r\nthe blazing sun.\' O brother, having said this to me, my husband of\r\nascetic wealth went away--Therefore, let the deep sorrow cherished in thy\r\nheart disappear.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Thus addressed, Vasuki, the king of the snakes,\r\naccepted those words of his sister, and in great joy said, \'Be it so!\'\r\nAnd the chief of the snakes then adored his sister with his best regards,\r\ngift of wealth, and fitting eulogies. Then, O best of Brahmanas, the\r\nembryo endued with great splendour, began to develop, like the moon in\r\nthe heavens in the bright fortnight.\r\n\r\nAnd in due time, the sister of the snakes, O Brahmana, gave birth to a\r\nson of the splendour of a celestial child, who became the reliever of the\r\nfears of his ancestors and maternal relatives. The child grew up there in\r\nthe house of the king of the snakes. He studied the Vedas and their\r\nbranches with the ascetic Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu. And though but a\r\nboy, his vows were rigid. And he was gifted with great intelligence, and\r\nwith the several attributes of virtue, knowledge, freedom from the\r\nworld\'s indulgences, and saintliness. And the name by which he was known\r\nto the world was Astika. And he was known by the name of Astika (whoever\r\nis) because his father had gone to the woods, saying. \'There is\', when he\r\nwas in the womb. Though but a boy, he had great gravity and intelligence.\r\nAnd he was reared with great care in the palace of the snakes. And he was\r\nlike the illustrious lord of the celestials, Mahadeva of the golden form,\r\nthe wielder of the trident. And he grew up day by day, the delight of all\r\nthe snakes.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION XLIX\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'Tell me again, in detail,--all that king Janamejaya had\r\nasked his ministers about his father\'s ascension to heaven.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti said, \'O Brahmana, hear all that the king asked his ministers, and\r\nall that they said about the death of Parikshit.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya asked, \'Know ye all that befell my father. How did that\r\nfamous king, in time, meet with his death? Hearing from you the incidents\r\nof my father\'s life in detail, I shall ordain something, if it be for the\r\nbenefit of the world. Otherwise, I shall do nothing.\'\r\n\r\n\'The minister replied, \'Hear, O monarch, what thou hast asked, viz., an\r\naccount of thy illustrious father\'s life, and how also that king of kings\r\nleft this world. Thy father was virtuous and high-souled, and always\r\nprotected his people. O, hear, how that high-souled one conducted himself\r\non earth. Like unto an impersonation of virtue and justice, the monarch,\r\ncognisant of virtue, virtuously protected the four orders, each engaged\r\nin the discharge of their specified duties. Of incomparable prowess, and\r\nblessed with fortune, he protected the goddess Earth. There was none who\r\nhated him and he himself hated none. Like unto Prajapati (Brahma) he was\r\nequally disposed towards all creatures. O monarch, Brahmanas and\r\nKshatriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras, all engaged contentedly in the\r\npractice of their respective duties, were impartially protected by that\r\nking. Widows and orphans, the maimed and the poor, he maintained. Of\r\nhandsome features, he was unto all creatures like a second Soma.\r\nCherishing his subjects and keeping them contented, blessed with good\r\nfortune, truth-telling, of immense prowess, he was the disciple of\r\nSaradwat in the science of arms. And, O Janamejaya, thy father was dear\r\nunto Govinda. Of great fame, he was loved by all men. And he was born in\r\nthe womb of Uttara when the Kuru race was almost extinct. And, therefore,\r\nthe mighty son of Abhimanyu came to be called Parikshit (born in an\r\nextinct line). Well-versed in the interpretation of treatises on the\r\nduties of kings, he was gifted with every virtue. With passions under\r\ncomplete control, intelligent, possessing a retentive memory, the\r\npractiser of all virtues, the conqueror of his six passions of powerful\r\nmind, surpassing all, and fully acquainted with the science of morality\r\nand political science, the father had ruled over these subjects for sixty\r\nyears. And he then died, mourned by all his subjects. And, after him, O\r\nfirst of men, thou hast acquired this hereditary kingdom of the Kurus for\r\nthe last thousand years. Thou wast installed while a child, and art thus\r\nprotecting every creature.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'There hath not been born in our race a king who hath\r\nnot sought the good of his subjects or been loved by them. Behold\r\nespecially the conduct of my grandsires ever engaged in great\r\nachievements. How did my father, blessed with many virtues, meet with his\r\ndeath? Describe everything to me as it happened. I am desirous of hearing\r\nit from you!\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Thus directed by the monarch, those councillors, ever\r\nsolicitous of the good of the king, told him everything exactly as it had\r\noccurred.\'\r\n\r\n\'And the councillors said, \'O king, that father of thine, that protector\r\nof the whole earth, that foremost of all persons obedient to the\r\nscriptures, became addicted to the sports of the field, even as Pandu of\r\nmighty arms, that foremost of all bearers of the bow in battle. He made\r\nover to us all the affairs of state from the most trivial to the most\r\nimportant. One day, going into the forest, he pierced a deer with an\r\narrow. And having pierced it he followed it quickly on foot into the deep\r\nwoods, armed with sword and quiver. He could not, however, come upon the\r\nlost deer. Sixty years of age and decrepit, he was soon fatigued and\r\nbecame hungry. He then saw in the deep woods a high-souled Rishi. The\r\nRishi was then observing the vow of silence. The king asked him about the\r\ndeer, but, though asked, he made no reply. At last the king, already\r\ntired with exertion and hunger, suddenly became angry with that Rishi\r\nsitting motionless like a piece of wood in observance of his vow of\r\nsilence. Indeed, the king knew not that he was a Muni observing the vow\r\nof silence. Swayed by anger, thy father insulted him. O excellent one of\r\nthe Bharata race, the king, thy father taking up from the ground with the\r\nend of his bow a dead snake placed it on the shoulders of that Muni of\r\npure soul. But the Muni spake not a word good or bad and was without\r\nanger. He continued in the same posture, bearing the dead snake.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION L\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'The ministers said, \'That king of kings then, spent\r\nwith hunger and exertion, and having placed the snake upon the shoulders\r\nof that Muni, came back to his capital. The Muni had a son, born of a\r\ncow, of the name of Sringin. He was widely known, possessed of great\r\nprowess and energy, and very wrathful. Going (every day) to his preceptor\r\nhe was in the habit of worshipping him. Commanded by him, Sringin was\r\nreturning home, when he heard from a friend of his about the insult of\r\nhis father by thy parent. And, O tiger among kings, he heard that his\r\nfather, without having committed any fault, was bearing, motionless like\r\na statue, upon his shoulders a dead snake placed thereon. O king, the\r\nRishi insulted by thy father was severe in ascetic penances, the foremost\r\nof Munis, the controller of passions, pure, and ever engaged in wonderful\r\nacts. His soul was enlightened with ascetic penances, and his organs and\r\ntheir functions were under complete control. His practices and his speech\r\nwere both very nice. He was contented and without avarice. He was without\r\nmeanness of any kind and without envy. He was old and used to observe the\r\nvow of silence. And he was the refuge whom all creatures might seek in\r\ndistress.\r\n\r\n"Such was the Rishi insulted by thy father. The son, however, of that\r\nRishi, in wrath, cursed thy father. Though young in years, the powerful\r\none was old in ascetic splendour. Speedily touching water, he spake,\r\nburning as it were with spiritual energy and rage, these words in\r\nallusion to thy father, \'Behold the power of my asceticism! Directed by\r\nmy words, the snake Takshaka of powerful energy and virulent poison,\r\nshall, within seven nights hence, burn, with his poison the wretch that\r\nhath placed the dead snake upon my un-offending father.\' And having said\r\nthis, he went to where his father was. And seeing his father he told him\r\nof his curse. The tiger among Rishis thereupon sent to thy father a\r\ndisciple of his, named Gaurmukha, of amiable manners and possessed of\r\nevery virtue. And having rested a while (after arrival at court) he told\r\nthe king everything, saying in the words of his master, \'Thou hast been\r\ncursed, O king, by my son. Takshaka shall burn thee with his poison!\r\nTherefore, O king, be careful.\' O Janamejaya, hearing those terrible\r\nwords, thy father took every precaution against the powerful snake\r\nTakshaka.\r\n\r\n"And when the seventh day had arrived, a Brahmana Rishi, named Kasyapa,\r\ndesired to come to the monarch. But the snake Takshaka saw Kasyapa. And\r\nthe prince of snakes spake unto Kasyapa without loss of time, saying,\r\n\'Where dost thou go so quickly, and what is the business on which thou\r\ngoest?\' Kasyapa replied, saying, \'O Brahmana, I am going whither king\r\nParikshit, that best of the Kurus, is. He shall today be burnt by the\r\npoison of the snake Takshaka. I go there quickly in order to cure him, in\r\nfact, in order that, protected by me, the snake may not bite him to\r\ndeath.\' Takshaka answered, saying, \'Why dost thou seek to revive the king\r\nto be bitten by me? I am that Takshaka. O Brahmana, behold the wonderful\r\npower of my poison. Thou art incapable of reviving that monarch when bit\r\nby me.\' So saying, Takshaka, then and there, bit a lord of the forest (a\r\nbanian tree). And the banian, as soon as it was bit by the snake, was\r\nconverted into ashes. But Kasyapa, O king, revived it. Takshaka thereupon\r\ntempted him, saying, \'Tell me thy desire.\' And Kasyapa, too, thus\r\naddressed, spake again unto Takshaka, saying, \'I go there from desire of\r\nwealth.\' And Takshaka, thus addressed, then spake unto the high-souled\r\nKasyapa in these soft words, \'O sinless one, take from me more wealth\r\nthan what thou expectest from that monarch, and go back!\' And Kasyapa,\r\nthat foremost of men, thus addressed by the snake, and receiving from him\r\nas much wealth as he desired, wended his way back.\r\n\r\n"And Kasyapa going back, Takshaka, approaching in disguise, blasted, with\r\nthe fire of his poison, thy virtuous father, the first of kings, then\r\nstaying in his mansion with all precautions. And after that, thou wast, O\r\ntiger among men, been installed (on the throne). And, O best of monarchs,\r\nwe have thus told thee all that we have seen and heard, cruel though the\r\naccount is. And hearing all about the discomfiture of thy royal father,\r\nand of the insult to the Rishi Utanka, decide thou that which should\r\nfollow!\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'King Janamejaya, that chastiser of enemies, then spake\r\nupto all his ministers. And he said, \'When did ye learn all that happened\r\nupon that, banian reduced to ashes by Takshaka, and which, wonderful as\r\nit is, was afterwards revived by Kasyapa? Assuredly, my father could not\r\nhave died, for the poison could have been neutralised by Kasyapa with his\r\nmantras. That worst of snakes, of sinful soul, thought within his mind\r\nthat if Kasyapa resuscitated the king bit by him, he, Takshaka, would be\r\nan object of ridicule in the world owing to the neutralisation of his\r\npoison. Assuredly, having thought so, he pacified the Brahmana. I have\r\ndevised a way, however, of inflicting punishment upon him. I like to\r\nknow, however, what ye saw or heard, what happened in the deep solitude\r\nof the forest,--viz., the words of Takshaka and the speeches of Kasyapa.\r\nHaving known it, I shall devise the means of exterminating the snake\r\nrace.\'\r\n\r\n"The ministers said, \'Hear, O monarch of him who told us before of the\r\nmeeting between that foremost Brahmana and that prince of snakes in the\r\nwoods. A certain person, O monarch, had climbed up that tree containing\r\nsome dry branches with the object of breaking them for sacrificial fuel.\r\nHe was not perceived either by the snake or by the Brahmana. And, O king,\r\nthat man was reduced to ashes along with the tree itself. And, O king of\r\nkings, he was revived with the tree by the power of the Brahmana. That\r\nman, a Brahmana\'s menial, having come to us, represented fully everything\r\nas it happened between Takshaka and the Brahmana. Thus have we told thee,\r\nO king, all that we have seen and heard. And having heard it, O tiger\r\namong kings, ordain that which should follow.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'King Janamejaya, having listened to the words of his\r\nministers, was sorely afflicted with grief, and began to weep. And the\r\nmonarch began to squeeze his hands. And the lotus-eyed king began to\r\nbreathe a long and hot breath, shed tears, and shrieked aloud. And\r\npossessed with grief and sorrow, and shedding copious tears, and touching\r\nwater according to the form, the monarch spake. And reflecting for a\r\nmoment, as if settling something in his mind, the angry monarch,\r\naddressing all ministers, said these words.\r\n\r\n\'I have heard your account of my father\'s ascension to heaven. Know ye\r\nnow what my fixed resolve is. I think no time must be lost in avenging\r\nthis injury upon the wretch Takshaka that killed my father. He burnt my\r\nfather making Sringin only a secondary cause. From malignity alone he\r\nmade Kasyapa return. If that Brahmana had arrived, my father assuredly\r\nwould have lived. What would he have lost if the king had revived by the\r\ngrace of Kasyapa and the precautionary measures of his ministers? From\r\nignorance of the effects of my wrath, he prevented Kasyapa--that\r\nexcellent of Brahmanas--whom he could not defeat, from coming to my\r\nfather with the desire of reviving him. The act of aggression is great on\r\nthe part of the wretch Takshaka who gave wealth unto that Brahmana in\r\norder that he might not revive the king. I must now avenge myself on my\r\nfather\'s enemy to please myself, the Rishi Utanka and you all.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n\'Sauti said, \'King Janamejaya having said so, his ministers expressed\r\ntheir approbation. And the monarch then expressed his determination to\r\nperform a snake-sacrifice. And that lord of the Earth--that tiger of the\r\nBharata race--the son of Parikshit, then called his priest and Ritwiks.\r\nAnd accomplished in speech, he spake unto them these words relating to\r\nthe accomplishment of his great task. \'I must avenge myself on the wretch\r\nTakshaka who killed my father. Tell me what I must do. Do you know any\r\nact by which I may cast into the blazing fire the snake Takshaka with his\r\nrelatives? I desire to burn that wretch even as he burnt, of yore, by the\r\nfire of his poison, my father.\'\r\n\r\n\'The chief priest answered, \'There is, O king, a great sacrifice for thee\r\ndevised by the gods themselves. It is known as the snake-sacrifice, and\r\nis read of in the Puranas. O king, thou alone canst accomplish it, and no\r\none else. Men versed in the Puranas have told us, there is such a\r\nsacrifice.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Thus addressed, the king, O excellent one, thought\r\nTakshaka to be already burnt and thrown into the blazing mouth of Agni,\r\nthe eater of the sacrificial butter. The king then said unto those\r\nBrahmanas versed in mantras, \'I shall make preparations for that\r\nsacrifice. Tell me the things that are necessary.\' And the king\'s\r\nRitwiks, O excellent Brahmana, versed in the Vedas and acquainted with\r\nthe rites of that sacrifice measured, according to the scriptures, the\r\nland for the sacrificial platform. And the platform was decked with\r\nvaluable articles and with Brahmanas. And it was full of precious things\r\nand paddy. And the Ritwika sat upon it at ease. And after the sacrificial\r\nplatform had been thus constructed according to rule and as desired, they\r\ninstalled the king at the snake-sacrifice for the attainment of its\r\nobject. And before the commencement of the snake-Sacrifice that was to\r\ncome, there occurred this very important incident foreboding obstruction\r\nto the sacrifice. For when the sacrificial platform was being\r\nconstructed, a professional builder of great intelligence and well-versed\r\nin the knowledge of laying foundations, a Suta by caste, well-acquainted\r\nwith the Puranas, said, \'The soil upon which and the time at which the\r\nmeasurement for the sacrificial platform has been made, indicate that\r\nthis sacrifice will not be completed, a Brahmana becoming the reason\r\nthereof.\' Hearing this, the king, before his installation, gave orders to\r\nhis gate-keepers not to admit anybody without his knowledge."\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'The snake-sacrifice then commenced according to due form.\r\nAnd the sacrificial priests, competent in their respective duties\r\naccording to the ordinance, clad in black garments and their eyes red\r\nfrom contact with smoke, poured clarified butter into the blazing fire,\r\nuttering the appropriate mantras. And causing the hearts of all the\r\nsnakes to tremble with fear, they poured clarified butter into the mouth\r\nof Agni uttering the names of the snakes. And the snakes thereupon began\r\nto fall into the blazing fire, benumbed and piteously calling upon one\r\nanother. And swollen and breathing hard, and twining each other with\r\ntheir heads and tails, they came in large numbers and fell into the fire.\r\nThe white, the black, the blue, the old and the young--all fell alike\r\ninto the fire, uttering various cries. Those measuring a krosa, and those\r\nmeasuring a yojana, and those of the measure of a gokarna, fell\r\ncontinuously with great violence into that first of all fires. And\r\nhundreds and thousands and tens of thousands of snakes, deprived of all\r\ncontrol over their limbs, perished on that occasion. And amongst those\r\nthat perished, there were some that were like horses, other like trunks\r\nof elephants, and others of huge bodies and strength like maddened\r\nelephants Of various colours and virulent poison, terrible and looking\r\nlike maces furnished with iron-spikes, of great strength, ever inclined\r\nto bite, the snakes, afflicted with their mother\'s curse, fell into the\r\nfire.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka asked, \'What great Rishis became the Ritwiks at the\r\nsnake-sacrifice of the wise king Janamejaya of the Pandava line? Who also\r\nbecame the Sadasyas in that terrible snake-sacrifice, so frightful to the\r\nsnakes, and begetting such sorrow in them? It behoveth thee to describe\r\nall these in detail, so that, O son of Suta, we may know who were\r\nacquainted with the rituals of the snake-sacrifice.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti replied, \'I will recite the names of those wise ones who became\r\nthe monarch\'s Ritwiks and Sadasyas. The Brahmana Chandabhargava became\r\nthe Hotri in that sacrifice. He was of great reputation, and was born in\r\nthe race of Chyavana and was the foremost of those acquainted with the\r\nVedas. The learned old Brahmana, Kautsa, became the Udgatri, the chanter\r\nof the Vedic hymns. Jaimini became the Brahmana, and Sarngarva and\r\nPingala the Adhvaryus, Vyasa with his son and disciples, and Uddalaka,\r\nPramataka, Swetaketu, Pingala, Asita, Devala, Narada, Parvata, Atreya,\r\nKundajathara, the Brahmana Kalaghata, Vatsya, old Srutasravas ever\r\nengaged in japa and the study of the Vedas. Kohala Devasarman, Maudgalya,\r\nSamasaurava, and many other Brahmanas who had got through the Vedas\r\nbecame the Sadasyas at that sacrifice of the son of Parikshit.\r\n\r\n"When the Ritwiks in that snake-sacrifice began to pour clarified butter\r\ninto the fire, terrible snakes, striking fear into every creature, began\r\nto fall into it. And the fat and the marrow of the snakes thus falling\r\ninto the fire began to flow in rivers. And the atmosphere was filled with\r\nan insufferable stench owing to the incessant burning of the snakes. And\r\nincessant also were the cries of the snakes fallen into the fire and\r\nthose in the air about to fall into it.\r\n\r\n\'Meanwhile, Takshaka, that prince of snakes, as soon as he heard that\r\nking Janamejaya was engaged in the sacrifice, went to the palace of\r\nPurandara (Indra). And that best of snakes, having represented all that\r\nhad taken place, sought in terror the protection of Indra after having\r\nacknowledged his fault. And Indra, gratified, told him, \'O prince of\r\nsnakes, O Takshaka, here thou hast no fear from that snake-sacrifice. The\r\nGrandsire was pacified by me for thy sake. Therefore, thou hast no fear.\r\nLet this fear of thy heart be allayed.\'\r\n\r\nSauti continued, \'Thus encouraged by him, that best of snakes began to\r\ndwell in Indra\'s abode in joy and happiness. But Vasuki, seeing that the\r\nsnakes were incessantly falling into the fire and that his family was\r\nreduced to only a few, became exceedingly sorry. And the king of the\r\nsnakes was afflicted with great grief, and his heart was about to break.\r\nAnd summoning his sister, he spake unto her, saying, \'O amiable one, my\r\nlimbs are burning and I no longer see the points of the heavens. I am\r\nabout to fall down from loss of consciousness. My mind is turning, my\r\nsight is falling and my heart is breaking. Benumbed, I may fall today\r\ninto that blazing fire! This sacrifice of the son of Parikshit is for the\r\nextermination of our race. It is evident I also shall have to go to the\r\nabode of the king of the dead. The time is come, O my sister, on account\r\nof which thou wert bestowed by me on Jaratkaru to protect us with our\r\nrelatives. O best of the women of the snake race, Astika will put an end\r\nto the sacrifice that is going on. The Grandsire told me this of old.\r\nTherefore, O child, solicit thy dear son who is fully conversant with the\r\nVedas and regarded even by the old, for the protection of myself and also\r\nof those dependent on me."\'\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Then the snake-dame Jaratkaru, calling her own son, told\r\nhim the following words according to the directions of Vasuki, the king\r\nof the snakes. \'O son, the time is come for the accomplishment of that\r\nobject for which I was bestowed on thy father by my brother. Therefore,\r\ndo thou that which should be done.\'\r\n\r\n"Astika asked, \'Why wert thou, O mother, bestowed on my father by my\r\nuncle? Tell me all truly so that on hearing it, I may do what is proper.\'\r\n\r\n"Then Jaratkaru, the sister of the king of the snakes, herself unmoved by\r\nthe general distress, and even desirous of the welfare of her relatives,\r\nsaid unto him, \'O son, it is said that the mother of all the snakes is\r\nKadru. Know thou why she cursed in anger her sons.\' Addressing the snakes\r\nshe said, \'As ye have refused to falsely represent Uchchaihsravas, the\r\nprince of horses, for bringing about Vinata\'s bondage according to the\r\nwager, therefore, shall he whose charioteer is Vayu burn you all in\r\nJanamejaya\'s sacrifice. And perishing in that sacrifice, ye shall go to\r\nthe region of the unredeemed spirits.\' The Grandsire of all the worlds\r\nspake unto her while uttering this curse, \'Be it so,\' and thus approved\r\nof her speech. Vasuki, having heard that curse and then the words of the\r\nGrandsire, sought the protection of the gods, O child, on the occasion\r\nwhen the amrita was being churned for. And the gods, their object\r\nfulfilled, for they had obtained the excellent amrita, with Vasuki ahead,\r\napproached the Grandsire. And all the gods, with king Vasuki, sought to\r\nincline Him who was born of the lotus to be propitious, so that the curse\r\nmight be made abortive.\'\r\n\r\n"And the gods said, \'O Lord, Vasuki, the king of the snakes, is sorry on\r\naccount of his relatives. How may his mother\'s curse prove abortive?\'\r\n\r\n"Brahman thereupon replied, saying, \'Jaratkaru will take unto himself a\r\nwife of the name of Jaratkaru; the Brahmana born of her will relieve the\r\nsnakes.\'\r\n\r\n"Vasuki, the best of snakes, hearing those words, bestowed me, O thou of\r\ngodlike looks, on thy high-souled father some time before the\r\ncommencement of the sacrifice. And from that marriage thou art born of\r\nme. That time has come. It behoveth thee to protect us from this danger.\r\nIt behoveth thee to protect my brother and myself from the fire, so that\r\nthe object, viz., our relief, for which I was bestowed on thy wise\r\nfather, may not be unfulfilled. What dost thou think, O son?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Thus addressed, Astika said unto his mother, \'Yes, I\r\nwill.\' And he then addressed the afflicted Vasuki, and as if infusing\r\nlife into him, said, \'O Vasuki, thou best of snakes, thou great being,\r\ntruly do I say, I shall relieve thee from that curse. Be easy, O snake!\r\nThere is no fear any longer. I shall strive earnestly so that good may\r\ncome! Nobody hath ever said that my speech, even in jest, hath proved\r\nfalse. Hence on serious occasions like this, I need not say anything\r\nmore, O uncle, going thither today I shall gratify, with words mixed with\r\nblessings, the monarch Janamejaya installed at the sacrifice, so that, O\r\nexcellent one, the sacrifice may stop. O highminded one, O king of the\r\nsnakes, believe all that I say. Believe me, my resolve can never be\r\nunfulfilled.\'\r\n\r\n"And Vasuki then said, \'O Astika, my head swims and my heart breaks. I\r\ncannot discern the points of the earth, as I am afflicted with a mother\'s\r\ncurse.\'\r\n\r\n"And Astika said, \'Thou best of snakes, it behoveth thee not to grieve\r\nany longer. I shall dispel this fear of thine from the blazing fire. This\r\nterrible punishment, capable of burning like the fire at the end of the\r\nYuga, I shall extinguish. Nurse not thy fear any longer.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Then that best of Brahmanas, Astika, quelling the\r\nterrible fear of the Vasuki\'s heart, and taking it, as it were, on\r\nhimself, wended, for the relief of the king of the snakes, with speed to\r\nJanamejaya\'s sacrifice blessed with every merit. And Astika having gone\r\nthither, beheld the excellent sacrificial compound with numerous Sadasyas\r\non it whose splendour was like unto that of the Sun or Agni. But that\r\nbest of Brahmanas was refused admittance by the door-keepers. And the\r\nmighty ascetic gratified them, being desirous of entering the sacrificial\r\ncompound. And that best of Brahmanas, that foremost of all virtuous men,\r\nhaving entered the excellent sacrificial compound, began to adore the\r\nking of infinite achievements, Ritwiks, the Sadasyas, and also the sacred\r\nfire.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LV\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Astika said, \'Soma and Varuna and Prajapati performed sacrifices of old\r\nin Prayaga. But thy sacrifice, O foremost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of\r\nParikshit, is not inferior to any of those. Let those dear unto us be\r\nblessed! Sakra performed a hundred sacrifices. But this sacrifice of\r\nthine, O foremost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of Parikshit, is fully\r\nequal to ten thousand sacrifices of Sakra. Let those dear unto us be\r\nblessed! Like the sacrifice of Yama, of Harimedha, or of king Rantideva,\r\nis the sacrifice of thine, O foremost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of\r\nParikshit. Let those dear unto us be blessed! Like the sacrifice of Maya,\r\nof king Sasavindu, or of king Vaisravana, is this sacrifice of thine, O\r\nforemost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of Satyavati, in which he himself\r\nwas the chief priest, is this sacrifice of Nriga, of Ajamida, of the son\r\nof Dasaratha, is this sacrifice of thine, O foremost one of Bharata\'s\r\nrace, O son of Parikshit. Let those dear unto us be blessed! Like the\r\nsacrifice of king Yudhishthira, the son of a god and belonging to Ajamida\r\nrace, heard of (even) in the heavens, is this sacrifice of thine. O\r\nforemost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of Parikshit, let those dear unto\r\nus be blessed! Like the sacrifice of Krishna (Dwaipayana), the son of\r\nSatyavati, in which he himself was the chief priest, is this sacrifice of\r\nthine, O foremost one of Bharata\'s race, O son of Parikshit Let those\r\ndear unto us be blessed! These (Ritwiks and Sadasyas) that are here\r\nengaged in making thy sacrifice, like unto that of the slayer of Vritra,\r\nare of splendour equal to that of the sun. There now remains nothing for\r\nthem to know, and gifts made to them become inexhaustible (in merit). It\r\nis my conviction that there is no Ritwik in all the worlds who is equal\r\nto thy Ritwik, Dwaipayana. His disciples, becoming Ritwiks, competent for\r\ntheir duties, travel over the earth. The high-souled bearer of libation\r\n(viz., Agni), called also Vibhavasu and Chitrabhanu, having gold for his\r\nvital seed and having his path, marked by black smoke, blazing up with\r\nflames inclined to the right, beareth these thy libations of clarified\r\nbutter to the gods. In this world of men there is no other monarch equal\r\nto thee in the protection of subjects. I am ever well-pleased with thy\r\nabstinence. Indeed, thou art either Varuna, or Yama, the god of Justice.\r\nLike Sakra himself, thunderbolt in hand, thou art, in this world, the\r\nprotector of all creatures. In this earth there is no man so great as\r\nthou and no monarch who is thy equal in sacrifice. Thou art like\r\nKhatwanga, Nabhaga, and Dilipa. In prowess thou art like Yayati and\r\nMandhatri. In splendour equal to the sun, and of excellent vows, thou art\r\nO monarch, like Bhishma! Like Valmiki thou art of energy concealed. Like\r\nVasishtha thou hast controlled thy wrath. Like Indra is thy lordship. Thy\r\nsplendour also shines like that of Narayana. Like Yama art thou\r\nconversant with the dispensation of justice. Thou art like Krishna\r\nadorned with every virtue. Thou art the home of the good fortune that\r\nbelongs to the Vasus. Thou art also the refuge of the sacrifices. In\r\nstrength thou art equal to Damvodbhava. Like Rama (the son of Jamadagni)\r\nthou art conversant with the scriptures and arms. In energy thou art\r\nequal to Aurva and Trita. Thou inspirest terror by thy looks like\r\nBhagiratha.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Astika, having thus adored them, gratified them all, viz.,\r\nthe king, the Sadasyas, the Ritwiks and the sacrificial fire. And king\r\nJanamejaya beholding the signs and indications manifested all around,\r\naddressed them as follows.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVI\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\nJanamejaya said, \'Though this one is but a boy, he speaks yet like a wise\r\nold man. He is not a boy but one wise and old. I think, I desire to\r\nbestow on him a boon. Therefore, ye Brahmanas, give me the necessary\r\npermission.\'\r\n\r\n"The Sadasyas said, \'A Brahmana, though a boy, deserves the respect of\r\nkings. The learned ones do more so. This boy deserves every desire of his\r\nbeing fulfilled by thee, but not before Takshaka comes with speed.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The king, being inclined to grant the Brahmana a boon,\r\nsaid \'Ask thou a boon.\' The Hotri, however, being rather displeased,\r\nsaid, \'Takshaka hath not come as yet into this sacrifice.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya replied, \'Exert ye to the best of your might, so that this\r\nsacrifice of mine may attain completion, and Takshaka also may soon come\r\nhere. He is my enemy.\'\r\n\r\n"The Ritwiks replied, \'As the scriptures declare unto us, and as the fire\r\nalso saith, O monarch, (it seems that) Takshaka is now staying in the\r\nabode of Indra, afflicted with fear.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The illustrious Suta named Lohitaksha also, conversant\r\nwith the Puranas, had said so before.\r\n\r\n"Asked by the king on the present occasion he again told the monarch,\r\n\'Sire, it is even so as the Brahmanas have said--Knowing the Puranas, I\r\nsay, O monarch, that Indra hath granted him this boon, saying, \'Dwell\r\nwith me in concealment, and Agni shall not burn thee.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'Hearing this, the king installed in the sacrifice\r\nbecame very sorry and urged the Hotri to do his duty. And as the Hotri,\r\nwith mantras, began to pour clarified butter into the fire Indra himself\r\nappeared on the scene. And the illustrious one came in his car, adorned\r\nby all the gods standing around, followed by masses of clouds, celestial\r\nsingers, and the several bevies of celestial dancing girls. And Takshaka\r\nanxious with fear, hid himself in the upper garment of Indra and was not\r\nvisible. Then the king in his anger again said unto his mantra-knowing\r\nBrahmanas these words, bent upon the destruction of Takshaka, \'If the\r\nsnake Takshaka be in the abode of Indra, cast him into the fire with\r\nIndra himself.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'Urged thus by the king Janamejaya about Takshaka, the\r\nHotri poured libations, naming that snake then staying there. And even as\r\nthe libations were poured, Takshaka, with Purandara himself, anxious and\r\nafflicted, became visible in a moment in the skies. Then Purandara,\r\nseeing that sacrifice, became much alarmed, and quickly casting Takshaka\r\noff, went back to his own abode. After Indra had gone away, Takshaka, the\r\nprince of snakes, insensible with fear, was by virtue of the mantras,\r\nbrought near enough the flames of the sacrificial fire.\'\r\n\r\n"The Ritwiks then said, \'O king of kings, the sacrifice of thine is being\r\nperformed duly. It behoveth thee, O Lord, to grant a boon now to this\r\nfirst of Brahmanas.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya then said, \'Thou immeasurable one of such handsome and\r\nchild-like features, I desire to grant thee a worthy boon. Therefore, ask\r\nthou that which thou desirest in thy heart. I promise thee, that I will\r\ngrant it even if it be ungrantable.\'\r\n\r\n\'The Ritwiks said, \'O monarch, behold, Takshaka is soon coming under thy\r\ncontrol! His terrible cries, and loud roar is being heard. Assuredly, the\r\nsnake hath been forsaken by the wielder of thunder. His body being\r\ndisabled by your mantras, he is falling from heaven. Even now, rolling in\r\nthe skies, and deprived of consciousness, the prince of snakes cometh,\r\nbreathing loudly.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'While Takshaka, the prince of snakes was about to fall\r\ninto the sacrificial fire, during those few moments Astika spoke as\r\nfollows, \'O Janamejaya, if thou wouldst grant me a boon, let this\r\nsacrifice of thine come to an end and let no more snakes fall into the\r\nfire.\'\r\n\r\n\'O Brahmana, the son of Parikshit, being thus addressed by Astika, became\r\nexceedingly sorry and replied unto Astika thus, \'O illustrious one, gold,\r\nsilver, kine, whatever other possessions thou desirest I shall give unto\r\nthee. But let not my sacrifice come to an end.\'\r\n\r\n"Astika thereupon replied, \'Gold, silver or kine, I do not ask of thee, O\r\nmonarch! But let thy sacrifice be ended so that my maternal relations be\r\nrelieved.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'The son of Parikshit, being thus addressed by Astika,\r\nrepeatedly said this unto that foremost of speakers, \'Best of the\r\nBrahmanas, ask some other boon. O, blessed be thou!\' But, O thou of\r\nBhrigu\'s race, he did not beg any other boon. Then all the Sadasyas\r\nconversant with the Vedas told the king in one voice, \'Let the Brahmana\r\nreceive his boon!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son of a Suta, I desire to hear the names of all those\r\nsnakes that fell into the fire of this snake-sacrifice!\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti replied, \'Many thousands and tens of thousands and billions of\r\nsnakes fell into the fire. O most excellent Brahmana, so great is the\r\nnumber that I am unable to count them all. So far, however, as I\r\nremember, hear the names I mention of the principal snakes cast into the\r\nfire. Hear first the names of the principal ones of Vasuki\'s race alone,\r\nof colour blue, red and white of terrible form and huge body and deadly\r\npoison. Helpless and miserable and afflicted with their mother\'s curse,\r\nthey fell into the sacrificial fire like libations of butter.\r\n\r\n"Kotisa, Manasa, Purna, Cala, Pala Halmaka, Pichchala, Kaunapa, Cakra,\r\nKalavega, Prakalana, Hiranyavahu, Carana, Kakshaka, Kaladantaka--these\r\nsnakes born of Vasuki, fell into the fire. And, O Brahmana, numerous\r\nother snakes well-born, and of terrible form and great strength, were\r\nburnt in the blazing fire. I shall now mention those born in the race of\r\nTakshaka. Hear thou their names. Puchchandaka, Mandalaka, Pindasektri,\r\nRavenaka; Uchochikha, Carava, Bhangas, Vilwatejas, Virohana; Sili,\r\nSalakara, Muka, Sukumara, Pravepana, Mudgara and Sisuroman, Suroman and\r\nMahahanu. These snakes born of Takshaka fell into the fire. And Paravata,\r\nParijata, Pandara, Harina, Krisa, Vihanga, Sarabha, Meda, Pramoda,\r\nSauhatapana--these born in the race of Airavata fell into the fire. Now\r\nhear, O best of Brahmanas, the names of the snakes I mention born in the\r\nrace of Kauravya: Eraka, Kundala Veni, Veniskandha, Kumaraka, Vahuka,\r\nSringavera, Dhurtaka, Pratara and Astaka. There born in the race of\r\nKauravya fell into the fire. Now hear the names I mention, in order, of\r\nthose snakes endued with the speed of the wind and with virulent poison,\r\nborn in the race of Dhritarashtra: Sankukarna, Pitharaka, Kuthara,\r\nSukhana, and Shechaka; Purnangada, Purnamukha, Prahasa, Sakuni, Dari,\r\nAmahatha, Kumathaka, Sushena, Vyaya, Bhairava, Mundavedanga, Pisanga,\r\nUdraparaka, Rishabha, Vegavat, Pindaraka; Raktanga, Sarvasaranga,\r\nSamriddha, Patha and Vasaka; Varahaka, Viranaka, Suchitra, Chitravegika,\r\nParasara, Tarunaka, Maniskandha and Aruni.\r\n\r\n"O Brahmana, thus I have recited the names of the principal snakes known\r\nwidely for their achievements--I have not been able to name all, the\r\nnumber being countless. The sons of these snakes, the sons of those sons,\r\nthat were burnt having fallen into the fire, I am unable to mention. They\r\nare so many! Some of three heads, some of seven, others of ten, of poison\r\nlike unto the fire at the end of the yuga and terrible in form,--they\r\nwere burnt by thousands!\r\n\r\n"Many others, of huge bodies, of great speed, tall as mountain summits,\r\nof the length of a yama, of a yojana, and of two yojanas, capable of\r\nassuming at will any form and of mastering at will any degree of\r\nstrength, of poison like unto blazing fire, afflicted by the curse of a\r\nmother, were burnt in that great \'sacrifice.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LVIII\r\n\r\n(Astika Parva, continued)\r\n\r\n"Sauti said, \'Listen now to another very wonderful incident in connection\r\nwith Astika. When king Janamejaya was about to gratify Astika by granting\r\nthe boon, the snake (Takshaka), thrown off Indra\'s hands, remained in mid\r\nair without actually falling. King Janamejaya thereupon became curious,\r\nfor Takshaka, afflicted with fear, did not at once fall into the fire\r\nalthough libations were poured in proper form into the blazing\r\nsacrificial Agni in his name.\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'Was it, O Suta, that the mantras of those wise Brahmanas\r\nwere not potent; since Takshaka did not fall into the fire?\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti replied, \'Unto the unconscious Takshaka, that best of snakes,\r\nafter he had been cast off Indra\'s hands, Astika had thrice said, \'Stay,\'\r\n\'Stay,\' \'Stay.\' And he succeeded in staying in the skies, with afflicted\r\nheart, like a person somehow staying between the welkin and the earth.\r\n\r\n"The king then, on being repeatedly urged by his Sadasyas, said, \'Let it\r\nbe done as Astika hath said. Let the sacrifice be ended, let the snakes\r\nbe safe, let this Astika also be gratified, O Suta, thy words also be\r\ntrue.\' When the boon was granted to Astika, plaudits expressive of joy\r\nrang through the air. Thus the sacrifice of the son of Parikshit--that\r\nking of the Pandava race--came to an end. The king Janamejaya of the\r\nBharata race was himself pleased, and on the Ritwiks with the Sadasyas,\r\nand on all who had come there, the king, bestowed money by hundreds and\r\nthousands. And unto Suta Lohitaksha--conversant with the rules of\r\nbuilding and foundations--who had at the commencement said that a\r\nBrahmana would be the cause of the interruption of the snake-sacrifice,\r\nthe king gave much wealth. The king, of uncommon kindness, also gave him\r\nvarious things, with food and wearing apparel, according to his desire,\r\nand became very much pleased. Then he concluded his sacrifice according\r\nto the prescribed rites, and after treating him with every respect, the\r\nking in joy sent home the wise Astika exceedingly gratified, for he had\r\nattained his object. And the king said unto him, \'Thou must come again to\r\nbecome a Sadasya in my great Horse-sacrifice.\' And Astika said, \'yes\' and\r\nthen returned home in great joy, having achieved his great end after\r\ngratifying the monarch. And returning in joy to his uncle and mother and\r\ntouching their feet, he recounted to them everything as it had happened.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'Hearing all he had said, the snakes that had come\r\nthither became very much delighted, and their fears were allayed. They\r\nwere much pleased with Astika and asked him to solicit a boon, saying, \'O\r\nlearned one, what good shall we do unto thee? We have been very much\r\ngratified, having been all saved by thee. What shall we accomplish for\r\nthee, O child!\'\r\n\r\n"Astika said, \'Let those Brahmanas, and other men, who shall, in the\r\nmorning or in the evening, cheerfully and with attention, read the sacred\r\naccount of this my act, have no fear from any of you.\' And the snakes in\r\njoy thereupon said, \'O nephew, in the nature of thy boon, let it be\r\nexactly as thou sayest. That which thou askest we all shall cheerfully\r\ndo, O nephew! And those also that call to mind Astika, Artiman and\r\nSunitha, in the day or in the night, shall have no fear of snakes. He\r\nagain shall have no fear of snakes who will say, \'I call to mind the\r\nfamous Astika born of Jaratkaru, that Astika who saved the snakes from\r\nthe snake-sacrifice. Therefore, ye snakes of great good fortune, it\r\nbehoveth you not to bite me. But go ye away, blessed be ye, or go away\r\nthou snake of virulent poison, and remember the words of Astika after the\r\nsnake sacrifice of Janamejaya. That snake who does not cease from biting\r\nafter hearing such mention of Astika, shall have his hood divided a\r\nhundredfold like the fruit of Sinsa tree.\'\r\n\r\n"Sauti continued, \'That first of Brahmanas, thus addressed by the\r\nforemost of the chief snakes assembled together, was very much gratified.\r\nAnd the high-souled one then set his heart upon going away.\r\n\r\n"And that best of Brahmanas, having saved the snakes from the\r\nsnake-sacrifice, ascended to heaven when his time came, leaving sons and\r\ngrandsons behind him.\r\n\r\n\'Thus have I recited to thee this history of Astika exactly as it\r\nhappened. Indeed, the recitation of this history dispelleth all fear of\r\nsnakes\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti continued, \'O Brahmanas, O foremost one of Bhrigu\'s race, as thy\r\nancestor Pramati had cheerfully narrated unto his inquiring son Ruru, and\r\nas I had heard it, thus have I recited this blessed history, from the\r\nbeginning, of the learned Astika. And, O Brahmana, O oppressor of all\r\nenemies, having heard this holy history of Astika that increaseth virtue,\r\nand which thou hadst asked me about after hearing the story of the\r\nDundubha, let thy ardent curiosity be satisfied.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LIX\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva)\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'O son, thou hast narrated to me this extensive and great\r\nhistory commencing from the progeny of Bhrigu. O son of Suta, I have been\r\nmuch gratified with thee. I ask thee again, to recite to me, O son of a\r\nSuta, the history composed by Vyasa. The varied and wonderful narrations\r\nthat were recited amongst those illustrious Sadasyas assembled at the\r\nsacrifice, in the intervals of their duties of that long-extending\r\nceremony, and the objects also of those narrations, I desire to hear from\r\nthee, O son of a Suta! Recite therefore, all those to me fully.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti said, \'The Brahmanas, in the intervals of the duties, spoke of\r\nmany things founded upon the Vedas. But Vyasa recited the wonderful and\r\ngreat history called the Bharata.\'\r\n\r\n"Saunaka said, \'That sacred history called the Mahabharata, spreading the\r\nfame of the Pandavas, which Krishna-Dwaipayana, asked by Janamejaya,\r\ncaused to be duly recited after the completion of the sacrifice. I desire\r\nto hear duly. That history hath been born of the ocean-like mind of the\r\ngreat Rishi of soul purified by yoga. Thou foremost of good men, recite\r\nit unto me, for, O son of a Suta, my thirst hath not been appeased by all\r\nthou hast said.\'\r\n\r\n\'Sauti said, \'I shall recite to thee from the beginning of that great and\r\nexcellent history called the Mahabharata composed by Vyasa. O Brahmana,\r\nlisten to it in full, as I recite it. I myself feel a great pleasure in\r\nreciting it.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LX\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva continued)\r\n\r\n\'Sauti said, \'Hearing that Janamejaya was installed in the\r\nsnake-sacrifice, the learned Rishi Krishna-Dwaipayana went thither on the\r\noccasion. And he, the grand-father of the Pandavas, was born in an island\r\nof the Yamuna, of the virgin Kali by Sakti\'s son, Parasara. And the\r\nillustrious one developed by his will alone his body as soon as he was\r\nborn, and mastered the Vedas with their branches, and all the histories.\r\nAnd he readily obtained that which no one could obtain by asceticism, by\r\nthe study of the Vedas, by vows, by fasts, by progeny, and by sacrifice.\r\nAnd the first of Veda-knowing ones, he divided the Vedas into four parts.\r\nAnd the Brahmana Rishi had knowledge of the supreme Brahma, knew the past\r\nby intuition, was holy, and cherished truth. Of sacred deeds and great\r\nfame, he begot Pandu and Dhritarashtra and Vidura in order to continue\r\nthe line of Santanu.\r\n\r\n"And the high-souled Rishi, with his disciples all conversant with the\r\nVedas and their branches, entered the sacrificial pavilion of the royal\r\nsage, Janamejaya. And he saw that the king Janamejaya was seated in the\r\nsacrificial region like the god Indra, surrounded by numerous Sadasyas,\r\nby kings of various countries whose coronal locks had undergone the\r\nsacred bath, and by competent Ritwiks like unto Brahman himself. And that\r\nforemost one of Bharata\'s race, the royal sage Janamejaya, beholding the\r\nRishi come, advanced quickly with his followers and relatives in great\r\njoy. And the king with the approval of his Sadasyas, gave the Rishi a\r\ngolden seat as Indra did to Vrihaspati. And when the Rishi, capable of\r\ngranting boons and adored by the celestial Rishis themselves, had been\r\nseated, the king of kings worshipped him according to the rites of the\r\nscriptures. And the king then offered him--his grandfather Krishna--who\r\nfully deserved them, water to wash his feet and mouth, and the Arghya,\r\nand kine. And accepting those offerings from the Pandava Janamejaya and\r\nordering the kine also not to be slain, Vyasa became much gratified. And\r\nthe king, after those adorations bowed to his great-grandfather, and\r\nsitting in joy asked him about his welfare. And the illustrious Rishi\r\nalso, casting his eyes upon him and asking him about his welfare,\r\nworshipped the Sadasyas, having been before worshipped by them all. And\r\nafter all this, Janamejaya with all his Sadasyas, questioned that first\r\nof Brahmanas, with joined palms as follows:\r\n\r\n\'O Brahmana, thou hast seen with thy own eyes the acts of the Kurus and\r\nthe Pandavas. I am desirous of hearing thee recite their history. What\r\nwas the cause of the disunion amongst them that was fruitful of such\r\nextraordinary deeds? Why also did that great battle, which caused the\r\ndeath of countless creatures occur between all my grandfathers--their\r\nclear sense over-clouded by fate? O excellent Brahmana, tell me all this\r\nin full as everything had happened.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing those words of Janamejaya, Krishna-Dwaipayana directed his\r\ndisciple Vaisampayana seated by his side, saying, \'The discord that\r\nhappened between the Kurus and the Pandavas of old, narrate all to the\r\nking even as thou hast heard from me.\'\r\n\r\n"Then that blessed Brahmana, at the command of his preceptor recited the\r\nwhole of that history unto the king, the Sadasyas, and all the chieftains\r\nthere assembled. And he told them all about the hostility and the utter\r\nextinction of the Kurus and the Pandavas.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXI\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Bowing down in the first place to my preceptor with\r\nthe eight parts of my body touching the ground, with devotion and\r\nreverence, and with all my heart, worshipping the whole assembly of\r\nBrahmanas and other learned persons, I shall recite in full what I have\r\nheard from the high-souled and great Rishi Vyasa, the first of\r\nintelligent men in the three worlds. And having got it within thy reach,\r\nO monarch, thou also art a fit person to hear the composition called\r\nBharata. Encouraged by the command of my preceptor my heart feeleth no\r\nfear.\r\n\r\n"Hear, O monarch, why that disunion occurred between the Kurus and the\r\nPandavas, and why also that exile into the woods immediately proceeding\r\nfrom the game at dice prompted by the desire (of the Kurus) for rule. I\r\nshall relate all to thee who askest it thou best of the Bharata race!\r\n\r\n"On the death of their father those heroes (the Pandavas) came to their\r\nown home. And within a short time they became well-versed in archery. And\r\nthe Kurus beholding the Pandavas gifted with physical strength, energy,\r\nand power of mind, popular also with the citizens, and blessed with good\r\nfortune, became very jealous. Then the crookedminded Duryodhana, and\r\nKarna, with (the former\'s uncle) the son of Suvala began to persecute\r\nthem and devise means for their exile. Then the wicked Duryodhana, guided\r\nby the counsels of Sakuni (his maternal uncle), persecuted the Pandavas\r\nin various ways for the acquirement of undisputed sovereignty. The wicked\r\nson of Dhritarashtra gave poison to Bhima, but Bhima of the stomach of\r\nthe wolf digested the poison with the food. Then the wretch again tied\r\nthe sleeping Bhima on the margin of the Ganges and, casting him into the\r\nwater, went away. But when Bhimasena of strong arms, the son of Kunti\r\nwoke, he tore the strings with which he had been tied and came up, his\r\npains all gone. And while asleep and in the water black snakes of\r\nvirulent poison bit him in every part of his body. But that slayer of\r\nfoes did not still perish. And in all those persecutions of the Pandavas\r\nby their cousins, the Kurus, the high-minded Vidura attentively engaged\r\nhimself neutralising those evil designs and rescuing the persecuted ones.\r\nAnd as Sakra from the heavens keeps in happiness the world of men, so did\r\nVidura always keep the Pandavas from evil.\r\n\r\n"When Duryodhana, with various means, both secret and open, found himself\r\nincapable of destroying the Pandavas who were protected by the fates and\r\nkept alive for grave future purposes (such as the extermination of the\r\nKuru race), then called together his counsellors consisting of Vrisha\r\n(Karna), Duhsasana and others, and with the knowledge of Dhritarashtra\r\ncaused a house of lac to be constructed. And king Dhritarashtra, from\r\naffection for his children, and prompted by the desire of sovereignty,\r\nsent the Pandavas tactfully into Varanavata. And the Pandavas then went\r\naway with their mother from Hastinapura. And when they were leaving the\r\ncity, Vidura gave them some idea of impending danger and how they could\r\ncome out of it.\r\n\r\n\'The sons of Kunti reached the town of Varanavata and lived there with\r\ntheir mother. And, agreeably to the command of Dhritarashtra, those\r\nillustrious slayers of all enemies lived in the palace of lac, while in\r\nthat town. And they lived in that place for one year, protecting\r\nthemselves from Purochana very wakefully. And causing a subterranean\r\npassage to be constructed, acting according to the directions of Vidura,\r\nthey set fire to that house of lac and burnt Purochana (their enemy and\r\nthe spy of Duryodhana) to death. Those slayers of all enemies, anxious\r\nwith fear, then fled with their mother. In the woods beside a fountain\r\nthey saw a Rakshasa. But, alarmed at the risk they ran of exposure by\r\nsuch an act the Pandavas fled in the darkness, out of fear from the sons\r\nof Dhritarashtra. It was here that Bhima gained Hidimva (the sister of\r\nthe Rakshasa he slew) for a wife, and it was of her that Ghatotkacha was\r\nborn. Then the Pandavas, of rigid vows, and conversant with the Vedas\r\nwended to a town of the name of Ekachakra and dwelt there in the guise of\r\nBrahmacharins. And those bulls among men dwelt in that town in the house\r\nof a Brahmana for some time, with temperance and abstinence. And it was\r\nhere that Bhima of mighty arms came upon a hungry and mighty and\r\nman-eating Rakshasa of the name of Vaka. And Bhima, the son of Pandu,\r\nthat tiger among men, slew him speedily with the strength of his arms and\r\nmade the citizens safe and free from fear. Then they heard of Krishna\r\n(the princess of Panchala) having become disposed to select a husband\r\nfrom among the assembled princes. And, hearing of it, they went to\r\nPanchala, and there they obtained the maiden. And having obtained\r\nDraupadi (as their common wife) they then dwelt there for a year. And\r\nafter they became known, those chastisers of all enemies went back to\r\nHastinapura. And they were then told by king Dhritarashtra and the son of\r\nSantanu (Bhishma) as follows: \'In order, O dear ones, dissensions may not\r\ntake place between you and your cousins, we have settled that\r\nKhandavaprastha should be your abode. Therefore, go ye, casting off all\r\njealousy, to Khandavaprastha which contains many towns served by many\r\nbroad roads, for dwelling there.\' And accordingly the Pandavas went, with\r\nall their friends and followers, to Khandavaprastha taking with them many\r\njewels and precious stones. And the sons of Pritha dwelt there for many\r\nyears. And they brought, by force of arms, many a prince under their\r\nsubjection. And thus, setting their hearts on virtue and firmly adhering\r\nto truth, unruffled by affluence, calm in deportment, and putting down\r\nnumerous evils, the Pandavas gradually rose to power. And Bhima of great\r\nreputation subjugated the East, the heroic Arjuna, the North, Nakula, the\r\nWest; Sahadeva that slayer of all hostile heroes, the South. And this\r\nhaving been done, their domination was spread over the whole world. And\r\nwith the five Pandavas, each like unto the Sun, the Earth looked as if\r\nshe had six Suns.\r\n\r\n"Then, for some reason, Yudhishthira the just, gifted with great energy\r\nand prowess, sent his brother Arjuna who was capable of drawing the bow\r\nwith the left hand, dearer unto him than life itself, into the woods. And\r\nArjuna, that tiger among men, of firm soul, and gifted with every virtue,\r\nlived in the woods for eleven years and months. And during this period,\r\non a certain occasion, Arjuna went to Krishna in Dwaravati. And Vibhatsu\r\n(Arjuna) there obtained for a wife the lotus-eyed and sweet-speeched\r\nyounger sister of Vasudeva, Subhadra by name. And she became united, in\r\ngladness, with Arjuna, the son of Pandu, like Sachi with the great Indra,\r\nor Sri with Krishna himself. And then, O best of monarchs, Arjuna, the\r\nson of Kunti, with Vasudeva, gratified Agni; the carrier of the\r\nsacrificial butter, in the forest of Khandava (by burning the medicinal\r\nplants in that woods to cure Agni of his indigestion). And to Arjuna,\r\nassisted as he was by Kesava, the task did not at all appear heavy even\r\nas nothing is heavy to Vishnu with immense design and resources in the\r\nmatter of destroying his enemies. And Agni gave unto the son of Pritha\r\nthe excellent bow Gandiva and a quiver that was inexhaustible, and a\r\nwar-chariot bearing the figure of Garuda on its standard. And it was on\r\nthis occasion that Arjuna relieved the great Asura (Maya) from fear (of\r\nbeing consumed in the fire). And Maya, in gratitude, built (for the\r\nPandavas) a celestial palace decked with every sort of jewels and\r\nprecious stones. And the wicked Duryodhana, beholding that building, was\r\ntempted with the desire of possessing it. And deceiving Yudhishthira by\r\nmeans of the dice played through the hands of the son of Suvala,\r\nDuryodhana sent the Pandavas into the woods for twelve years and one\r\nadditional year to be passed in concealment, thus making the period full\r\nthirteen.\r\n\r\n"And the fourteenth year, O monarch, when the Pandavas returned and\r\nclaimed their property, they did not obtain it. And thereupon war was\r\ndeclared, and the Pandavas, after exterminating the whole race of\r\nKshatriyas and slaying king Duryodhana, obtained back their devastated\r\nkingdom.\r\n\r\n"This is the history of the Pandavas who never acted under the influence\r\nof evil passions; and this the account, O first of victorious monarchs of\r\nthe disunion that ended in the loss of their kingdom by the Kurus and the\r\nvictory of the Pandavas.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXII\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O excellent Brahmana, thou hast, indeed, told me, in\r\nbrief, the history, called Mahabharata, of the great acts of the Kurus.\r\nBut, O thou of ascetic wealth, recite now that wonderful narration fully.\r\nI feel a great curiosity to hear it. It behoveth thee to recite it,\r\ntherefore, in full. I am not satisfied with hearing in a nutshell the\r\ngreat history. That could never have been a trifling cause for which the\r\nvirtuous ones could slay those whom they should not have slain, and for\r\nwhich they are yet applauded by men. Why also did those tigers among men,\r\ninnocent and capable of avenging themselves upon their enemies, calmly\r\nsuffer the persecution of the wicked Kurus? Why also, O best of\r\nBrahmanas, did Bhima of mighty arms and of the strength of ten thousand\r\nelephants, control his anger, though wronged? Why also did the chaste\r\nKrishna, the daughter of Drupada, wronged by those wretches and able to\r\nburn them, not burn the sons of Dhritarashtra with her wrathful eyes? Why\r\nalso did the two other sons of Pritha (Bhima and Arjuna) and the two sons\r\nof Madri (Nakula and Sahadeva), themselves injured by the wretched Kurus,\r\nfollow Yudhishthira who was greatly addicted to the evil habit of\r\ngambling? Why also did Yudhishthira, that foremost of all virtuous men,\r\nthe son of Dharma himself, fully acquainted with all duties, suffer that\r\nexcess of affliction? Why also did the Pandava Dhananjaya, having Krishna\r\nfor his charioteer, who by his arrows sent to the other world that\r\ndauntless host of fighting men (suffer such persecution)? O thou of\r\nascetic wealth, speak to me of all these as they took place, and\r\neverything that those mighty charioteers achieved.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'O monarch, appoint thou a time for hearing it. This\r\nhistory told by Krishna-Dwaipayana is very extensive. This is but the\r\nbeginning. I shall recite it. I shall repeat the whole of the composition\r\nin full, of the illustrious and great Rishi Vyasa of immeasurable mental\r\npower, and worshipped in all the worlds. This Bharata consists of a\r\nhundred thousand sacred slokas composed by the son of Satyavati, of\r\nimmeasurable mental power. He that reads it to others, and they that hear\r\nit read, attain to the world of Brahman and become equal to the very\r\ngods. This Bharata is equal unto the Vedas, is holy and excellent; is the\r\nworthiest of all to be listened to, and is a Purana worshipped by the\r\nRishis. It contains much useful instruction on Artha and Kama (profit and\r\npleasure). This sacred history maketh the heart desire for salvation.\r\nLearned persons by reciting this Veda of Krishna-Dwaipayana to those that\r\nare liberal, truthful and believing, earn much wealth. Sins, such as\r\nkilling the embryo in the womb, are destroyed assuredly by this. A\r\nperson, however cruel and sinful, by hearing this history, escapes from\r\nall his sins like the Sun from Rahu (after the eclipse is over). This\r\nhistory is called Jaya. It should be heard by those desirous of victory.\r\nA king by hearing it may bring the whole world under subjection and\r\nconquer all his foes. This history in itself is a mighty act of\r\npropitiation, a mighty sacrifice productive of blessed fruit. It should\r\nalways be heard by a young monarch with his queen, for then they beget a\r\nheroic son or a daughter to occupy a throne. This history is the high and\r\nsacred science of Dharma, Artha, and also of Moksha; it hath been so said\r\nby Vyasa himself of mind that is immeasurable. This history is recited in\r\nthe present age and will be recited in the future. They that hear it,\r\nread, have sons and servants always obedient to them and doing their\r\nbehests. All sins that are committed by body, word, or mind, immediately\r\nleave them that hear this history. They who hear, without the spirit of\r\nfault finding, the story of the birth of the Bharata princes, can have no\r\nfear of maladies, let alone the fear of the other world.\r\n\r\n"For extending the fame of the high-souled Pandavas and of other\r\nKshatriyas versed in all branches of knowledge, high spirited, and\r\nalready known in the world for their achievements, Krishna-Dwaipayana,\r\nguided also by the desire of doing good to the world, hath composed this\r\nwork. It is excellent, productive of fame, grants length of life, is\r\nsacred and heavenly. He who, from desire of acquiring religious merit,\r\ncauseth this history to be heard by sacred Brahmanas, acquireth great\r\nmerit and virtue that is inexhaustible. He that reciteth the famous\r\ngeneration of the Kurus becometh immediately purified and acquireth a\r\nlarge family himself, and becometh respected in the world. That Brahmana\r\nwho regularly studies this sacred Bharata for the four months of the\r\nrainy season, is cleansed from all his sins. He that has read the Bharata\r\nmay be regarded as one acquainted with the Vedas.\r\n\r\n"This work presents an account of the gods and royal sages and sacred\r\nregenerate Rishis, the sinless Kesava; the god of gods, Mahadeva and the\r\ngoddess Parvati; the birth of Kartikeya who sprang from union of Parvati\r\nwith Mahadeva and was reared by many mothers; the greatness of Brahmanas\r\nand of kine. This Bharata is a collection of all the Srutis, and is fit\r\nto be heard by every virtuous person. That learned man who reciteth it to\r\nBrahmanas during the sacred lunations, becometh cleansed of all sins,\r\nand, not caring for heaven as it were, attaineth to a union with Brahma.\r\nHe that causeth even a single foot of this poem to be heard by Brahmanas\r\nduring the performance of a Sraddha, maketh that Sraddha inexhaustible,\r\nthe Pitris becoming ever gratified with the articles once presented to\r\nthem. The sins that are committed daily by our senses or the mind, those\r\nthat are committed knowingly or unknowingly by any man, are all destroyed\r\nby hearing the Mahabharata. The history of the exalted birth of the\r\nBharata princes is called the Mahabharata. He who knoweth this etymology\r\nof the name is cleansed of all his sins. And as this history of the\r\nBharata race is so wonderful, that, when recited, it assuredly purifieth\r\nmortals from all sins. The sage Krishna-Dwaipayana completed his work in\r\nthree years. Rising daily and purifying himself and performing his\r\nascetic devotions, he composed this Mahabharata. Therefore, this should\r\nbe heard by Brahmanas with the formality of a vow. He who reciteth this\r\nholy narration composed by Krishna (Vyasa) for the hearing of others, and\r\nthey who hear it, in whatever state he or they may be, can never be\r\naffected by the fruit of deeds, good or bad. The man desirous of\r\nacquiring virtue should hear it all. This is equivalent to all histories,\r\nand he that heareth it always attaineth to purity of heart. The\r\ngratification that one deriveth from attaining to heaven is scarcely\r\nequal to that which one deriveth from hearing this holy history. The\r\nvirtuous man who with reverence heareth it or causeth it to be heard,\r\nobtaineth the fruit of the Rajasuya and the horse-sacrifice. The Bharata\r\nis said to be as much a mine of gems as the vast Ocean or the great\r\nmountain Meru. This history is sacred and excellent, and is equivalent to\r\nthe Vedas, worthy of being heard, pleasing to the ear, sin-cleansing, and\r\nvirtue-increasing. O monarch, he that giveth a copy of the Bharata to one\r\nthat asketh for it doth indeed make a present of the whole earth with her\r\nbelt of seas. O son of Parikshit, this pleasant narration that giveth\r\nvirtue and victory I am about to recite in its entirety: listen to it.\r\nThe sage Krishna-Dwaipayana regularly rising for three years, composed\r\nthis wonderful history called Mahabharata. O bull amongst the Bharata\r\nmonarchs, whatever is spoken about virtue, wealth, pleasure, and\r\nsalvation may be seen elsewhere; but whatever is not contained in this is\r\nnot to be found anywhere.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXIII\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'There was a king of the name of Uparichara. That\r\nmonarch was devoted to virtue. He was very much addicted also to hunting.\r\nThat king of the Paurava race, called also Vasu, conquered the excellent\r\nand delightful kingdom of Chedi under instructions from Indra. Some time\r\nafter, the king gave up the use of arms and, dwelling in a secluded\r\nretreat, practised the most severe austerities. The gods with Indra at\r\ntheir head once approached the monarch during this period, believing that\r\nhe sought the headship of the gods, by those severe austerities of his.\r\nThe celestials, becoming objects of his sight, by soft speeches succeeded\r\nin winning him away from his ascetic austerities.\'\r\n\r\n"The gods said, \'O lord of the earth, thou shouldst take care so that\r\nvirtue may not sustain a diminution on earth! Protected by thee, virtue\r\nitself will in return protect the universe.\' And Indra said, \'O king,\r\nprotect virtue on earth attentively and rigidly. Being virtuous, thou\r\nshalt, for all time, behold (in after life) many sacred regions. And\r\nthough I am of Heaven, and thou art of earth, yet art thou my friend and\r\ndear to me. And, O king of men, dwell thou in that region on earth which\r\nis delightful, and aboundeth in animals, is sacred, full of wealth and\r\ncorn, is well-protected like heaven, which is of agreeable climate,\r\ngraced with every object of enjoyment, and blessed with fertility. And, O\r\nmonarch of Chedi, this thy dominion is full of riches, of gems and\r\nprecious stones, and containeth, besides, much mineral wealth. The cities\r\nand towns of this region are all devoted to virtue; the people are honest\r\nand contented; they never lie even in jest. Sons never divide their\r\nwealth with their fathers and are ever mindful of the welfare of their\r\nparents. Lean cattle are never yoked to the plough or the cart or engaged\r\nin carrying merchandise; on the other hand, they are well-fed and\r\nfattened. In Chedi the four orders are always engaged in their respective\r\nvocations. Let nothing be unknown to thee that happens in the three\r\nworlds. I shall give thee a crystal car such as the celestials alone are\r\ncapable of carrying the car through mid air. Thou alone, of all mortals\r\non earth, riding on that best of cars, shall course through mid-air like\r\na celestial endued with a physical frame. I shall also give thee a\r\ntriumphal garland of unfading lotuses, with which on, in battle, thou\r\nshall not be wounded by weapons. And, O king, this blessed and\r\nincomparable garland, widely known on earth as Indra\'s garland, shall be\r\nthy distinctive badge.\r\n\r\n"The slayer of Vritra (Indra) also gave the king, for his gratification,\r\na bamboo pole for protecting the honest and the peaceful. After the\r\nexpiry of a year, the king planted it in the ground for the purpose of\r\nworshipping the giver thereof, viz., Sakra. From that time forth, O\r\nmonarch, all kings, following Vasu\'s example, began to plant a pole for\r\nthe celebration of Indra\'s worship. After erecting the pole they decked\r\nit with golden cloth and scents and garlands and various ornaments. And\r\nthe god Vasava is worshipped in due form with such garlands and\r\nornaments. And the god, for the gratification of the illustrious Vasu,\r\nassuming the form of a swan, came himself to accept the worship thus\r\noffered. And the god, beholding the auspicious worship thus made by Vasu,\r\nthat first of monarchs, was delighted, and said unto him, \'Those men, and\r\nkings also, who will worship me and joyously observe this festival of\r\nmine like the king of Chedi, shall have glory and victory for their\r\ncountries and kingdom. Their cities also shall expand and be ever in\r\njoy.\'\r\n\r\n"King Vasu was thus blessed by the gratified Maghavat, the high-souled\r\nchief of the gods. Indeed, those men who cause this festivity of Sakra to\r\nbe observed with gifts of land, of gems and precious stones, become the\r\nrespected of the world. And king Vasu, the lord of Chedis bestowing boons\r\nand performing great sacrifices and observing the festivity of Sakra, was\r\nmuch respected by Indra. And from Chedi he ruled the whole world\r\nvirtuously. And for the gratification of Indra, Vasu, the lord of the\r\nChedis, observed the festivity of Indra.\r\n\r\n"And Vasu had five sons of great energy and immeasurable prowess. And the\r\nemperor installed his sons as governors of various provinces.\r\n\r\n"And his son Vrihadratha was installed in Magadha and was known by the\r\nname of Maharatha. Another son of his was Pratyagraha; and another,\r\nKusamva, who was also called Manivahana. And the two others were Mavella,\r\nand Yadu of great prowess and invincible in battle.\r\n\r\n"These, O monarch, were the sons of that royal sage of mighty energy. And\r\nthe five sons of Vasu planted kingdoms and towns after their own names\r\nand founded separate dynasties that lasted for long ages.\r\n\r\n"And when king Vasu took his seat in that crystal car, with the gift of\r\nIndra, and coursed through the sky, he was approached by Gandharvas and\r\nApsaras (the celestial singers and dancers). And as he coursed through\r\nthe upper regions, he was called Uparichara. And by his capital flowed a\r\nriver called Suktimati. And that river was once attacked by a life-endued\r\nmountain called Kolahala maddened by lust. And Vasu, beholding the foul\r\nattempt, struck the mountain with his foot. And by the indentation caused\r\nby Vasu\'s stamp, the river came out (of the embraces of Kolahala). But\r\nthe mountain begat on the river two children that were twins. And the\r\nriver, grateful to Vasu for his having set her free from Kolahala\'s\r\nembraces, gave them both to Vasu. And the son was made the generalissimo\r\nto his forces by Vasu, that best of royal sages and giver of wealth and\r\npunisher of enemies. And the daughter called Girika, was wedded by Vasu.\r\n\r\n\'And Girika, the wife of Vasu, after her menstrual course, purifying\r\nherself by a bath, represented her state unto her lord. But that very day\r\nthe Pitris of Vasu came unto that best of monarchs and foremost of wise\r\nmen, and asked him to slay deer (for their Sraddha). And the king,\r\nthinking that the command of the Pitris should not be disobeyed, went\r\na-hunting thinking of Girika alone who was gifted with great beauty and\r\nlike unto another Sri herself. And the season being the spring, the woods\r\nwithin which the king was roaming, had become delightful like unto the\r\ngardens of the king of the Gandharvas himself. There were Asokas and\r\nChampakas and Chutas and Atimuktas in abundance: and there were Punnagas\r\nand Karnikaras and Vakulas and Divya Patalas and Patalas and Narikelas\r\nand Chandanas and Arjunas and similar other beautiful and sacred trees\r\nresplendent with fragrant flowers and sweet fruits. And the whole forest\r\nwas maddened by the sweet notes of the kokila and echoed with the hum of\r\nmaddened bees. And the king became possessed with desire, and he saw not\r\nhis wife before him. Maddened by desire he was roaming hither and\r\nthither, when he saw a beautiful Asoka decked with dense foliage, its\r\nbranches covered with flowers. And the king sat at his ease in the shade\r\nof that tree. And excited by the fragrance of the season and the charming\r\nodours of the flowers around, and excited also by the delicious breeze,\r\nthe king could not keep his mind away from the thought of the beautiful\r\nGirika. And beholding that a swift hawk was resting very near to him, the\r\nking, acquainted with the subtle truths of Dharma and Artha, went unto\r\nhim and said, \'Amiable one, carry thou this seed (semen) for my wife\r\nGirika and give it unto her. Her season hath arrived.\'\r\n\r\n"The hawk, swift of speed, took it from the king and rapidly coursed\r\nthrough the air. While thus passing, the hawk was seen by another of his\r\nspecies. Thinking that the first one was carrying meat, the second one\r\nflew at him. The two fought with each other in the sky with their beaks.\r\nWhile they were fighting, the seed fell into the waters of the Yamuna.\r\nAnd in those waters dwelt an Apsara of the higher rank, known by the name\r\nof Adrika, transformed by a Brahmana\'s curse into a fish. As soon as\r\nVasu\'s seed fell into the water from the claws of the hawk, Adrika\r\nrapidly approached and swallowed it at once. That fish was, some time\r\nafter, caught by the fishermen. And it was the tenth month of the fish\'s\r\nhaving swallowed the seed. From the stomach of that fish came out a male\r\nand a female child of human form. The fishermen wondered much, and\r\nwending unto king Uparichara (for they were his subjects) told him all.\r\nThey said, \'O king, these two beings of human shape have been found in\r\nthe body of a fish!\' The male child amongst the two was taken by\r\nUparichara. That child afterwards became the virtuous and truthful\r\nmonarch Matsya.\r\n\r\n"After the birth of the twins, the Apsara herself became freed from her\r\ncurse. For she had been told before by the illustrious one (who had\r\ncursed her) that she would, while living in her piscatorial form, give\r\nbirth to two children of human shape and then would be freed from the\r\ncurse. Then, according to these words, having given birth to the two\r\nchildren, and been killed by the fishermen, she left her fish-form and\r\nassumed her own celestial shape. The Apsara then rose up on the path\r\ntrodden by the Siddhas, the Rishis and the Charanas.\r\n\r\n"The fish-smelling daughter of the Apsara in her piscatorial form was\r\nthen given by the king unto the fishermen, saying, \'Let this one be thy\r\ndaughter.\' That girl was known by the name of Satyavati. And gifted with\r\ngreat beauty and possessed of every virtue, she of agreeable smiles,\r\nowing to contact with fishermen, was for some time of the fishy smell.\r\nWishing to serve her (foster) father she plied a boat on the waters of\r\nthe Yamuna.\r\n\r\n"While engaged in this vocation, Satyavati was seen one day by the great\r\nRishi Parasara, in course of his wanderings. As she was gifted with great\r\nbeauty, an object of desire even with an anchorite, and of graceful\r\nsmiles, the wise sage, as soon as he beheld her, desired to have her. And\r\nthat bull amongst Munis addressed the daughter of Vasu of celestial\r\nbeauty and tapering thighs, saying, \'Accept my embraces, O blessed one!\'\r\nSatyavati replied, \'O holy one, behold the Rishis standing on either bank\r\nof the river. Seen by them, how can I grant thy wish?\'\r\n\r\n"Thus addressed by her, the ascetic thereupon created a fog (which\r\nexisted not before and) which enveloped the whole region in darkness. And\r\nthe maiden, beholding the fog that was created by the great Rishi\r\nwondered much. And the helpless one became suffused with the blushes of\r\nbashfulness. And she said, \'O holy one, note that I am a maiden under the\r\ncontrol of my father. O sinless one, by accepting your embraces my\r\nvirginity will be sullied. O best of Brahmanas, my virginity being\r\nsullied, how shall I, O Rishi, be able to return home? Indeed, I shall\r\nnot then be able to bear life. Reflecting upon all this, O illustrious\r\none, do that which should be done.\' That best of Rishis, gratified with\r\nall she said, replied, "Thou shall remain a virgin even if thou grantest\r\nmy wish. And, O timid one, O beauteous lady, solicit the boon that thou\r\ndesirest. O thou of fair smiles, my grace hath never before proved\r\nfruitless.\' Thus addressed, the maiden asked for the boon that her body\r\nmight emit a sweet scent (instead of the fish-odour that it had). And the\r\nillustrious Rishi thereupon granted that wish of her heart.\r\n\r\n"Having obtained her boon, she became highly pleased, and her season\r\nimmediately came. And she accepted the embraces of that Rishi of\r\nwonderful deeds. And she thenceforth became known among men by the name\r\nof Gandhavati (the sweet-scented one). And men could perceive her scent\r\nfrom the distance of a yojana. And for this she was known by another name\r\nwhich was Yojanagandha (one who scatters her scent for a yojana all\r\naround). And the illustrious Parasara, after this, went to his own asylum.\r\n\r\n"And Satyavati gratified with having obtained the excellent boon in\r\nconsequence of which she became sweet-scented and her virginity remained\r\nunsullied conceived through Parasara\'s embraces. And she brought forth\r\nthe very day, on an island in the Yamuna, the child begot upon her by\r\nParasara and gifted with great energy. And the child, with the permission\r\nof his mother, set his mind on asceticism. And he went away saying, \'As\r\nsoon as thou rememberest me when occasion comes, I shall appear unto\r\nthee.\'\r\n\r\n"And it was thus that Vyasa was born of Satyavati through Parasara. And\r\nbecause he was born in an island, he was called Dwaipayana (Dwaipa or\r\nislandborn). And the learned Dwaipayana, beholding that virtue is\r\ndestined to become lame by one leg each yuga (she having four legs in\r\nall) and that the period of life and the strength of men followed the\r\nyugas, and moved by the desire of obtaining the favour of Brahman and the\r\nBrahmanas, arranged the Vedas. And for this he came to be called Vyasa\r\n(the arranger or compiler). The boon-giving great one then taught\r\nSumanta, Jaimini, Paila, his son Suka, and Vaisampayana, the Vedas having\r\nthe Mahabharata for their fifth. And the compilation of the Bharata was\r\npublished by him through them separately.\r\n\r\n"Then Bhishma, of great energy and fame and of immeasurable splendour,\r\nand sprung from the component parts of the Vasus, was born in the womb of\r\nGanga through king Santanu. And there was a Rishi of the name of\r\nAnimandavya of great fame. And he was conversant with the interpretations\r\nof the Vedas, was illustrious, gifted with great energy, and of great\r\nreputation. And, accused of theft, though innocent, the old Rishi was\r\nimpaled. He thereupon summoned Dharma and told him these words, \'In my\r\nchildhood I had pierced a little fly on a blade of grass, O Dharma! I\r\nrecollect that one sin: but I cannot call to mind any other. I have,\r\nhowever, since practised penances a thousandfold. Hath not that one sin\r\nbeen conquered by this my asceticism? And because the killing of a\r\nBrahmana is more heinous than that of any other living thing, therefore,\r\nhast thou, O Dharma, been sinful. Thou shalt, therefore, be born on earth\r\nin the Sudra order.\' And for that curse Dharma was born a Sudra in the\r\nform of the learned Vidura of pure body who was perfectly sinless. And\r\nthe Suta was born of Kunti in her maidenhood through Surya. And he came\r\nout of his mother\'s womb with a natural coat of mail and face brightened\r\nby ear-rings. And Vishnu himself, of world-wide fame, and worshipped of\r\nall the worlds, was born of Devaki through Vasudeva, for the benefit of\r\nthe three worlds. He is without birth and death, of radiant splendour,\r\nthe Creator of the universe and the Lord of all! Indeed, he who is the\r\ninvisible cause of all, who knoweth no deterioration, who is the\r\nall-pervading soul, the centre round which everything moveth, the\r\nsubstance in which the three attributes of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas\r\nco-inhere, the universal soul, the immutable, the material out of which\r\nhath been created this universe, the Creator himself, the controlling\r\nlord, the invisible dweller in every object, progenitor of this universe\r\nof five elements, who is united with the six high attributes, is the\r\nPranava or Om of the Vedas, is infinite, incapable of being moved by any\r\nforce save his own will, illustrious, the embodiment of the mode of life\r\ncalled Sannyasa, who floated on the waters before the creation, who is\r\nthe source whence hath sprung this mighty frame, who is the great\r\ncombiner, the uncreate, the invisible essence of all, the great\r\nimmutable, bereft of those attributes that are knowable by the senses,\r\nwho is the universe itself, without beginning, birth, and decay,--is\r\npossessed of infinite wealth, that Grandsire of all creatures, became\r\nincarnate in the race of the Andhaka-Vrishnis for the increase of virtue.\r\n\r\n"And Satyaki and Kritavarma, conversant with (the use of) weapons\r\npossessed of mighty energy, well-versed in all branches of knowledge, and\r\nobedient to Narayana in everything and competent in the use of weapons,\r\nhad their births from Satyaka and Hridika. And the seed of the great\r\nRishi Bharadwaja of severe penances, kept in a pot, began to develop. And\r\nfrom that seed came Drona (the pot-born). And from the seed of Gautama,\r\nfallen upon a clump of reeds, were born two that were twins, the mother\r\nof Aswatthaman (called Kripi), and Kripa of great strength. Then was born\r\nDhrishtadyumna, of the splendour of Agni himself, from the sacrificial\r\nfire. And the mighty hero was born with bow in hand for the destruction\r\nof Drona. And from the sacrificial altar was born Krishna (Draupadi)\r\nresplendent and handsome, of bright features and excellent beauty. Then\r\nwas born the disciple of Prahlada, viz., Nagnajit, and also Suvala. And\r\nfrom Suvala was born a son, Sakuni, who from the curse of the gods became\r\nthe slayer of creatures and the foe of virtue. And unto him was also born\r\na daughter (Gandhari), the mother of Duryodhana. And both were\r\nwell-versed in the arts of acquiring worldly profits. And from Krishna\r\nwas born, in the soil of Vichitravirya, Dhritarashtra, the lord of men,\r\nand Pandu of great strength. And from Dwaipayana also born, in the Sudra\r\ncaste, the wise and intelligent Vidura, conversant with both religion and\r\nprofit, and free from all sins. And unto Pandu by his two wives were born\r\nfive sons like the celestials. The eldest of them was Yudhishthira. And\r\nYudhishthira was born (of the seed) of Dharma (Yama, the god of justice);\r\nand Bhima of the wolf\'s stomach was born of Marut (the god of wind), and\r\nDhananjaya, blessed with good fortune and the first of all wielders of\r\nweapons, was born of Indra; and Nakula and Sahadeva, of handsome features\r\nand ever engaged in the service of their superiors, were born of the twin\r\nAswins. And unto the wise Dhritarashtra were born a hundred sons, viz.,\r\nDuryodhana and others, and another, named Yuyutsu, who was born of a\r\nvaisya woman. And amongst those hundred and one, eleven, viz., Duhsasana,\r\nDuhsaha, Durmarshana, Vikarna, Chitrasena, Vivinsati, Jaya, Satyavrata,\r\nPurumitra, and Yuyutsu by a Vaisya wife, were all Maharathas (great\r\ncar-warriors). And Abhimanyu was born of Subhadra, the sister of Vasudeva\r\nthrough Arjuna, and was, therefore, the grandson of the illustrious\r\nPandu. And unto the five Pandavas were born five sons by (their common\r\nwife) Panchali. And these princes were all very handsome and conversant\r\nwith all branches of knowledge. From Yudhishthira was born Pritivindhya;\r\nfrom Vrikodara, Sutasoma; from Arjuna, Srutakirti; from Nakula, Satanika;\r\nand from Sahadeva, Srutasena of great prowess; and Bhima, in the forest\r\nbegot on Hidimva a son named Ghatotkacha. And from Drupada was born a\r\ndaughter Sikhandin who was afterwards transformed into a male child.\r\nSikhandini was so transformed into a male by Yaksha named Sthuna from the\r\ndesire of doing her good.\r\n\r\n"In that great battle of the Kurus came hundreds of thousands of monarchs\r\nfor fighting against one another. The names of the innumerable host I am\r\nunable to recount even in ten thousand years. I have named, however, the\r\nprincipal ones who have been mentioned in this history.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n SECTION LXIV\r\n\r\n(Adivansavatarana Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O Brahmana, those thou hast named and those thou hast\r\nnot named, I wish to hear of them in detail, as also of other kings by\r\nthousands. And, O thou of great good fortune, it behoveth thee to tell me\r\nin full the object for which those Maharathas, equal unto the celestials\r\nthemselves, were born on earth.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'It hath been heard by us, O monarch, that what thou\r\naskest is a mystery even to the gods. I shall, however, speak of it unto\r\nthee, after bowing down (to the self-born). The son of Jamadagni\r\n(Parasurama), after twenty-one times making the earth bereft of\r\nKshatriyas wended to that best of mountains Mahendra and there began his\r\nascetic penances. And at that time when the earth was bereft of\r\nKshatriyas, the Kshatriya ladies, desirous of offspring, used to come, O\r\nmonarch, to the Brahmanas and Brahmanas of rigid vows had connection with\r\nthem during the womanly season alone, but never, O king, lustfully and\r\nout of season. And Kshatriya ladies by thousands conceived from such\r\nconnection with Brahmanas. Then, O monarch, were born many Kshatriyas of\r\ngreater energy, boys and girls, so that the Kshatriya race, might thrive.\r\nAnd thus sprang the Kshatriya race from Kshatriya ladies by Brahmanas of\r\nascetic penances. And the new generation, blessed with long life, began\r\nto thrive in virtue. And thus were the four orders having Brahmanas at\r\ntheir head re-established. And every man at that time went in unto his\r\nwife during her season and never from lust and out of season. And, O bull\r\nof the Bharata race, in the same way, other creatures also, even those\r\nborn in the race of birds went in unto their wives during the season\r\nalone. And, O protector of the earth, hundreds of thousands of creatures\r\nwere born, and all were virtuous and began to multiply in virtue, all\r\nbeing free from sorrow and disease. And, O thou of the elephant\'s tread,\r\nthis wide earth having the ocean for her boundaries, with her mountains\r\nand woods and towns, was once more governed by the Kshatriyas. And when\r\nthe earth began to be again governed virtuously by the Kshatriyas, the\r\nother orders having Brahmanas for their first were filled with great joy.\r\nAnd the kings giving up all vices born of lust and anger and justly\r\nawarding punishments to those that deserved them protected the earth. And\r\nhe of a hundred sacrifices, possessed also of a thousand eyes, beholding\r\nthat the Kshatriya monarchs ruled so virtuously, poured down vivifying\r\nshowers at proper times and places and blessed all creatures. Then, O\r\nking, no one of immature years died, and none knew a woman before\r\nattaining to age. And thus, O bull of the Bharata race, the earth, to the\r\nvery coasts of the ocean, became filled with men that were all\r\nlong-lived. The Kshatriyas performed great sacrifices bestowing much\r\nwealth. And the Brahmanas also all studied the Vedas with their branches\r\nand the Upanishads. And, O king, no Brahmana in those days ever sold the\r\nVedas (i.e., taught for money) or ever read aloud the Vedas in the\r\npresence of a Sudra. The Vaisyas, with the help of bullocks, caused the\r\nearth to be tilled. And they never yoked the cattle themselves. And they\r\nfed with care all cattle that were lean. And men never milked kine as\r\nlong as the calves drank only the milk of their dams (without having\r\ntaken to grass or any other food). And no merchant in those days ever\r\nsold his articles by false scales. And, O tiger among men, all persons,\r\nholding to the ways of virtue, did everything with eyes set upon virtue.\r\nAnd, O monarch, all the orders were mindful of their own respective\r\nduties. Thus, O tiger among men, virtue in those days never sustained any\r\ndiminution. And, O bull of the Bharata race, both kine and women gave\r\nbirth to their offspring at the proper time. And trees bore flowers and\r\nfruit duly according to the seasons. And thus, O king, the krita age\r\nhaving then duly set in, the whole earth was filled with numerous\r\ncreatures.\r\n\r\n"And, O bull of the Bharata race, when such was the blessed state of the\r\nterrestrial world, the Asuras, O lord of men, began to be born in kingly\r\nlines. And the sons of Diti (Daityas) being repeatedly defeated in war by\r\nthe sons of Aditi (celestials) and deprived also of sovereignty and\r\nheaven, began to be incarnated on the earth. And, O king, the Asuras\r\nbeing possessed of great powers, and desirous of sovereignty began to be\r\nborn on earth amongst various creatures, such as kine, horses, asses,\r\ncamels, buffaloes, among creatures such as Rakshasas and others, and\r\namong elephants and deer. And, O protector of the earth, owing to those\r\nalready born and to those that were being born, the earth became\r\nincapable of supporting herself. And amongst the sons of Diti and of\r\nDanu, cast out of heaven, some were born on the earth as kings of great\r\npride and insolence. Possessed of great energy, they covered the earth in\r\nvarious shapes. Capable of oppressing all foes, they filled the earth\r\nhaving the ocean for its boundaries. And by their strength they began to\r\noppress Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras and all other\r\ncreatures also. Terrifying and killing all creatures, they traversed the\r\nearth, O king, in bands of hundreds and thousands. Devoid of truth and\r\nvirtue, proud of their strength, and intoxicated with (the wine of)\r\ninsolence, they even insulted the great Rishis in their hermitages.\r\n\r\n"And the earth, thus oppressed by the mighty Asuras endued with great\r\nstrength and energy and possessed of abundant means, began to think of\r\nwaiting on Brahman. The united strength of the creatures (such as Sesha,\r\nthe Tortoise, and the huge Elephant), and of many Seshas too, became\r\ncapable of supporting the earth with her mountains, burdened as she was\r\nwith the weight of the Danavas. And then, O king, the earth, oppressed\r\nwith weight and afflicted with fear, sought the protection of the\r\nGrandsire of all creatures. And she beheld the divine Brahman--the\r\nCreator of the worlds who knoweth no deterioration--surrounded by the\r\ngods, Brahmanas, and great Rishis, of exceeding good fortune, and adored\r\nby delighted Gandharvas and Apsaras always engaged in the service of the\r\ncelestials. And the Earth, desirous of protection, then represented\r\neverything to him, in the presence, O Bharata, of all the Regents of the\r\nworlds. But, O king, the Earth\'s object had been known beforehand to the\r\nOmniscient, Self-create, and Supreme Lord. And, O Bharata, Creator as he\r\nis of the universe, why should he not know fully what is in the minds of\r\nhis creatures including the very gods and the Asuras? O king, the Lord of\r\nthe Earth, the Creator of all creatures, also called Isa, Sambhu,\r\nPrajapati, then spake unto her. And Brahman said, \'O holder of wealth,\r\nfor the accomplishment of the object for which thou hast approached me, I\r\nshall appoint all the dwellers in the heavens.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Having said so unto the Earth, O king, the\r\ndivine Brahman bade her farewell. And the Creator then commanded all the\r\ngods saying, \'To ease the Earth of her burden, go ye and have your births\r\nin her according to your respective parts and seek ye strife (with the\r\nAsuras already born there)\'. And the Creator of all, summoning also all\r\nthe tribes of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras, spake unto them these words\r\nof deep import, \'Go ye and be born amongst men according to your\r\nrespective parts in forms that ye like.\'\r\n\r\n"And all the gods with Indra, on hearing these words of the Lord of the\r\ncelestials--words that were true, desirable under the circumstances, and\r\nfraught with benefit,--accepted them. And they all having resolved to\r\ncome down on earth in their respected parts, then went to Narayana, the\r\nslayer of all foes, at Vaikunth--the one who has the discus and the mace\r\nin his hands, who is clad in purple, who is of great splendour, who hath\r\nthe lotus on his navel, who is the slayer of the foes of the gods, who is\r\nof eyes looking down upon his wide chest (in yoga attitude), who is the\r\nlord of the Prajapati himself, the sovereign of all the gods, of mighty\r\nstrength, who hath the mark of the auspicious whirl on his breast, who is\r\nthe mover of every one\'s faculties and who is adored by all the gods.\r\nHim, Indra the most exalted of persons, addressed, saying, "Be\r\nincarnate." And Hari replied,--\'Let it be.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXV\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Then Indra had a consultation with Narayana about\r\nthe latter\'s descent on the earth from heaven with all the gods according\r\nto their respective parts. And, having commanded all the dwellers in\r\nheaven, Indra returned from the abode of Narayana. And the dwellers in\r\nheaven gradually became incarnate on earth for the destruction of the\r\nAsuras and for the welfare of the three worlds. And then, O tiger among\r\nkings, the celestials had their births, according as they pleased, in the\r\nraces of Brahmarshis and royal sages. And they slew the Danavas,\r\nRakshasas, Gandharvas and Snakes, other man-eaters, and many other\r\ncreatures. And, O bull in the Bharata race, the Danavas, Rakshasas and\r\nGandharvas and Snakes, could not slay the incarnate celestials even in\r\ntheir infancy, so strong they were.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'I desire to hear from the beginning of the births of\r\nthe gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, men, Yakshas and\r\nRakshasas. Therefore, it behoveth thee to tell me about the births of all\r\ncreatures.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Indeed, I shall, having bowed down to the\r\nSelf-create, tell thee in detail the origin of the celestials and other\r\ncreatures. It is known that Brahman hath six spiritual sons, viz.,\r\nMarichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu. And Marichi\'s son is\r\nKasyapa, and from Kasyapa have sprung these creatures. Unto Daksha (one\r\nof the Prajapatis) were born thirteen daughters of great good fortune.\r\nThe daughters of Daksha are, O tiger among men and prince of the Bharata\r\nrace, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhika, Krodha, Pradha, Viswa,\r\nVinata, Kapila, Muni, and Kadru. The sons and grandsons of these, gifted\r\nwith great energy, are countless. From Aditi have sprung the twelve\r\nAdityas who are the lords of the universe. And, O Bharata, as they are\r\naccording to their names, I shall recount them to thee. They are Dhatri,\r\nMitra, Aryaman, Sakra, Varuna, Ansa, Vaga, Vivaswat, Usha, Savitri,\r\nTvashtri, and Vishnu. The youngest, however, is superior to them all in\r\nmerit. Diti had one son called Hiranyakasipu. And the illustrious\r\nHiranyakasipu had five sons, all famous throughout the world. The eldest\r\nof them all was Prahlada, the next was Sahradha; the third was Anuhrada;\r\nand after him were Sivi and Vashkala. And, O Bharata, it is known\r\neverywhere that Prahlada had three sons. They were Virochana, Kumbha, and\r\nNikumbha. And unto Virochana was born a son, Vali, of great prowess. And\r\nthe son of Vali is known to be the great Asura, Vana. And blessed with\r\ngood fortune, Vana was a follower of Rudra, and was known also by the\r\nname of Mahakala. And Danu had forty sons, O Bharata! The eldest of them\r\nall was Viprachitti of great fame Samvara, and Namuchi and Pauloman;\r\nAsiloman, and Kesi and Durjaya; Ayahsiras, Aswasiras, and the powerful\r\nAswasanku; also Gaganamardhan, and Vegavat, and he called Ketumat;\r\nSwarbhanu, Aswa, Aswapati, Vrishaparvan, and then Ajaka; and Aswagriva,\r\nand Sukshama, and Tuhunda of great strength, Ekapada, and Ekachakra,\r\nVirupaksha, Mahodara, and Nichandra, and Nikumbha, Kupata, and then\r\nKapata; Sarabha, and Sulabha, Surya, and then Chandramas; these in the\r\nrace of Danu are stated to be well-known. The Surya and Chandramas (the\r\nSun and the Moon) of the celestials are other persons, and not the sons\r\nof Danu as mentioned above. The following ten, gifted with great strength\r\nand vigour, were also, O king, born in the race of Danu;--Ekaksha,\r\nAmritapa of heroic courage, Pralamva and Naraka, Vatrapi, Satrutapana,\r\nand Satha, the great Asura; Gavishtha, and Vanayu, and the Danava called\r\nDirghajiva. And, O Bharata, the sons and the grandsons of these were\r\nknown to be countless. And Sinhika gave birth to Rahu, the persecutor of\r\nthe Sun and the Moon, and to three others, Suchandra, Chandrahantri, and\r\nChandrapramardana. And the countless progeny of Krura (krodha) were as\r\ncrooked and wicked as herself. And the tribe was wrathful, of crooked\r\ndeeds, and persecutors of their foes. And Danayu also had four sons who\r\nwere bulls among the Asuras. They were Vikshara, Vala, Vira, and Vritra\r\nthe great Asura. And the sons of Kala were all like Yama himself and\r\nsmiter of all foes. And they were of great energy, and oppressors of all\r\nfoes. And the sons of Kala were Vinasana and Krodha, and then\r\nKrodhahantri, and Krodhasatru. And there were many others among the sons\r\nof Kala. And Sukra, the son of a Rishi, was the chief priest of the\r\nAsuras. And the celebrated Sukra had four sons who were priests of the\r\nAsuras. And they were Tashtadhara and Atri, and two others of fierce\r\ndeeds. They were like the Sun himself in energy, and set their hearts on\r\nacquiring the regions of Brahman.\r\n\r\n"Thus hath been recited by me, as heard in the Purana, of progeny of the\r\ngods and the Asuras, both of great strength and energy. I am incapable, O\r\nking, of counting the descendants of these, countless as they are, are\r\nnot much known to fame.\r\n\r\n"And the sons of Vinata were Tarkhya and Arishtanemi, and Garuda and\r\nAruna, and Aruni and Varuni. And Sesha or Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka,\r\nKumara, and Kulika are known to be the sons of Kadru; and Bhimasena,\r\nUgrasena, Suparna, Varuna, Gopati, and Dhritarashtra, and Suryavarchas\r\nthe seventh, Satyavachas, Arkaparna, Prayuta, Bhima, and Chitraratha\r\nknown to fame, of great learning, and a controller of his passions, and\r\nthen Kalisiras, and, O king, Parjanya, the fourteenth in the list, Kali,\r\nthe fifteenth, and Narada, the sixteenth--these Devas and Gandharvas are\r\nknown to be the sons of Muni (Daksha\'s daughter as mentioned before). I\r\nshall recount many others, O Bharata! Anavadya Manu, Vansa, Asura,\r\nMarganapria, Anupa, Subhaga, Vasi, were the daughters brought forth by\r\nPradha, Siddha, and Purna, and Varhin, and Purnayus of great fame,\r\nBrahmacharin, Ratiguna, and Suparna who was the seventh; Viswavasu,\r\nBhanu, and Suchandra who was the tenth, were also the sons of Pradha. All\r\nthese were celestial Gandharvas. And it is also known that this Pradha of\r\ngreat fortune, through the celestial Rishi (Kasyapa, her husband),\r\nbrought forth the sacred of the Apsaras, Alamvusha, Misrakesi,\r\nVidyutparna, Tilottama, Aruna, Rakshita, Rambha, Manorama, Kesini,\r\nSuvahu, Surata, Suraja, and Supria were the daughters, and Ativahu and\r\nthe celebrated Haha and Huhu, and Tumvuru were the sons--the best of\r\nGandharvas--of Pradha and Amrita. The Brahmanas, kine, Gandharvas, and\r\nApsaras, were born of Kapila as stated in the Purana.\r\n\r\n"Thus hath been recited to thee by me the birth of all creatures duly--of\r\nGandharvas and Apsaras, of Snakes, Suparnas, Rudras, and Maruts; of kine\r\nand of Brahmanas blessed with great good fortune, and of sacred deeds.\r\nAnd this account (if read) extendeth the span of life, is sacred, worthy\r\nof all praise, and giveth pleasure to the ear. It should be always heard\r\nand recited to others, in a proper frame of mind.\r\n\r\n"He who duly readeth this account of the birth of all high-souled\r\ncreatures in the presence of the gods and Brahmanas, obtaineth large\r\nprogeny, good fortune, and fame, and attaineth also to excellent worlds\r\nhereafter.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXVI\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'It is known that the spiritual sons of Brahman were\r\nthe six great Rishis (already mentioned). There was another of the name\r\nof Sthanu. And the sons of Sthanu, gifted with great energy, were, it is\r\nknown, eleven. They were Mrigavayadha, Sarpa, Niriti of great fame:\r\nAjaikapat, Ahivradhna, and Pinaki, the oppressor of foes; Dahana and\r\nIswara, and Kapali of great splendour; and Sthanu, and the illustrious\r\nBharga. These are called the eleven Rudras. It hath been already said,\r\nthat Marichi, Angiras. Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Kratu--these six great\r\nRishis of great energy--are the sons of Brahman. It is well-known in the\r\nworld that Angiras\'s sons are three,--Vrihaspati, Utathya, and Samvarta,\r\nall of rigid vows. And, O king, it is said that the sons of Atri are\r\nnumerous. And, being great Rishis, they are all conversant with the\r\nVedas, crowned with ascetic success, and of souls in perfect peace. And,\r\nO tiger among kings, the sons of Pulastya of great wisdom are Rakshasas,\r\nMonkeys, Kinnaras (half-men and half-horses), and Yakshas. And, O king,\r\nthe son of Pulaha were, it is said, the Salabhas (the winged insects),\r\nthe lions, the Kimpurushas (half-lions and half-men), the tigers, bears,\r\nand wolves. And the sons of Kratu, sacred as sacrifices, are the\r\ncompanions of Surya, (the Valikhilyas), known in three worlds and devoted\r\nto truth and vows. And, O protector of the Earth, the illustrious Rishi\r\nDaksha, of soul in complete peace, and of great asceticism, sprung from\r\nthe right toe of Brahman. And from the left toe of Brahman sprang the\r\nwife of the high-souled Daksha. And the Muni begat upon her fifty\r\ndaughters; and all those daughters were of faultless features and limbs\r\nand of eyes like lotus-petals. And the lord Daksha, not having any sons,\r\nmade those daughters his Putrikas (so that their sons might belong both\r\nto himself and to their husbands). And Daksha bestowed, according to the\r\nsacred ordinance, ten of his daughters on Dharma, twenty-seven on Chandra\r\n(the Moon), and thirteen on Kasyapa. Listen as I recount the wives of\r\nDharma according to their names. They are ten in all--Kirti, Lakshmi,\r\nDhriti, Medha, Pushti, Sraddha, Kria, Buddhi, Lajja, and Mali. These are\r\nthe wives of Dharma as appointed by the Self-create. It is known also\r\nthroughout the world that the wives of Soma (Moon) are twenty-seven. And\r\nthe wives of Soma, all of sacred vows, are employed in indicating time;\r\nand they are the Nakshatras and the Yoginis and they became so for\r\nassisting the courses of the worlds.\r\n\r\n"And Brahman had another son named Manu. And Manu had a son of the name\r\nof Prajapati. And the sons of Prajapati were eight and were called Vasus\r\nwhom I shall name in detail. They were Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Aha, Anila,\r\nAnala, Pratyusha, and Prabhasa. These eight are known as the Vasus. Of\r\nthese, Dhara and the truth-knowing Dhruva were born of Dhumra; Chandramas\r\n(Soma) and Swasana (Anila) were born of the intelligent Swasa; Aha was\r\nthe son of Rata: and Hutasana (Anala) of Sandilya; and Pratyusha and\r\nPrabhasa were the sons of Prabhata. And Dhara had two sons, Dravina and\r\nHuta-havya-vaha. And the son of Dhruva is the illustrious Kala (Time),\r\nthe destroyer of the worlds. And Soma\'s son is the resplendent Varchas.\r\nAnd Varchas begot upon his wife Manohara three sons--Sisira, and Ramana.\r\nAnd the son of Aha were Jyotih, Sama, Santa, and also Muni. And the son\r\nof Agni is the handsome Kumara born in a forest of reeds. And, he is also\r\ncalled Kartikeya because he was reared by Krittika and others. And, after\r\nKartikeya, there were born his three brothers Sakha, Visakha, Naigameya.\r\nAnd the wife of Anila is Siva, and Siva\'s son were Manojava and\r\nAvijnataagati. These two were the sons of Anila. The son of Pratyusha,\r\nyou must know, is the Rishi named Devala; and Devala had two sons who\r\nwere both exceedingly forgiving and of great mental power. And the sister\r\nof Vrihaspati, the first of women, uttering the sacred truth, engaged in\r\nascetic penances, roamed over the whole earth; and she became the wife of\r\nPrabhasa, the eighth Vasu. And she brought forth the illustrious\r\nViswakarman, the founder of all arts. And he was the originator of a\r\nthousand arts, the engineer of the immortals, the maker of all kinds of\r\nornaments, and the first of artists. And he it was who constructed the\r\ncelestial cars of the gods, and mankind are enabled to live in\r\nconsequence of the inventions of that illustrious one. And he is\r\nworshipped, for that reason, by men. And he is eternal and immutable,\r\nthis Viswakarman.\r\n\r\n"And the illustrious Dharma, the dispenser of all happiness, assuming a\r\nhuman countenance, came out through the right breast of Brahman. And\r\nAhasta (Dharma) hath three excellent sons capable of charming every\r\ncreature. And they are Sama, Kama, Harsha (Peace, Desire, and Joy). And\r\nby their energy they are supporting the worlds. And the wife of Kama is\r\nRati, of Sama is Prapti; and the wife of Harsha is Nanda. And upon them,\r\nindeed, are the worlds made to depend.\r\n\r\n"And the son of Marichi is Kasyapa. And Kasyapa\'s offspring are the gods\r\nand the Asuras. And, therefore, is Kasyapa, the Father of the worlds. And\r\nTvashtri, of the form of Vadava (a mare), became the wife of Savitri. And\r\nshe gave birth, in the skies, to two greatly fortunate twins, the Aswins.\r\nAnd, O king, the sons of Aditi are twelve with Indra heading them all.\r\nAnd the youngest of them all was Vishnu upon whom the worlds depend.\r\n\r\n"These are the thirty-three gods (the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the\r\ntwelve Adityas, Prajapati, and Vashatkara). I shall now recount their\r\nprogeny according to their Pakshas, Kulas, and Ganas. The Rudras, the\r\nSaddhyas, the Maruts, the Vasus, the Bhargavas, and the Viswedevas are\r\neach reckoned as a Paksha. Garuda the son of Vinata and the mighty Aruna\r\nalso, and the illustrious Vrihaspati are reckoned among the Adityas. The\r\ntwin Aswins, all annual plants, and all inferior animals, are reckoned\r\namong the Guhyakas.\r\n\r\n"These are the Ganas of the gods recited to thee, O king! This recitation\r\nwashes men of all sins.\r\n\r\n"The illustrious Bhrigu came out, ripping open the breast of Brahman. The\r\nlearned Sukra is Bhrigu\'s son. And the learned Sukra becoming a planet\r\nand engaged according to the command of the Self-existent in pouring and\r\nwithholding rain, and in dispensing and remitting calamities, traverses,\r\nfor sustaining the lives of all the creatures in the three worlds,\r\nthrough the skies. And the learned Sukra, of great intelligence and\r\nwisdom, of rigid vows, leading the life of a Brahmacharin, divided\r\nhimself in twain by power of asceticism, and became the spiritual guide\r\nof both the Daityas and the gods. And after Sukra was thus employed by\r\nBrahman in seeking the welfare (of the gods and the Asuras), Bhrigu begot\r\nanother excellent son. This was Chyavana who was like the blazing sun, of\r\nvirtuous soul, and of great fame. And he came out of his mother\'s womb in\r\nanger and became the cause of his mother\'s release, O king (from the\r\nhands of the Rakshasas). And Arushi, the daughter of Manu, became the\r\nwife of the wise Chyavana. And, on her was begotten Aurva of great\r\nreputation. And he came out, ripping open the thigh of Arushi. And Aurva\r\nbegot Richika. And Richika even in his boyhood became possessed of great\r\npower and energy, and of every virtue. And Richika begot Jamadagni. And\r\nthe high-souled Jamadagni had four sons. And the youngest of them all was\r\nRama (Parasurama). And Rama was superior to all his brothers in the\r\npossession of good qualities. And he was skilful in all weapons, and\r\nbecame the slayer of the Kshatriyas. And he had his passions under\r\ncomplete control. And Aurva had a hundred sons with Jamadagni the eldest.\r\nAnd these hundred sons had offspring by thousands spread over this earth.\r\n\r\n"And Brahman had two other sons, viz., Dhatri and Vidhatri who stayed\r\nwith Manu. Their sister is the auspicious Lakshmi having her abode amid\r\nlotuses. And the spiritual sons of Lakshmi are the sky-ranging horses.\r\nAnd the daughter born of Sukra, named Divi, became the eldest wife of\r\nVaruna. Of her were born a son named Vala and a daughter named Sura\r\n(wine), to the joy of the gods. And Adharma (Sin) was born when creatures\r\n(from want of food) began to devour one another. And Adharma always\r\ndestroys every creature. And Adharma hath Niriti for his wife, whence the\r\nRakshasas who are called Nairitas (offspring of Niriti). And she hath\r\nalso three other cruel sons always engaged in sinful deeds. They are\r\nBhaya (fear), Mahabhaya (terror), and Mrityu (Death) who is always\r\nengaged in slaying every created thing. And, as he is all-destroying, he\r\nhath no wife, and no son. And Tamra brought forth five daughters known\r\nthroughout the worlds. They are Kaki (crow), Syeni (hawk), Phasi (hen),\r\nDhritarashtri (goose), and Suki (parrot). And Kaki brought forth the\r\ncrows; Syeni, the hawks, the cocks and vultures, Dhritarashtri, all ducks\r\nand swans; and she also brought forth all Chakravakas; and the fair Suki,\r\nof amiable qualities, and possessing all auspicious signs brought forth\r\nall the parrots. And Krodha gave birth to nine daughters, all of wrathful\r\ndisposition. And their names were Mrigi, Mrigamanda, Hari, Bhadramana,\r\nMatangi, Sarduli, Sweta, Surabhi, and the agreeable Surasa blessed with\r\nevery virtue. And, O foremost of men, the offspring of Mrigi are all\r\nanimals of the deer species. And the offspring of Mrigamanda are all\r\nanimals of the bear species and those called Srimara (sweet-footed). And\r\nBhadramana begot the celestial elephants, Airavata. And the offspring of\r\nHari are all animals of the simian species endued with great activity, so\r\nalso all the horses. And those animals also, that are called Go-langula\r\n(the cow-tailed), are said to be the offspring of Hari. And Sarduli begot\r\nlions and tigers in numbers, and also leopards and all other strong\r\nanimals. And, O king, the offspring of Matangi are all the elephants. And\r\nSweta begat the large elephant known by the name of Sweta, endued with\r\ngreat speed. And, O king, Surabhi gave birth to two daughters, the\r\namiable Rohini and the far-famed Gandharvi. And, O Bharata, she had also\r\ntwo other daughters named Vimala and Anala. From Rohini have sprung all\r\nkine, and from Gandharvi all animals of the horse species. And Anala\r\nbegat the seven kinds of trees yielding pulpy fruits. (They are the date,\r\nthe palm, the hintala, the tali, the little date, the nut, and the\r\ncocoanut.) And she had also another daughter called Suki (the mother of\r\nthe parrot species). And Surasa bore a son called Kanka (a species of\r\nlong-feathered birds). And Syeni, the wife of Aruna, gave birth to two\r\nsons of great energy and strength, named Sampati and the mighty Jatayu.\r\nSurasa also bore the Nagas, and Kadru, the Punnagas (snakes). And Vinata\r\nhad two sons Garuda and Aruna, known far and wide. And, O king of men, O\r\nforemost of intelligent persons, thus hath the genealogy of all the\r\nprincipal creatures been fully described by me. By listening to this, a\r\nman is fully cleansed of all his sins, and acquireth great knowledge, and\r\nfinally attaineth to the first of states in after-life!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXVII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O worshipful one, I wish to hear from thee in detail\r\nabout the birth, among men, of the gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the\r\nRakshasas, the lions, the tigers, and the other animals, the snakes, the\r\nbirds, and in fact, of all creatures. I wish also to hear about the acts\r\nand achievements of those, in due order, after they became incarnate in\r\nhuman forms.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'O king of men, I shall first tell thee all about\r\nthose celestials and Danavas that were born among men--The first of\r\nDanavas, who was known by the name of Viprachitti, became that bull among\r\nmen, noted as Jarasandha. And, O king, that son of Diti, who was known as\r\nHiranyakasipu, was known in this world among men as the powerful\r\nSisupala. He who had been known as Samhlada, the younger brother of\r\nPrahlada, became among men the famous Salya, that bull amongst Valhikas.\r\nThe spirited Anuhlada who had been the youngest became noted in the world\r\nas Dhrishtaketu. And, O king, that son of Diti who had been known as Sivi\r\nbecame on earth the famous monarch Druma. And he who was known as the\r\ngreat Asura Vashkala became on earth the great Bhagadatta. The five great\r\nAsuras gifted with great energy, Ayahsira, Aswasira, the spirited\r\nAysanku, Gaganamurdhan, and Vegavat, were all born in the royal line of\r\nKekaya and all became great monarchs. That other Asura of mighty energy\r\nwho was known by the name of Ketumat became on earth the monarch\r\nAmitaujas of terrible deeds. That great Asura who was known as Swarbhanu\r\nbecame on earth the monarch Ugrasena of fierce deeds. That great Asura\r\nwho was known as Aswa became on earth the monarch Asoka of exceeding\r\nenergy and invincible in battle. And, O king, the younger brother of Aswa\r\nwho was known as Aswapati, a son of Diti, became on earth the mighty\r\nmonarch Hardikya. The great and fortunate Asura who was known as\r\nVrishaparvan became noted on earth as king Dirghaprajna. And, O king, the\r\nyounger brother of Vrishaparvan who was known by the name of Ajaka became\r\nnoted on earth as king Salwa. The powerful and mighty Asura who was known\r\nas Aswagriva became noted on earth as king Rochamana. And, O king, the\r\nAsura who was known as Sukshma, endued with great intelligence and whose\r\nachievements also were great, became on earth the famous king\r\nVrihadratha. And that first of Asuras who was known by the name of\r\nTuhunda, became noted on earth as the monarch, Senavindu. That Asura of\r\ngreat strength who was known as Ishupa became the monarch Nagnajita of\r\nfamous prowess. The great Asura who was known as Ekachakra became noted\r\non earth as Pritivindhya. The great Asura Virupaksha capable of\r\ndisplaying various modes of fight became noted on earth as king\r\nChitravarman. The first of Danavas, the heroic Hara, who humbled the\r\npride of all foes became on earth the famous and fortunate Suvahu. The\r\nAsura Suhtra of great energy and the destroyer of foemen, became noted on\r\nearth as the fortunate monarch, Munjakesa. That Asura of great\r\nintelligence called Nikumbha, who was never vanquished in battle was born\r\non earth as king Devadhipa, the first among monarchs. That great Asura\r\nknown amongst the sons of Diti by the name of Sarabha became on earth the\r\nroyal sage called Paurava. And, O king, the great Asura of exceeding\r\nenergy, the fortunate Kupatha, was born on earth as the famous monarch\r\nSuparswa. The great Asura, O king, who was called Kratha, was born on\r\nearth as the royal sage Parvateya of form resplendent like a golden\r\nmountain. He amongst the Asura who was known as Salabha the second,\r\nbecame on earth the monarch Prahlada in the country of the Valhikas. The\r\nforemost, among the sons of Diti known by the name of Chandra and\r\nhandsome as the lord of the stars himself, became on earth noted as\r\nChandravarman, the king of the Kamvojas. That bull amongst the Danavas\r\nwho was known by the name of Arka became on earth, O king, the royal sage\r\nRishika. That best of Asuras who was known as Mritapa became on earth, O\r\nbest of kings, the monarch, Pascimanupaka. That great Asura of surpassing\r\nenergy known as Garishtha became noted on earth as king Drumasena. The\r\ngreat Asura who was known as Mayura became noted on earth as the monarch\r\nViswa. He who was the younger brother of Mayura and called Suparna became\r\nnoted on earth as the monarch, Kalakirti. The mighty Asura who was known\r\nas Chandrahantri became on earth the royal sage Sunaka. The great Asura\r\nwho was called Chandravinasana became noted on earth as the monarch,\r\nJanaki. That bull amongst the Danavas, O prince of the Kuru race, who was\r\ncalled Dhirghajihva, became noted on earth as Kasiraja. The Graha who was\r\nbrought forth by Sinhika and who persecuted the Sun and the Moon became\r\nnoted on earth as the monarch Kratha. The eldest of the four sons of\r\nDanayu, who was known by the name of Vikshara, became known on earth the\r\nspirited monarch, Vasumitra. The second brother of Vikshara, the great\r\nAsura, was born on earth as the king of the country, called Pandya. That\r\nbest of Asuras who was known by the name of Valina became on earth the\r\nmonarch Paundramatsyaka. And, O king, that great Asura who was known as\r\nVritra became on earth the royal sage known by the name of Manimat. That\r\nAsura who was the younger brother of Vritra and known as Krodhahantri\r\nbecame noted on earth as king Danda. That other Asura who was known by\r\nthe name Krodhavardhana became noted on earth as the monarch, Dandadhara.\r\nThe eight sons of the Kaleyas that were born on earth all became great\r\nkings endued with the prowess of tigers. The eldest of them all became\r\nking Jayatsena in Magadha. The second of them, in prowess, like Indra,\r\nbecame noted on earth as Aparajita. The third of them, endued with great\r\nenergy and power of producing deception, was born on earth as the king of\r\nthe Nishadas gifted with great prowess. That other amongst them who was\r\nknown as the fourth was noted on earth as Srenimat, that best of royal\r\nsages. That great Asura amongst them who was the fifth, became noted on\r\nearth as king Mahanjas, the oppressor of enemies. That great Asura\r\npossessing great intelligence who was the sixth of them became noted on\r\nearth as Abhiru, that best of royal sages. The seventh of them became\r\nknown throughout earth, from the centre to the sea, as king Samudrasena\r\nwell acquainted with the truths of the scriptures. The eighth of the\r\nKaleyas known as Vrihat became on earth a virtuous king ever engaged in\r\nthe good of all creatures. The mighty Danava known by the name of Kukshi\r\nbecame on earth as Parvatiya from his brightness as of a golden mountain.\r\nThe mighty Asura Krathana gifted with great energy became noted on earth\r\nas the monarch Suryaksha. The great Asura of handsome features known by\r\nthe name of Surya, became on earth the monarch of the Valhikas by name\r\nDarada, that foremost of all kings. And, O king, from the tribe of Asuras\r\ncalled Krodhavasa, of whom I have already spoken to thee, were born many\r\nheroic kings on earth. Madraka, and Karnaveshta, Siddhartha, and also\r\nKitaka; Suvira, and Suvahu, and Mahavira, and also Valhika, Kratha,\r\nVichitra, Suratha, and the handsome king Nila; and Chiravasa, and\r\nBhumipala; and Dantavakra, and he who was called Durjaya; that tiger\r\namongst kings named Rukmi; and king Janamejaya, Ashada, and Vayuvega, and\r\nalso Bhuritejas; Ekalavya, and Sumitra, Vatadhana, and also Gomukha; the\r\ntribe of kings called the Karushakas, and also Khemadhurti; Srutayu, and\r\nUdvaha, and also Vrihatsena; Kshema, Ugratirtha, the king of the\r\nKalingas; and Matimat, and he was known as king Iswara; these first of\r\nkings were all born of the Asura class called Krodhavasa.\r\n\r\n"There was also born on earth a mighty Asura known amongst the Danavas by\r\nthe name of Kalanemi, endued with great strength, of grand achievements,\r\nand blessed with a large share of prosperity. He became the mighty son of\r\nUgrasena and was known on earth by the name of Kansa. And he who was\r\nknown among the Asuras by the name of Devaka and was besides in splendour\r\nlike unto Indra himself, was born on earth as the foremost king of the\r\nGandharvas. And, O monarch, know thou that Drona, the son of Bharadwaja,\r\nnot born of any woman, sprung from a portion of the celestial Rishi\r\nVrihaspati of grand achievements. And he was the prince of all bowmen,\r\nconversant with all weapons, of mighty achievements, of great energy.\r\nThou shouldst know he was also well-acquainted with the Vedas and the\r\nscience of arms. And he was of wonderful deeds and the pride of his race.\r\nAnd, O king, his son the heroic Aswatthaman, of eyes like the\r\nlotus-petals, gifted with surpassing energy, and the terror of all foes,\r\nthe great oppressor of all enemies, was born on earth, of the united\r\nportions of Mahadeva, Yama, Kama, and Krodha. And from the curse of\r\nVasishtha and the command also of Indra, the eight Vasus were born of\r\nGanga by her husband Santanu. The youngest of them was Bhishma, the\r\ndispeller of the fears of the Kurus, gifted with great intelligence,\r\nconversant with the Vedas, the first speakers, and the thinner of the\r\nenemy\'s ranks. And possessed of mighty energy and the first of all\r\npersons acquainted with weapons, he encountered the illustrious Rama\r\nhimself, the son of Jamadagni of the Bhrigu race. And, O king, that\r\nBrahman sage who, on earth, was known by the name of Kripa and was the\r\nembodiment of all manliness was born of the tribe of the Rudras. And the\r\nmighty chariot-fighter and king who on earth was known by the name of\r\nSakuni, that crusher of foes, thou shouldst know, O king, was Dwapara\r\nhimself (the third yuga). And he who was Satyaki of sure aim, that\r\nupholder of the pride of Vrishni race, that oppressor of foes, begotten\r\nof the portion of gods called the Maruts. And that royal sage Drupada who\r\non earth was a monarch, the first among all persons bearing arms, was\r\nalso born of the same tribe of the celestials. And, O king, thou shouldst\r\nalso know that Kritavarman, that prince among men, of deeds unsurpassed\r\nby any one, and the foremost of all bulls amongst Kshatriyas, was born of\r\nthe portion of the same celestials. And that royal sage also, Virata by\r\nname, the scorcher of the kingdoms of others, and the great oppressor of\r\nall foes, was born of the portion of the same gods. That son of Arishta\r\nwho was known by the name of Hansa, was born in the Kuru race and became\r\nthe monarch of the Gandharvas. He who was known as Dhritarashtra born of\r\nthe seed of Krishna-Dwaipayana, and gifted with long arms and great\r\nenergy, also a monarch, of the prophetic eye, became blind in consequence\r\nof the fault of his mother and the wrath of the Rishi. His younger\r\nbrother who was possessed of great strength and was really a great being\r\nknown as Pandu, devoted to truth and virtue, was Purity\'s self. And, O\r\nking, thou shouldst know that he who was known on earth as Vidura, who\r\nwas the first of all virtuous men, who was the god of Justice himself,\r\nwas the excellent and greatly fortunate son of the Rishi Atri. The\r\nevil-minded and wicked king Duryodhana, the destroyer of the fair fame of\r\nthe Kurus, was born of a portion of Kali on earth. He it was who caused\r\nall creatures to be slain and the earth to be wasted; and he it was who\r\nfanned the flame of hostility that ultimately consumed all. They who had\r\nbeen the sons of Pulastya (the Rakshasas) were born on earth among men of\r\nDuryodhana\'s brothers, that century of wicked individuals commencing with\r\nDuhasasana as their first. And, O bull among the Bharata princes,\r\nDurmukha, Duhsaha, and others whose names I do not mention, who always\r\nsupported Duryodhana (in all his schemes), were, indeed, the sons of\r\nPulastya. And over and above these hundred, Dhritarashtra had one son\r\nnamed Yuyutsu born of a Vaisya wife.\'\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O illustrious one, tell me the names of\r\nDhritarashtra\'s sons according to the order of their birth beginning from\r\nthe eldest.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'O king, they are as follows: Duryodhana, and\r\nYuyutsu, and also Duhsasana; Duhsaha and Duhshala, and then Durmukha;\r\nVivinsati, and Vikarna, Jalasandha, Sulochna, Vinda and Anuvinda,\r\nDurdharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradharshana; Durmarshana, and Dushkarna, and\r\nKarna; Chitra and Vipachitra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, and Angada,\r\nDurmada, and Dushpradharsha, Vivitsu, Vikata, Sama; Urananabha, and\r\nPadmanabha, Nanda and Upanandaka; Sanapati, Sushena, Kundodara; Mahodara;\r\nChitravahu, and Chitravarman, Suvarman, Durvirochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu,\r\nChitrachapa and Sukundala, Bhimavega, Bhimavala, Valaki, Bhimavikrama,\r\nUgrayudha, Bhimaeara, Kanakayu, Dridhayudha, Dridhavarman, Dridhakshatra\r\nSomakirti, Anadara; Jarasandha, Dridhasandha, Satyasandha, Sahasravaeh;\r\nUgrasravas, Ugrasena, and Kshemamurti; Aprajita, Panditaka, Visalaksha,\r\nDuradhara, Dridhahasta, and Suhasta, Vatavega, and Suvarchasa;\r\nAdityaketu, Vahvasin, Nagadatta and Anuyaina; Nishangi, Kuvachi, Dandi,\r\nDandadhara, Dhanugraha; Ugra, Bhimaratha, Vira, Viravahu, Alolupa;\r\nAbhaya, and Raudrakarman, also he who was Dridharatha; Anadhrishya,\r\nKundaveda, Viravi, Dhirghalochana; Dirghavahu; Mahavahu; Vyudhoru,\r\nKanakangana; Kundaja and Chitraka. There was also a daughter named\r\nDuhsala who was over and above the hundred. And Yuyutsu who was\r\nDhritarashtra\'s son by a Vaisya wife, was also over and above the\r\nhundred. Thus, O king, have I recited the names of the hundred sons and\r\nalso that of the daughter (of Dhritarashtra). Thou hast now known their\r\nnames according to the order of their births. All of them were heroes and\r\ngreat car-warriors, and skilled in the art of warfare. Besides, all of\r\nthem were versed in the Vedas, and, O king, all of them had got through\r\nthe scriptures. All of them were mighty in attack and defence, and all\r\nwere graced with learning. And, O monarch, all of them had wives suitable\r\nto them in grace and accomplishments. And, O king, when the time came,\r\nthe Kaurava monarch bestowed his daughter Duhsala on Jayadratha, the king\r\nof the Sindhus, agreeably to the counsels of Sakuni.\r\n\r\n"And, O monarch, learn that king Yudhishthira was a portion of Dharma;\r\nthat Bhimasena was of the deity of wind; that Arjuna was of Indra, the\r\nchief of the celestials; and that Nakula and Sahadeva, the handsomest\r\nbeings among all creatures, and unrivalled for beauty on earth, were\r\nsimilarly portions of the twin Aswins. And he who was known as the mighty\r\nVarchas, the son of Soma, became Abhimanyu of wonderful deeds, the son of\r\nArjuna. And before his incarnation, O king, the god Soma had said these\r\nwords to the celestials, \'I cannot give (part with) my son. He is dearer\r\nto me than life itself. Let this be the compact and let it be not\r\ntransgressed. The destruction of the Asuras on earth is the work of the\r\ncelestials, and, therefore, it is our work as well. Let this Varchas,\r\ntherefore, go thither, but let him not stay there long. Nara, whose\r\ncompanion is Narayana, will be born as Indra\'s son and indeed, will be\r\nknown as Arjuna, the mighty son of Pandu. This boy of mine shall be his\r\nson and become a mighty car-warrior in his boyhood. And let him, ye best\r\nof immortals, stay on earth for sixteen years. And when he attaineth to\r\nhis sixteenth year, the battle shall take place in which all who are born\r\nof your portions shall achieve the destruction of mighty warriors. But a\r\ncertain encounter shall take place without both Nara and Narayana (taking\r\nany part in it). And, indeed, your portions, ye celestials, shall fight,\r\nhaving made that disposition of the forces which is known by the name of\r\nthe Chakra-vyuha. And my son shall compel all foes to retreat before him.\r\nThe boy of mighty arms having penetrated the impenetrable array, shall\r\nrange within it fearlessly and send a fourth part of the hostile force,\r\nin course of half a day, unto the regions of the king of the dead. Then\r\nwhen numberless heroes and mighty car-warriors will return to the charge\r\ntowards the close of the day, my boy of mighty arms, shall reappear\r\nbefore me. And he shall beget one heroic son in his line, who shall\r\ncontinue the almost extinct Bharata race.\' Hearing these words of Soma,\r\nthe dwellers in heaven replied, \'So be it.\' And then all together\r\napplauded and worshipped (Soma) the king of stars. Thus, O king, have I\r\nrecited to thee the (particulars of the) birth of thy father\'s father.\r\n\r\n"Know also, O monarch, that the mighty car-warrior Dhrishtadyumna was a\r\nportion of Agni. And know also that Sikhandin, who was at first a female,\r\nwas (the incarnation of) a Rakshasa. And, O bull in Bharata\'s race, they\r\nwho became the five sons of Draupadi, those bulls amongst the Bharata\r\nprinces, were the celestials known as the Viswas. Their names were\r\nPritivindhya, Sutasoma, Srutakirti, Satanika, Nakula, and Srutasena,\r\nendued with mighty energy.\r\n\r\n"Sura, the foremost of the Yadus, was the father of Vasudeva. He had a\r\ndaughter called Pritha, who for her beauty, was unrivalled on earth. And\r\nSura, having promised in the presence of fire that he would give his\r\nfirstborn child to Kuntibhoja, the son of his paternal aunt, who was\r\nwithout offspring, gave his daughter unto the monarch in expectation of\r\nhis favours. Kuntibhoja thereupon made her his daughter. And she became,\r\nthenceforth, in the house of her (adoptive) father, engaged in attending\r\nupon Brahmanas and guests. One day she had to wait upon the wrathful\r\nascetic of rigid vows, Durvasa by name, acquainted with truth and fully\r\nconversant with the mysteries of religion. And Pritha with all possible\r\ncare gratified the wrathful Rishi with soul under complete control. The\r\nholy one, gratified with the attentions bestowed on him by the maiden,\r\ntold her, \'I am satisfied, O fortunate one, with thee! By this mantra\r\n(that I am about to give thee), thou shall be able to summon (to thy\r\nside) whatever celestials thou likest. And, by their grace, shall thou\r\nalso obtain children.\' Thus addressed, the girl (a little while after),\r\nseized with curiosity, summoned, during the period of her maiden-hood,\r\nthe god Surya. And the lord of light thereupon made her conceive and\r\nbegot on her a son who became the first of all wielders of weapons. From\r\nfear of relatives she brought forth in secrecy that child who had come\r\nout with ear-rings and coat of mail. And he was gifted with the beauty of\r\na celestial infant, and in splendour was like unto the maker of day\r\nhimself. And every part of his body was symmetrical and well-adorned. And\r\nKunti cast the handsome child into the water. But the child thus thrown\r\ninto the water was taken up by the excellent husband of Radha and given\r\nby him to his wife to be adopted by her as their son. And the couple gave\r\nhim the name of Vasusena, by which appellation the child soon became\r\nknown all over the land. And, as he grew up, he became very strong and\r\nexcelled in all weapons. The first of all successful persons, he soon\r\nmastered the sciences. And when the intelligent one having truth for his\r\nstrength recited the Vedas, there was nothing he would not then give to\r\nthe Brahmanas. At that time Indra, the originator of all things, moved by\r\nthe desire of benefiting his own son Arjuna, assumed the guise of a\r\nBrahmana, came to him, and begged of the hero his ear-rings and natural\r\narmour. And the hero taking off his ear-rings and armour gave them unto\r\nthe Brahmana. And Sakra (accepting the gift) presented to the giver a\r\ndart, surprised (at his open handedness), and addressed him in these\r\nwords, \'O invincible one, amongst the celestials, Asuras, men,\r\nGandharvas, Nagas, and Rakshasas, he at whom thou hurlest (this weapon),\r\nthat one shall certainly be slain.\' And the son of Surya was at first\r\nknown in the world by the name of Vasusena. But, for his deeds, he\r\nsubsequently came to be called Karna. And because that hero of great fame\r\nhad taken off his natural armour, therefore was he--the first son of\r\nPritha--called Kama. And, O best of kings, the hero began to grow up in\r\nthe Suta caste. And, O king, know thou that Kama--the first of all\r\nexalted men--the foremost of all wielders of weapons--the slayer of\r\nfoes--and the best portion of the maker of day--was the friend and\r\ncounsellor of Duryodhana. And he, called Vasudeva, endued with great\r\nvalour, was among men a portion of him called Narayana--the god of\r\ngods--eternal. And Valadeva of exceeding strength was a portion of the\r\nNaga, Sesha. And, O monarch, know that Pradyumna of great energy was\r\nSanatkumara. And in this way the portion of various other dwellers in\r\nheaven became exalted men in the race of Vasudeva, increasing the glory\r\nthereof. And, O king, the portions of the tribe of Apsaras which I have\r\nmentioned already, also became incarnate on earth according to Indra\'s\r\ncommands--And sixteen thousand portions of those goddesses became, O\r\nking, in this world of men, the wives of Vasudeva. And a portion of Sri\r\nherself became incarnate on earth, for the gratification of Narayana, in\r\nthe line of Bhishmaka. And she was by name the chaste Rukmini. And the\r\nfaultless Draupadi, slender-waisted like the wasp, was born of a portion\r\nof Sachi (the queen of the celestials), in the line of Drupada. And she\r\nwas neither low nor tall in stature. And she was of the fragrance of the\r\nblue lotus, of eyes large as lotus-petals, of thighs fair and round, of\r\ndense masses of black curly hair. And endued with every auspicious\r\nfeature and of complexion like that of the emerald, she became the\r\ncharmer of the hearts of five foremost of men. And the two goddesses\r\nSiddhi and Dhriti became the mothers of those five, and were called Kunti\r\nand Madri. And she who was Mati became the daughter (Gandhari) of Suvala.\r\n\r\n"Thus, O king, have I recited to thee all about the incarnation,\r\naccording to their respective portions, of the gods, the Asuras, the\r\nGandharvas, the Apsaras, and of the Rakshasas. They who were born on\r\nearth as monarchs invincible in battle, those high-souled ones who were\r\nborn in the wide extended line of the Yadus, they who were born as mighty\r\nmonarchs in other lines, they who were born as Brahmanas and Kshatriyas\r\nand Vaisyas, have all been recited by me duly. And this account of the\r\nincarnation (of superior beings according to their respective portions)\r\ncapable of bestowing wealth, fame, offspring, long life, and success,\r\nshould always be listened to in a proper frame of mind. And having\r\nlistened to this account of incarnation, according to their portions, of\r\ngods, Gandharvas, and Rakshasas, the hearer becoming acquainted with the\r\ncreation, preservation, and destruction of the universe and acquiring\r\nwisdom, is never cast down even under the most engrossing sorrows.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXVIII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O Brahmana, I have, indeed, heard from thee this\r\naccount of the incarnation, according to their portions, of the gods, the\r\nDanavas, the Rakshasas, and also of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras. I\r\nhowever, again desire to hear of the dynasty of the Kurus from the very\r\nbeginning. Therefore, O Brahmana, speak of this in the presence of all\r\nthese regenerate Rishis.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'O exalted one of Bharata\'s race, the founder of the\r\nPaurava line was Dushmanta gifted with great energy. And he was the\r\nprotector of the earth bounded by the four seas. And that king had full\r\nsway over four quarters of this world. And he was the lord also of\r\nvarious regions in the midst of the sea. And that great oppressor of all\r\nfoes had sway over the countries even of the Mlechchhas.\r\n\r\n"And during his rule there were no men of mixed castes, no tillers of the\r\nsoil (for the land, of itself, yielded produce), no workers of mines (for\r\nthe surface of the earth yielded in abundance), and no sinful men. All\r\nwere virtuous, and did everything from virtuous motives, O tiger among\r\nmen. There was no fear of thieves, O dear one, no fear of famine, no fear\r\noff disease. And all four orders took pleasure in doing their respective\r\nduties and never performed religious acts for obtaining fruition of\r\ndesires. And his subjects, depending upon him, never entertained any\r\nfear. And Parjanya (Indra) poured showers at the proper time, and the\r\nproduce of the fields was always pulpy and juicy. And the earth was full\r\nof all kinds of wealth and all kinds of animals. And the Brahmanas were\r\nalways engaged in their duties and they were always truthful. And the\r\nyouthful monarch was endued with wonderful prowess and a physical frame\r\nhard as the thunderbolt, so that he could, taking up the mountain Mandara\r\nwith its forests and bushes, support it on his arms. And he was\r\nwell-skilled in four kinds of encounters with the mace (hurling it at\r\nfoes at a distance, striking at those that are near, whirling it in the\r\nmidst of many, and driving the foe before). And he was skilled also in\r\nthe use of all kinds of weapons and in riding elephants and horses. And\r\nin strength he was like unto Vishnu, in splendour like unto the maker of\r\nday, in gravity like unto the ocean, and in patience, like unto the\r\nearth. And the monarch was loved by all his subjects, and he ruled his\r\ncontented people virtuously.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXIX\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'I desire to hear from thee about the birth and life of\r\nthe high-souled Bharata and of the origin of Sakuntala. And, O holy one,\r\nI also desire to hear all about Dushmanta--that lion among men--and how\r\nthe hero obtained Sakuntala. It behoveth thee, O knower of truth and the\r\nfirst of all intelligent men, to tell me everything.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Once on a time (king Dushmanta) of mighty arms,\r\naccompanied by a large force, went into the forest. And he took with him\r\nhundreds of horses and elephants. And the force that accompanied the\r\nmonarch was of four kinds (foot-soldiers, car-warriors, cavalry, and\r\nelephants)--heroes armed with swords and darts and bearing in their hands\r\nmaces and stout clubs. And surrounded by hundreds of warriors with lances\r\nand spears in their hands, the monarch set out on his journey. And with\r\nthe leonine roars of the warriors and the notes of conchs and sound of\r\ndrums, with the rattle of the car-wheels and shrieks of huge elephants,\r\nall mingling with the neighing of horses and the clash of weapons of the\r\nvariously armed attendants in diverse dresses, there arose a deafening\r\ntumult while the king was on his march. And ladies gifted with great\r\nbeauty beheld from the terraces of goodly mansions that heroic monarch,\r\nthe achiever of his own fame. And the ladies saw that he was like unto\r\nSakra, the slayer of his enemies, capable of repulsing the elephants of\r\nfoes--And they believed that he was the wielder of the thunderbolt\r\nhimself. And they said, \'This is that tiger among men who in battle is\r\nequal unto the Vasus in prowess, and in consequence of the might of whose\r\narms no foes are left.\' And saying this, the ladies from affection\r\ngratified the monarch by showering flowers on his head. And followed by\r\nforemost of Brahmanas uttering blessings all the way, the king in great\r\ngladness of heart went towards the forest, eager for slaying the deer.\r\nAnd many Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras, followed the monarch\r\nwho was like unto the king of the celestials seated on the back of a\r\nproud elephant. The citizens and other classes followed the monarch for\r\nsome distance. And they at last refrained from going farther at the\r\ncommand of the king. And the king, then, ascending his chariot of winged\r\nspeed, filled the whole earth and even the heavens, with the rattle of\r\nhis chariot wheels. And, as he went, he saw around him a forest like unto\r\nNandana itself (the celestial garden). And it was full of Vilwa, Arka,\r\nKhadira (catechu), Kapittha (wood-apple) and Dhava trees. And he saw that\r\nthe soil was uneven and scattered over with blocks of stone loosened from\r\nthe neighbouring cliffs. And he saw that it was without water and without\r\nhuman beings and lay extended for many Yojanas around. And it was full of\r\ndeer, and lions, and other terrible beasts of prey.\r\n\r\n"And king Dushmanta, that tiger among men, assisted by his followers and\r\nthe warriors in his train, agitated that forest, killing numerous\r\nanimals. And Dushmanta, piercing them with his arrows, felled numerous\r\ntigers that were within shooting range. And the king wounded many that\r\nwere too distant, and killed many that were too near with his heavy\r\nsword. And that foremost of all wielders of darts killed many by hurling\r\nhis darts at them. And well-conversant with the art of whirling the mace,\r\nthe king of immeasurable prowess fearlessly wandered over the forest. And\r\nthe king roamed about, killing the denizens of the wilderness sometimes\r\nwith his sword and sometimes by fast-descending blows of his mace and\r\nheavy club.\r\n\r\n"And when the forest was so disturbed by the king possessed of wonderful\r\nenergy and by the warriors in his train delighting in warlike sports, the\r\nlions began to desert it in numbers. And herds of animals deprived of\r\ntheir leaders, from fear and anxiety began to utter loud cries as they\r\nfled in all directions. And fatigued with running, they began to fall\r\ndown on all sides, unable to slake their thirst, having reached\r\nriver-beds that were perfectly dry. And many so falling were eaten up by\r\nthe hungry warriors. While others were eaten up after having been duly\r\nquartered and roasted in fires lit up by them. And many strong elephants,\r\nmaddened with the wounds they received and alarmed beyond measure, fled\r\nwith trunks raised on high. And those wild elephants, betraying the usual\r\nsymptoms of alarm by urinating and ejecting the contents of their\r\nstomachs and vomiting blood in large quantities, trampled, as they ran,\r\nmany warriors to death. And that forest which had been full of animals,\r\nwas by the king with his bands of followers and with sharp weapons soon\r\nmade bereft of lions and tigers and other monarchs of the wilderness.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXX\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Then the king with his followers, having killed\r\nthousands of animals, entered another forest with a view to hunting. And\r\nattended by a single follower and fatigued with hunger and thirst, he\r\ncame upon a large desert on the frontiers of the forest. And having\r\ncrossed this herbless plain, the king came upon another forest full of\r\nthe retreats of ascetics, beautiful to look at, delightful to the heart\r\nand of cool agreeable breezes. And it was full of trees covered with\r\nblossoms, the soil overgrown with the softest and greenest grass,\r\nextending for many miles around, and echoing with the sweet notes of\r\nwinged warblers. And it resounded with the notes of the male Kokila and\r\nof the shrill cicala. And it was full of magnificent trees with\r\noutstretched branches forming a shady canopy overhead. And the bees\r\nhovered over flowery creepers all around. And there were beautiful bowers\r\nin every place. And there was no tree without fruits, none that had\r\nprickles on it, none that had no bees swarming around it. And the whole\r\nforest resounded with the melody of winged choristers. And it was decked\r\nwith the flowers of every season. And there were refreshing shades of\r\nblossoming trees.\r\n\r\n"Such was the delicious and excellent forest that the great bowman\r\nentered. And trees with branches beautified with clusters began to wave\r\ngently at the soft breeze and rain their flowers over the monarch\'s head.\r\nAnd the trees, clad in their flowery attires of all colours, with\r\nsweet-throated warblers perched on them, stood there in rows with heads\r\ntouching the very heavens. And around their branches hanging down with\r\nthe weight of flowers the bees tempted by the honey hummed in sweet\r\nchorus. And the king, endued with great energy, beholding innumerable\r\nspots covered with bowers of creepers decked with clusters of flowers,\r\nfrom excess of gladness, became very much charmed. And the forest was\r\nexceedingly beautiful in consequence of those trees ranged around with\r\nflowery branches twining with each other and looking like so many\r\nrainbows for gaudiness and variety of colour. And it was the resort of\r\nbands of Siddhas, of the Charanas, of tribes of Gandharvas, and Apsaras,\r\nof monkeys and Kinnaras drunk with delight. Delicious cool, and fragrant\r\nbreezes, conveying the fragrance from fresh flowers, blew in all\r\ndirections as if they had come there to sport with the trees. And the\r\nking saw that charming forest gifted with such beauties. And it was\r\nsituated in a delta of the river, and the cluster of high trees standing\r\ntogether lent the place the look of a gaudy pole erected to Indra\'s\r\nhonour.\r\n\r\n"And in that forest which was the resort of ever cheerful birds, the\r\nmonarch saw a delightful and charming retreat of ascetics. And there were\r\nmany trees around it. And the sacred fire was burning within it. And the\r\nking worshipped that unrivalled retreat. And he saw seated in it numerous\r\nYotis, Valakhilyas and other Munis. And it was adorned with many chambers\r\ncontaining sacrificial fire. And the flowers dropping from the trees had\r\nformed a thick carpet spread over the ground. And the spot looked\r\nexceedingly beautiful with those tall trees of large trunks. And by it\r\nflowed, O king, the sacred and transparent Malini with every species of\r\nwater-fowl playing on its bosom. And that stream infused gladness into\r\nthe hearts of the ascetics who resorted to it for purposes of ablutions.\r\nAnd the king beheld on its banks many innocent animals of the deer\r\nspecies and was exceedingly delighted with all that he saw.\r\n\r\n"And the monarch, the course of whose chariot no foe could obstruct, then\r\nentered that asylum which was like unto the region of the celestials,\r\nbeing exceedingly beautiful all over. And the king saw that it stood on\r\nthe margin of the sacred stream which was like the mother of all the\r\nliving creatures residing in its vicinage. And on its bank sported the\r\nChakravaka, and waves of milkwhite foam. And there stood also the\r\nhabitations of Kinnaras. And monkeys and bears too disported themselves\r\nin numbers. And there lived also holy ascetics engaged in studies and\r\nmeditation. And there could be seen also elephants and tigers and snakes.\r\nAnd it was on the banks of that stream that the excellent asylum of the\r\nillustrious Kasyapa stood, offering a home to numerous Rishis of great\r\nascetic merit. And beholding that river, and also the asylum washed by\r\nthat river which was studded with many islands and which possessed banks\r\nof so much beauty,--an asylum like unto that of Nara and Narayana laved\r\nby the water of the Ganga--the king resolved to enter into that sacred\r\nabode. And that bull among men, desirous of beholding the great Rishi of\r\nascetic wealth, the illustrious Kanwa of the race of Kasyapa, one who\r\npossessed every virtue and who, for his splendour, could be gazed at with\r\ndifficulty, approached that forest resounding with the notes of maddened\r\npeacocks and like unto the gardens of the great Gandharva, Chitraratha,\r\nhimself. And halting his army consisting of flags, cavalry, infantry, and\r\nelephants at the entrance of the forest, the monarch spoke as follows, \'I\r\nshall go to behold the mighty ascetic of Kasyapa\'s race, one who is\r\nwithout darkness. Stay ye here until my return!\'\r\n\r\n"And the king having entered that forest which was like unto Indra\'s\r\ngarden, soon forgot his hunger and thirst. And he was pleased beyond\r\nmeasure. And the monarch, laying aside all signs of royalty, entered that\r\nexcellent asylum with but his minister and his priest, desirous of\r\nbeholding that Rishi who was an indestructible mass of ascetic merit. And\r\nthe king saw that the asylum was like unto the region of Brahman. Here\r\nwere bees sweetly humming and there were winged warblers of various\r\nspecies pouring forth their melodies. At particular places that tiger\r\namong men heard the chanting of Rik hymns by first-rate Brahmanas\r\naccording to the just rules of intonation. Other places again were graced\r\nwith Brahmanas acquainted with ordinances of sacrifice, of the Angas and\r\nof the hymns of the Yajurveda. Other places again were filled with the\r\nharmonious strains of Saman hymns sung by vow-observing Rishis. At other\r\nplaces the asylum was decked with Brahmanas learned in the Atharvan Veda.\r\nAt other places again Brahmanas learned in the Atharvan Veda and those\r\ncapable of chanting the sacrificial hymns of the Saman were reciting the\r\nSamhitas according to the just rules of voice. And at other places again,\r\nother Brahmanas well-acquainted with the science of orthoepy were\r\nreciting mantras of other kinds. In fact, that sacred retreat resounding\r\nwith these holy notes was like unto a second region of Brahman himself.\r\nAnd there were many Brahmanas skilled in the art of making sacrificial\r\nplatforms and in the rules of Krama in sacrifices, conversant with logic\r\nand the mental sciences, and possessing a complete knowledge of the\r\nVedas. There were those also who were fully acquainted with the meanings\r\nof all kinds of expressions; those that were conversant with all special\r\nrites, those also that were followers of Moksha-Dharma; those again that\r\nwere well-skilled in establishing propositions; rejecting superfluous\r\ncauses, and drawing right conclusions. There were those having a\r\nknowledge of the science of words (grammar), of prosody, of Nirukta;\r\nthose again that were conversant with astrology and learned in the\r\nproperties of matter and the fruits of sacrificial rites, possessing a\r\nknowledge of causes and effects, capable of understanding the cries of\r\nbirds and monkeys, well-read in large treatises, and skilled in various\r\nsciences. And the king, as he proceeded, heard their voices. And the\r\nretreat resounded also with voice of men capable of charming human\r\nhearts. And the slayer of hostile heroes also saw around him learned\r\nBrahmanas of rigid vows engaged in Japa (the repeated muttering of the\r\nnames of gods) and Homa (burnt-offering). And the king wondered much on\r\nbeholding the beautiful carpets which those Brahmanas offered to him\r\nrespectfully. And that best of monarchs, at the sight of the rites with\r\nwhich those Brahmanas worshipped the gods and the great Rishis, thought\r\nwithin himself that he was in the region of Brahman. And the more the\r\nking saw that auspicious and sacred asylum of Kasyapa protected by that\r\nRishi\'s ascetic virtues and possessing all the requisites of a holy\r\nretreat, the more he desired to see it. In fact, he was not satisfied\r\nwith his short survey. And the slayer of heroes at last, accompanied by\r\nhis minister and his priest, entered that charming and sacred retreat of\r\nKasyapa inhabited all around by Rishis of ascetic wealth and exalted\r\nvows.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXI\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'The monarch then, as he proceeded, left even his\r\nreduced retinue at the entrance of the hermitage. And entering quite\r\nalone he saw not the Rishi (Kanwa) of rigid vows. And not seeing the\r\nRishi and finding that the abode was empty, he called loudly, saying,\r\n\'What ho, who is here?\' And the sound of his voice was echoed back. And\r\nhearing the sound of his voice, there came out of the Rishi\'s abode a\r\nmaiden beautiful as Sri herself but dressed as an ascetic\'s daughter. And\r\nthe black-eyed fair one, as she saw king Dushmanta, bade him welcome and\r\nreceived him duly. And, showing him due respect by the offer of a seat,\r\nwater to wash his feet, and Arghya, she enquired about the monarch\'s\r\nhealth and peace. And having worshipped the king and asked him about his\r\nhealth and peace, the maiden reverentially asked, \'What must be done, O\r\nking! I await your commands.\' The king, duly worshipped by her, said unto\r\nthat maiden of faultless features and sweet speech, \'I have come to\r\nworship the highly-blessed Rishi Kanwa. Tell me, O amiable and beautiful\r\none, where has the illustrious Rishi gone?\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala then answered, \'My illustrious father hath gone away from the\r\nasylum to fetch fruit. Wait but a moment and thou wilt see him when he\r\narrives.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The king not seeing the Rishi and addressed\r\nthus by her, beheld that the maiden was exceedingly beautiful and endued\r\nwith perfect symmetry of shape. And he saw that she was of sweet smiles.\r\nAnd she stood decked with the beauty of her faultless features, her\r\nascetic penances, and her humility. And he saw that she was in the bloom\r\nof youth. He therefore asked her, \'Who art thou? And whose daughter, O\r\nbeautiful one? Why hast thou come into the woods also? O handsome one,\r\ngifted with so much beauty and such virtues, whence hast thou come? O\r\ncharming one, at the very first glance hast thou stolen my heart! I\r\ndesire to learn all about thee; therefore tell me all.\' And thus\r\naddressed by the monarch, the maiden smilingly replied in these sweet\r\nwords, \'O Dushmanta, I am the daughter of the virtuous, wise,\r\nhigh-souled, and illustrious ascetic Kanwa.\'\r\n\r\n"Dushmanta, hearing this, replied, \'The universally-worshipped and\r\nhighly-blessed Rishi is one whose seed hath been drawn up. Even Dharma\r\nhimself might fall off from his course but an ascetic of rigid vows can\r\nnever fall off so. Therefore, O thou of the fairest complexion, how hast\r\nthou been born as his daughter? This great doubt of mine it behoveth thee\r\nto dispel.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala then replied, \'Hear, O king, what I have learnt regarding all\r\nthat befell me of old and how I became the daughter of the Muni. Once on\r\na time, a Rishi came here and asked about my birth. All that the\r\nillustrious one (Kanwa) told him, hear now from me, O king!\r\n\r\n"My father Kanwa, in answer to that Rishi\'s enquiries, said, \'Viswamitra,\r\nof old, having been engaged in the austerest penances alarmed Indra, the\r\nchief of the celestials, who thought that the mighty ascetic of blazing\r\nenergy would, by his penances, hurl him down from his high seat in\r\nheaven.\' Indra, thus alarmed, summoned Menaka and told her, \'Thou, O\r\nMenaka, art the first of celestial Apsaras. Therefore, O amiable one, do\r\nme this service. Hear what I say. This great ascetic Viswamitra like unto\r\nthe Sun in splendour, is engaged in the most severe of penances. My heart\r\nis trembling with fear. Indeed, O slender-waisted Menaka, this is thy\r\nbusiness. Thou must see that Viswamitra of soul rapt in contemplation and\r\nengaged in the austerest penances, who might hurl me down from my seat.\r\nGo and tempt him and frustrating his continued austerities accomplish my\r\ngood. Win him away from his penances, O beautiful one, by tempting him\r\nwith thy beauty, youth, agreeableness, arts, smiles and speech.\' Hearing\r\nall this, Menaka replied, \'The illustrious Viswamitra is endued with\r\ngreat energy and is a mighty ascetic. He is very short-tempered too, as\r\nis known to thee. The energy, penances, and wrath of the high-souled one\r\nhave made even thee anxious. Why should I not also be anxious? He it was\r\nwho made even the illustrious Vasishtha bear the pangs of witnessing the\r\npremature death of his children. He it was who, though at first born as\r\nKshatriya, subsequently became a Brahmana by virtue of his ascetic\r\npenances. He it was who, for purposes of his ablutions, created a deep\r\nriver that can with difficulty be forded, and which sacred stream is\r\nknown by the name of the Kausiki. It was Viswamitra whose wife, in a\r\nseason of distress, was maintained by the royal sage Matanga (Trisanku)\r\nwho was then living under a father\'s curse as a hunter. It was Viswamitra\r\nwho, on returning after the famine was over, changed the name of the\r\nstream having his asylum from Kausik into Para. It was Viswamitra who in\r\nreturn for the services of Matanga, himself became the latter\'s priest\r\nfor purposes of a sacrifice. The lord of the celestials himself went\r\nthrough fear to drink the Soma juice. It was Viswamitra who in anger\r\ncreated a second world and numerous stars beginning with Sravana. He it\r\nwas who granted protection to Trisanku smarting under a superior\'s curse.\r\nI am frightened to approach him of such deeds. Tell me, O Indra, the\r\nmeans that should be adopted so that I may not be burnt by his wrath. He\r\ncan burn the three worlds by his splendour, can, by a stamp (of his\r\nfoot), cause the earth to quake. He can sever the great Meru from the\r\nearth and hurl it to any distance. He can go round the ten points of the\r\nearth in a moment. How can a woman like me even touch such a one full of\r\nascetic virtues, like unto a blazing fire, and having his passions under\r\ncomplete control? His mouth is like unto a blazing fire; the pupils of\r\nhis eyes are like the Sun and the Moon; his tongue is like unto Yama\r\nhimself. How shall, O chief of the celestials, a woman like me even touch\r\nhim? At the thought of his prowess Yama, Soma, the great Rishis, the\r\nSaddhyas, the Viswas, Valakhilyas, are terrified! How can a woman like me\r\ngaze at him without alarm? Commanded, however, by thee, O king of the\r\ncelestials, I shall somehow approach that Rishi. But, O chief of the\r\ngods, devise thou some plan whereby protected by thee, I may safely move\r\nabout that Rishi. I think that when I begin to play before the Rishi,\r\nMarut (the god of wind) had better go there and rob me of my dress, and\r\nManmatha (the god of love) had also, at thy command, better help me then.\r\nLet also Marut on that occasion bear thither fragrance from the woods to\r\ntempt the Rishi.\' Saying this and seeing that all she had spoken about\r\nhad been duly provided, Menaka went to the retreat of the great Kausika.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\nKanwa continued, \'And Sakra, thus addressed by her, then commanded him\r\nwho could approach every place (viz., the god of the wind) to be present\r\nwith Menaka at the time she would be before the Rishi. And the timid and\r\nbeautiful Menaka then entered the retreat and saw there Viswamitra who\r\nhad burnt, by his penances, all his sins, and was engaged still in\r\nascetic penances. And saluting the Rishi, she then began to sport before\r\nhim. And just at that time Marut robbed her of her garments that were\r\nwhite as the Moon. And she thereupon ran, as if in great bashfulness, to\r\ncatch hold of her attire, and as if she was exceedingly annoyed with\r\nMarut. And she did all this before the very eyes of Viswamitra who was\r\nendued with energy like that of fire. And Viswamitra saw her in that\r\nattitude. And beholding her divested of her robes, he saw that she was of\r\nfaultless feature. And that best of Munis saw that she was exceedingly\r\nhandsome, with no marks of age on her person. And beholding her beauty\r\nand accomplishments that bull amongst Rishis was possessed with lust and\r\nmade a sign that he desired her companionship. And he invited her\r\naccordingly, and she also of faultless features expressed her acceptance\r\nof the invitation. And they then passed a long time there in each other\'s\r\ncompany. And sporting with each other, just as they pleased, for a long\r\ntime as if it were only a single day, the Rishi begat on Menaka a\r\ndaughter named Sakuntala. And Menaka (as her conception advanced) went to\r\nthe banks of the river Malini coursing along a valley of the charming\r\nmountains of Himavat. And there she gave birth to that daughter. And she\r\nleft the new-born infant on the bank of that river and went away. And\r\nbeholding the new-born infant lying in that forest destitute of human\r\nbeings but abounding with lions and tigers, a number of vultures sat\r\naround to protect it from harm. No Rakshasas or carnivorous animals took\r\nits life. Those vultures protected the daughter of Menaka. I went there\r\nto perform my ablution and beheld the infant lying in the solitude of the\r\nwilderness surrounded by vultures. Bringing her hither I have made her my\r\ndaughter. Indeed, the maker of the body, the protector of life, the giver\r\nof food, are all three, fathers in their order, according to the\r\nscriptures. And because she was surrounded in the solitude of the\r\nwilderness, by Sakuntas (birds), therefore, hath she been named by me\r\nSakuntala (bird-protected). O Brahman, learn that it is thus that\r\nSakuntala hath become my daughter. And the faultless Sakuntala also\r\nregards me as her father.\'\r\n\r\n"This is what my father had said unto the Rishi, having been asked by\r\nhim. O king of men, it is thus that thou must know I am the daughter of\r\nKanwa. And not knowing my real father, I regard Kanwa as my father. Thus\r\nhave I told thee, O king, all that hath been heard by me regarding my\r\nbirth!\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'King Dushmanta, hearing all this, said,\r\n\'Well-spoken, O princess, this that thou hast said! Be my wife, O\r\nbeautiful one! What shall I do for thee? Golden garlands, robes,\r\near-rings of gold, white and handsome pearls, from various countries,\r\ngolden coins, finest carpets, I shall present thee this very day. Let the\r\nwhole of my kingdom be thine today, O beautiful one! Come to me, O timid\r\none, wedding me, O beautiful one, according to the Gandharva form. O thou\r\nof tapering thighs, of all forms of marriage, the Gandharva one is\r\nregarded as the first.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala, hearing this, said, \'O king, my father hath gone away from\r\nthis asylum to bring fruit. Wait but a moment; he will bestow me on thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Dushmanta replied, \'O beautiful and faultless one, I desire that thou\r\nshouldst be my life\'s companion. Know thou that I exist for thee, and my\r\nheart is in thee. One is certainly one\'s own friend, and one certainly\r\nmay depend upon one\'s own self. Therefore, according to the ordinance,\r\nthou canst certainly bestow thyself. There are, in all, eight kinds of\r\nmarriages. These are Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharva,\r\nRakshasa, and Paisacha, the eighth. Manu, the son of the self-create,\r\nhath spoken of the appropriateness of all these forms according to their\r\norder. Know, O faultless one, that the first four of these are fit for\r\nBrahmanas, and the first six for Kshatriyas. As regards kings, even the\r\nRakshasa form is permissible. The Asura form is permitted to Vaisyas and\r\nSudras. Of the first five the three are proper, the other two being\r\nimproper. The Paisacha and the Asura forms should never be practised.\r\nThese are the institutes of religion, and one should act according to\r\nthem. The Gandharva and the Rakshasa form are consistent with the\r\npractices of Kshatriyas. Thou needst not entertain the least fear. There\r\nis not the least doubt that either according to any one of these\r\nlast-mentioned forms, or according to a union of both of them, our\r\nwedding may take place. O thou of the fairest complexion, full of desire\r\nI am, thou also in a similar mood mayst become my wife according to the\r\nGandharva form.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala, having listened to all this, answered, \'If this be the course\r\nsanctioned by religion, if, indeed, I am my own disposer, hear, O thou\r\nforemost one of Puru\'s race, what my terms are. Promise truly to give me\r\nwhat I ask thee. The son that shall be begotten on me shall become thy\r\nheir-apparent. This, O king, is my fixed resolve. O Dushmanta, if thou\r\ngrant this, then let our union take place.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The monarch, without taking time to consider at\r\nonce told her, \'Let it be so. I will even take thee, O thou of agreeable\r\nsmiles, with me to my capital. I tell thee truly. O beautiful one, thou\r\ndeservest all this.\' And so saying, that first of kings wedded the\r\nhandsome Sakuntala of graceful gait, and knew her as a husband. And\r\nassuring her duly, he went away, telling her repeatedly, \'I shall send\r\nthee, for thy escort, my troops of four classes. Indeed, it is even thus\r\nthat I shall take thee to my capital, O thou of sweet smiles!"\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'O Janamejaya, having promised so unto her, the\r\nking went away. And as he retraced his way homewards, he began to think\r\nof Kasyapa. And he asked himself, \'What will the illustrious ascetic say,\r\nafter he has known all?\' Thinking of this, he entered his capital.\r\n\r\n"The moment the king had left, Kanwa arrived at his abode. But Sakuntala,\r\nfrom a sense of shame, did not go out to receive her father. That great\r\nascetic, however, possessed of spiritual knowledge, knew all. Indeed\r\nbeholding everything with his spiritual eye, the illustrious one was\r\npleased, and addressing her, said, \'Amiable one, what hath been done by\r\nthee today in secret, without, having waited for me--viz., intercourse\r\nwith a man--hath not been destructive of thy virtue. Indeed, union\r\naccording to the Gandharva form, of a wishful woman with a man of sensual\r\ndesire, without mantras of any kind, it is said, is the best for\r\nKshatriyas. That best of men, Dushmanta, is also high-souled and\r\nvirtuous. Thou hast, O Sakuntala, accepted him for thy husband. The son\r\nthat shall be born of thee shall be mighty and illustrious in this world.\r\nAnd he shall have sway over the sea. And the forces of that illustrious\r\nking of kings, while he goeth out against his foes shall be irresistible.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala then approached her fatigued father and washed his feet. And\r\ntaking down the load he had with him and placing the fruits in proper\r\norder, she told him, \'It behoveth thee to give thy grace to that\r\nDushmanta whom I have accepted for my husband, as well as his ministers!\'\r\n\r\n"Kanwa replied, \'O thou of the fairest complexion, for thy sake I am\r\ninclined to bless him. But receive from me, O blessed one, the boon that\r\nthou desirest.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Sakuntala, thereupon, moved by desire of\r\nbenefiting Dushmanta, asked the boon that the Paurava monarchs might ever\r\nbe virtuous and never deprived of their thrones.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIV\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'After Dushmanta had left the asylum having made\r\nthose promises unto Sakuntala, the latter of tapering thighs brought\r\nforth a boy of immeasurable energy. And when the child was three years\r\nold, he became in splendour like the blazing fire. And, O Janamejaya, he\r\nwas possessed of beauty and magnanimity and every accomplishment. And\r\nthat first of virtuous men, Kanwa, caused all the rites of religion to be\r\nperformed in respect of that intelligent child thriving day by day. And\r\nthe boy gifted with pearly teeth and shining locks, capable of slaying\r\nlions even then, with all auspicious signs on his palm, and broad\r\nexpansive forehead, grew up in beauty and strength. And like unto a\r\ncelestial child in splendour, he began to grow up rapidly. And when he\r\nwas only six years of age, endued with great strength he used to seize\r\nand bind to the trees that stood around that asylum, lions and tigers and\r\nbears and buffaloes and elephants. And he rode on some animals, and\r\npursued others in sportive mood. The dwellers at Kanwa\'s asylum thereupon\r\nbestowed on him a name. And they said, because he seizes and restrains an\r\nanimals however strong, let him, be called Sarvadamana (the subduer of\r\nall). And it was thus that the boy came to be named Sarvadamana, endued\r\nas he was with prowess, and energy and strength. And the Rishi seeing the\r\nboy and marking also his extraordinary acts, told Sakuntala that the time\r\nhad come for his installation as the heir-apparent. And beholding the\r\nstrength of the boy, Kanwa commanded his disciples, saying, \'Bear ye\r\nwithout delay this Sakuntala with her son from this abode to that of her\r\nhusband, blessed with every auspicious sign. Women should not live long\r\nin the houses of their paternal or maternal relations. Such residence is\r\ndestructive of their reputation, their good conduct, their virtue.\r\nTherefore, delay not in bearing her hence.\' These disciples of the Rishi\r\nthereupon, saying \'So be it,\' went towards the city named after an\r\nelephant (Hastinapura) with Sakuntala and her son ahead of them. And then\r\nshe of fair eye-brows, taking with her that boy of celestial beauty,\r\nendued with eyes like lotus petals, left the woods where she had been\r\nfirst known by Dushmanta. And having approached the king, she with her\r\nboy resembling in splendour the rising sun was introduced to him. And the\r\ndisciples of the Rishi having introduced her, returned to the asylum. And\r\nSakuntala having worshipped the king according to proper form, told him,\r\n\'This is thy son, O king! Let him be installed as thy heir-apparent. O\r\nking, this child, like unto a celestial, hath been begotten by thee upon\r\nme. Therefore, O best of men, fulfil now the promise thou gavest me. Call\r\nto mind, O thou of great good fortune, the agreement thou hadst made on\r\nthe occasion of thy union with me in the asylum of Kanwa.\'\r\n\r\n"The king, hearing these her words, and remembering everything said, \'I\r\ndo not remember anything. Who art thou, O wicked woman in ascetic guise?\r\nI do not remember having any connection with thee in respect of Dharma,\r\nKama and Arthas. Go or stay or do as thou pleasest.\' Thus addressed by\r\nhim, the fair-coloured innocent one became abashed. Grief deprived her of\r\nconsciousness and she stood for a time like an wooden post. Soon,\r\nhowever, her eyes became red like copper and her lips began to quiver.\r\nAnd the glances she now and then cast upon the king seemed to burn the\r\nlatter. Her rising wrath however, and the fire of her asceticism, she\r\nextinguished within herself by an extraordinary effort. Collecting her\r\nthoughts in a moment, her heart possessed with sorrow and rage, she thus\r\naddressed her lord in anger, looking at him, \'Knowing everything, O\r\nmonarch, how canst thou, like an inferior person, thus say that thou\r\nknowest it not? Thy heart is a witness to the truth or falsehood of this\r\nmatter. Therefore, speak truly without degrading thyself. He who being\r\none thing representeth himself as another thing to others, is like a\r\nthief and a robber of his own self. Of what sin is he not capable? Thou\r\nthinkest that thou alone hast knowledge of thy deed. But knowest thou not\r\nthat the Ancient, Omniscient one (Narayana) liveth in thy heart? He\r\nknoweth all thy sins, and thou sinnest in His presence. He that sins\r\nthinks that none observes him. But he is observed by the gods and by Him\r\nalso who is in every heart. The Sun, the Moon, the Air, the Fire, the\r\nEarth, the Sky, Water, the heart, Yama, the day, the night, both\r\ntwilights, and Dharma, all witness the acts of man. Yama, the son of\r\nSurya, takes no account of the sins of him with whom Narayana the witness\r\nof all acts, is gratified. But he with whom Narayana is not gratified is\r\ntortured for his sins by Yama. Him who degradeth himself by representing\r\nhis self falsely, the gods never bless. Even his own soul blesseth him\r\nnot. I am a wife devoted to my husband. I have come of my own accord, it\r\nis true. But do not, on that account, treat me with disrespect. I am thy\r\nwife and, therefore, deserve to be treated respectfully. Wilt thou not\r\ntreat me so, because I have come hither of my own accord? In the presence\r\nof so many, why dost thou treat me like an ordinary woman? I am not\r\ncertainly crying in the wilderness. Dost thou not hear me? But if thou\r\nrefuse to do what I supplicate thee for, O Dushmanta, thy head this\r\nmoment shall burst into a hundred pieces! The husband entering the womb\r\nof the wife cometh out himself in the form of the son. Therefore is the\r\nwife called by those cognisant of the Vedas as Jaya (she of whom one is\r\nborn). And the son that is so born unto persons cognisant of the Vedic\r\nMantras rescueth the spirits of deceased ancestors. And because the son\r\nrescueth ancestors from the hell call Put, therefore, hath he been called\r\nby the Self-create himself as Puttra (the rescuer from Put). By a son one\r\nconquereth the three worlds. By a son\'s son, one enjoyeth eternity. And\r\nby a grandson\'s son great-grand-fathers enjoy everlasting happiness. She\r\nis a true wife who is skilful in household affairs. She is a true wife\r\nwho hath borne a son. She is a true wife whose heart is devoted to her\r\nlord. She is a true wife who knoweth none but her lord. The wife is a\r\nman\'s half. The wife is the first of friends. The wife is the root of\r\nreligion, profit, and desire. The wife is the root of salvation. They\r\nthat have wives can perform religious acts. They that have wives can lead\r\ndomestic lives. They that have wives have the means to be cheerful. They\r\nthat have wives can achieve good fortune. Sweet-speeched wives are\r\nfriends on occasions of joy. They are as fathers on occasions of\r\nreligious acts. They are mothers in sickness and woe. Even in the deep\r\nwoods to a traveller a wife is his refreshment and solace. He that hath a\r\nwife is trusted by all. A wife, therefore, is one\'s most valuable\r\npossession. Even when the husband leaving this world goeth into the\r\nregion of Yama, it is the devoted wife that accompanies him thither. A\r\nwife going before waits for the husband. But if the husband goeth before,\r\nthe chaste wife followeth close. For these reasons, O king, doth marriage\r\nexist. The husband enjoyth the companionship of the wife both in this and\r\nin the other worlds. It hath been said by learned persons that one is\r\nhimself born as one\'s son. Therefore, a man whose wife hath borne a son\r\nshould look upon her as his mother. Beholding the face of the son one\r\nhath begotten upon his wife, like his own face in a mirror, one feeleth\r\nas happy as a virtuous man, on attaining to heaven. Men scorched by\r\nmental grief, or suffering under bodily pain, feel as much refreshed in\r\nthe companionship of their wives as a perspiring person in a cool bath.\r\nNo man, even in anger, should ever do anything that is disagreeable to\r\nhis wife, seeing that happiness, joy, and virtue,--everything dependeth\r\non the wife. A wife is the sacred field in which the husband is born\r\nhimself. Even Rishis cannot create creatures without women. What\r\nhappiness is greater than what the father feeleth when the son running\r\ntowards him, even though his body be covered with dust, claspeth his\r\nlimbs? Why then dost thou treat with indifference such a son, who hath\r\napproached thee himself and who casteth wistful glances towards thee for\r\nclimbing thy knees? Even ants support their own eggs without destroying\r\nthem; then why shouldst not thou, a virtuous man that thou art, support\r\nthy own child? The touch of soft sandal paste, of women, of (cool) water\r\nis not so agreeable as the touch of one\'s own infant son locked in one\'s\r\nembrace. As a Brahmana is the foremost of all bipeds, a cow, the foremost\r\nof all quadrupeds, a protector, the foremost of all superiors, so is the\r\nson the foremost of all objects, agreeable to the touch. Let, therefore,\r\nthis handsome child touch thee in embrace. There is nothing in the world\r\nmore agreeable to the touch than the embrace of one\'s son. O chastiser of\r\nfoes, I have brought forth this child, O monarch, capable of dispelling\r\nall thy sorrows after bearing him in my womb for full three years. O\r\nmonarch of Puru\'s race, \'He shall perform a hundred\r\nhorse-sacrifices\'--these were the words uttered from the sky when I was\r\nin the lying-in room. Indeed, men going into places remote from their\r\nhomes take up there others\' children on their laps and smelling their\r\nheads feel great happiness. Thou knowest that Brahmanas repeat these\r\nVedic mantras on the occasion of the consecrating rites of infancy.--Thou\r\nart born, O son, of my body! Thou art sprung from my heart. Thou art\r\nmyself in the form of a son. Live thou to a hundred years! My life\r\ndependeth on thee, and the continuation of my race also, on thee.\r\nTherefore, O son, live thou in great happiness to a hundred years. He\r\nhath sprung from thy body, this second being from thee! Behold thyself in\r\nthy son, as thou beholdest thy image in the clear lake. As the\r\nsacrificial fire is kindled from the domestic one, so hath this one\r\nsprung from thee. Though one, thou hast divided thyself. In course of\r\nhunting while engaged in pursuit of the deer, I was approached by thee, O\r\nking, I who was then a virgin in the asylum of my father. Urvasi,\r\nPurvachitti, Sahajanya, Menaka, Viswachi and Ghritachi, these are the six\r\nforemost of Apsaras. Amongst them again, Menaka, born of Brahman, is the\r\nfirst. Descending from heaven on Earth, after intercourse with\r\nViswamitra, she gave birth to me. That celebrated Apsara, Menaka, brought\r\nme forth in a valley of Himavat. Bereft of all affection, she went away,\r\ncast me there as if I were the child of somebody else. What sinful act\r\ndid I do, of old, in some other life that I was in infancy cast away by\r\nmy parents and at present am cast away by thee! Put away by thee, I am\r\nready to return to the refuge of my father. But it behoveth thee not to\r\ncast off this child who is thy own.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing all this, Dushmanta said, \'O Sakuntala, I do not know having\r\nbegot upon thee this son. Women generally speak untruths. Who shall\r\nbelieve in thy words? Destitute of all affection, the lewd Menaka is thy\r\nmother, and she cast thee off on the surface of the Himavat as one throws\r\naway, after the worship is over, the flowery offering made to his gods.\r\nThy father too of the Kshatriya race, the lustful Viswamitra, who was\r\ntempted to become a Brahmana, is destitute of all affection. However,\r\nMenaka is the first of Apsaras, and thy father also is the first of\r\nRishis. Being their daughter, why dost thou speak like a lewd woman? Thy\r\nwords deserve no credit. Art thou not ashamed to speak them, especially\r\nbefore me? Go hence, O wicked woman in ascetic guise. Where is that\r\nforemost of great Rishis, where also is that Apsara Menaka? And why art\r\nthou, low as thou art, in the guise of an ascetic? Thy child too is grown\r\nup. Thou sayest he is a boy, but he is very strong. How hath he soon\r\ngrown like a Sala sprout? Thy birth is low. Thou speakest like a lewd\r\nwoman. Lustfully hast thou been begotten by Menaka. O woman of ascetic\r\nguise, all that thou sayest is quite unknown to me. I don\'t know thee. Go\r\nwithersoever thou choosest.\'\r\n\r\n"Sakuntala replied, \'Thou seest, O king, the fault of others, even though\r\nthey be as small as a mustard seed. But seeing, thou noticest not thy own\r\nfaults even though they be as large as the Vilwa fruit. Menaka is one of\r\nthe celestials. Indeed, Menaka is reckoned as the first of celestials. My\r\nbirth, therefore, O Dushmanta, is far higher than thine. Thou walkest\r\nupon the Earth, O king, but I roam in the skies! Behold, the difference\r\nbetween ourselves is as that between (the mountain) Meru and a mustard\r\nseed! Behold my power, O king! I can repair to the abodes of Indra,\r\nKuvera, Yama, and Varuna! The saying is true which I shall refer to\r\nbefore thee, O sinless one! I refer to it for example\'s sake and not from\r\nevil motives. Therefore, it behoveth thee to pardon me after thou hast\r\nheard it. An ugly person considereth himself handsomer than others until\r\nhe sees his own face in the mirror. But when he sees his own ugly face in\r\nthe mirror, it is then that he perceiveth the difference between himself\r\nand others. He that is really handsome never taunts anybody. And he that\r\nalways talketh evil becometh a reviler. And as the swine always look for\r\ndirt and filth even when in the midst of a flower-garden, so the wicked\r\nalways choose the evil out of both evil and good that others speak.\r\nThose, however, that are wise, on hearing the speeches of others that are\r\nintermixed with both good and evil, accept only what is good, like geese\r\nthat always extract the milk only, though it be mixed with water. As the\r\nhonest are always pained at speaking ill of others, so do the wicked\r\nalways rejoice in doing the same thing. As the honest always feel\r\npleasure in showing regard for the old, so do the wicked always take\r\ndelight in aspersing the good. The honest are happy in not seeking for\r\nfaults. The wicked are happy in seeking for them. The wicked ever speak\r\nill of the honest. But the latter never injure the former, even if\r\ninjured by them. What can be more ridiculous in the world than that those\r\nthat are themselves wicked should represent the really honest as wicked?\r\nWhen even atheists are annoyed with those that have fallen off from truth\r\nand virtue and who are really like angry snakes of virulent poison, what\r\nshall I say of myself who am nurtured in faith? He that having begotten a\r\nson who is his own image, regardeth him not, never attaineth to the\r\nworlds he coveteth, and verily the gods destroy his good fortune and\r\npossessions. The Pitris have said that the son continueth the race and\r\nthe line and is, therefore, the best of all religious acts. Therefore,\r\nnone should abandon a son. Manu hath said that there are five kinds of\r\nsons; those begotten by one\'s self upon his own wife, those obtained (as\r\ngift) from others, those purchased for a consideration, those reared with\r\naffection and those begotten upon other women than upon wedded wives.\r\nSons support the religion and achievements of men, enhance their joys,\r\nand rescue deceased ancestors from hell. It behoveth thee not, therefore,\r\nO tiger among kings, to abandon a son who is such. Therefore, O lord of\r\nEarth, cherish thy own self, truth, and virtue by cherishing thy son. O\r\nlion among monarchs, it behoveth thee not to support this deceitfulness.\r\nThe dedication of a tank is more meritorious than that of a hundred\r\nwells. A sacrifice again is more meritorious than the dedication of a\r\ntank. A son is more meritorious than a sacrifice. Truth is more\r\nmeritorious than a hundred sons. A hundred horse-sacrifices had once been\r\nweighed against Truth, and Truth was found heavier than a hundred\r\nhorse-sacrifices. O king, Truth, I ween, may be equal to the study of,\r\nthe entire Vedas and ablutions in all holy places. There is no virtue\r\nequal to Truth: there is nothing superior to Truth. O king, Truth is God\r\nhimself; Truth is the highest vow. Therefore, violate not thy pledge, O\r\nmonarch! Let Truth and thee be even united. If thou placest no credit in\r\nmy words, I shall of my own accord go hence. Indeed, thy companionship\r\nshould be avoided. But thou, O Dushmanta, that when thou art gone, this\r\nson of mine shall rule the whole Earth surrounded by the four seas and\r\nadorned with the king of the mountains."\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Sakuntala having spoken to the monarch in this\r\nwise, left his presence. But as soon as she had left, a voice from the\r\nskies, emanating from no visible shape, thus spoke unto Dushmanta as he\r\nwas sitting surrounded by his occasional and household priests, his\r\npreceptors, and ministers. And the voice said, \'The mother is but the\r\nsheath of flesh; the son sprung from the father is the father himself.\r\nTherefore, O Dushmanta, cherish thy son, and insult not Sakuntala. O best\r\nof men, the son, who is but a form of one\'s own seed, rescueth\r\n(ancestors) from the region of Yama. Thou art the progenitor of this boy.\r\nSakuntala hath spoken the truth. The husband, dividing his body in twain,\r\nis born of his wife in the form of son. Therefore, O Dushmanta, cherish,\r\nO monarch, thy son born of Sakuntala. To live by forsaking one\'s living\r\nson is a great, misfortune. Therefore, O thou of Puru\'s race, cherish thy\r\nhigh-souled son born of Sakuntala--And because this child is to be\r\ncherished by thee even at our word, therefore shall this thy son be known\r\nby the name of Bharata (the cherished).\' Hearing these words uttered by\r\nthe dwellers in heaven, the monarch of Puru\'s race became overjoyed and\r\nspoke as follows unto his priests and ministers, \'Hear ye these words\r\nuttered by the celestial messenger? I myself know this one to be my son.\r\nIf I had taken him as my son on the strength of Sakuntala\'s words alone,\r\nmy people would have been suspicious and my son also would not have been\r\nregarded as pure.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The monarch, then, O thou of Bharata\'s race,\r\nseeing the purity of his son established by the celestial messenger,\r\nbecame exceedingly glad. And he took unto him that son with joy. And the\r\nking with a joyous heart then performed all those rites upon his son that\r\na father should perform. And the king smelt his child\'s head and hugged\r\nhim with affection. And the Brahmanas began to utter blessings upon him\r\nand the bards began to applaud him. And the monarch then experienced the\r\ngreat delight that one feeleth at the touch of one\'s son. And Dushmanta\r\nalso received mat wife of his with affection. And he told her these\r\nwords, pacifying her affectionately, \'O goddess, my union with the? took\r\nplace privately Therefore, I was thinking of how best to establish thy\r\npurity. My people might think that we were only lustfully united and not\r\nas husband and wife, and therefore, this son that I would have installed\r\nas my heir apparent would only have been regarded as one of impure birth.\r\nAnd dearest, every hard word thou hast uttered in thy anger, have I, O\r\nlarge-eyed one, forgiven thee. Thou art my dearest!\' And the royal sage\r\nDushmanta, having spoken thus unto his dear wife, O Bharata, received her\r\nwith offerings of perfume, food, and drink. And king Dushmanta, then,\r\nbestowed the name of Bharata upon his child, and formally installed him\r\nas the heir apparent. And the famous and bright wheels of Bharata\'s car,\r\ninvincible and like unto the wheels of the cars owned by the gods,\r\ntraversed every region, filling the whole Earth with their rattle. And\r\nthe son of Dushmanta reduced to subjection all kings of the Earth. And he\r\nruled virtuously and earned great fame. And that monarch of great prowess\r\nwas known by the titles of Chakravarti and Sarvabhauma. And he performed\r\nmany sacrifices like Sakra, the lord of the Maruts. And Kanwa was the\r\nchief priest at those sacrifices, in which the offerings to Brahmanas\r\nwere great. And the blessed monarch performed both the cow and the\r\nhorse-sacrifices. And Bharata gave unto Kanwa a thousand gold coins as\r\nthe sacerdotal fee. It is that Bharata from whom have emanated so many\r\nmighty achievements. It is from him that the great race called after him\r\nin his race are called after him. And in the Bharata race there have been\r\nborn many godlike monarchs gifted with great energy, and like unto\r\nBrahman himself. Their number cannot be counted. But, O thou of Bharata\'s\r\nrace, I shall name the principal ones that were blessed with great good\r\nfortune, like unto the gods, and devoted to truth and honesty.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXV\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Hear now, as I recite the recorded genealogy, that\r\nis sacred and subservient to religion, profit and pleasure, of these\r\nroyal sages--Daksha, the lord of creation, Manu, the son of Surya,\r\nBharata, Ruru, Puru, and Ajamidha. I shall also recite to thee, O sinless\r\none, the genealogies of the Yadavas and of the Kurus and of the king of\r\nthe Bharata line. These genealogies are sacred and their recitation is a\r\ngreat act of propitiation. That recitation conferreth wealth, fame and\r\nlong life. And, O sinless one, all these I have named shone in their\r\nsplendour and were equal unto the great Rishis in energy.\r\n\r\n"Prachetas had ten sons who were all devoted to asceticism and possessed\r\nof every virtue. They burnt, of old, by the fire emanating from their\r\nmouths, several plants of poisonous and innumerable large trees that had\r\ncovered the Earth and became a source of great discomfort to man. After\r\nthese ten, was born another named Daksha. It is from Daksha that all\r\ncreatures have sprung. Therefore is he, O tiger among men, called the\r\nGrandfather. Born of Prachetas the Muni Daksha, uniting himself with\r\nVirini, begat a thousand sons of rigid vows, all like himself. And Narada\r\ntaught these thousand sons of Daksha the excellent philosophy of Sankhya\r\nas a means of salvation. And, O Janamejaya, the lord of creation, Daksha,\r\nthen, from the desire of making creatures, begat fifty daughters. And he\r\nmade all of them his appointed daughters (so that their sons might be his\r\nsons also for the performance of all religious acts). And he bestowed ten\r\nof his daughters on Dharma, and thirteen on Kasyapa. And he gave\r\ntwenty-seven to Chandra, who are all engaged in indicating time. And\r\nKasyapa, the son of Marichi, begat on the eldest of his thirteen wives,\r\nthe Adityas, the celestials endued with great energy and having Indra as\r\ntheir head and also Vivaswat (the Sun). And of Vivaswat was born the lord\r\nYama. And Martanda (Vivaswat) also begat another son after Yama, gifted\r\nwith great intelligence and named Manu. And Manu was endued with great\r\nwisdom and devoted to virtue. And he became the progenitor of a line. And\r\nin Manu\'s race have been born all human beings, who have, therefore, been\r\ncalled Manavas. And it is of Manu that all men including Brahmanas,\r\nKshatriyas, and others have been descended, and are, therefore, all\r\ncalled Manavas. Subsequently, O monarch, the Brahmanas became united with\r\nthe Kshatriyas. And those sons of Manu that were Brahmanas devoted\r\nthemselves to the study of the Vedas. And Manu begat ten other children\r\nnamed Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Saryati, the\r\neighth, a daughter named Ila, Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta,\r\nthe tenth. They all betook themselves to the practices of Kshatriyas.\r\nBesides these, Manu had fifty other sons on Earth. But we heard that they\r\nall perished, quarrelling with one another. The learned Pururavas was\r\nborn of Ila. It hath been heard by us that Ila was both his mother and\r\nfather. And the great Pururavas had sway over thirteen islands of the\r\nsea. And, though a human being, he was always surrounded by companions\r\nthat were superhuman. And Pururavas intoxicated with power quarrelled\r\nwith the Brahmanas and little caring for their anger robbed them of their\r\nwealth. Beholding all this Sanatkumara came from the region of Brahman\r\nand gave him good counsel, which was, however, rejected by Pururavas.\r\nThen the wrath of the great Rishis was excited, and the avaricious\r\nmonarch, who intoxicated with power, had lost his reason, was immediately\r\ndestroyed by their curse.\r\n\r\n"It was Pururavas who first brought from the region of the Gandharvas the\r\nthree kinds of fire (for sacrificial purpose). And he brought thence, the\r\nApsara Urvasi also. And the son of Ila begat upon Urvasi six sons who\r\nwere called Ayus, Dhimat, Amavasu and Dhridhayus, and Vanayus, and\r\nSatayus. And it is said that Ayus begat four sons named Nahusha,\r\nVriddhasarman, Rajingaya, and Anenas, on the daughter of Swarbhanu. And,\r\nO monarch, Nahusha, of all the sons of Ayus, being gifted with great\r\nintelligence and prowess ruled his extensive kingdom virtuously. And king\r\nNahusha supported evenly the Pitris, the celestials, the Rishis, the\r\nBrahmanas, the Gandharvas, the Nagas, the Rakshasas, the Kshatriyas, and\r\nthe Vaisyas. And he suppressed all robber-gangs with a mighty hand. But\r\nhe made the Rishis pay tribute and carry him on their backs like bests of\r\nburden. And, conquering the very gods by the beauty of his person, his\r\nasceticism, prowess, and energy, he ruled as if he were Indra himself.\r\nAnd Nahusha begat six sons, all of sweet speech, named Yati, Yayati,\r\nSanyati, Ayati, and Dhruva. Yati betaking himself to asceticism became a\r\nMuni like unto Brahman himself. Yayati became a monarch of great prowess\r\nand virtue. He ruled the whole Earth, performed numerous sacrifices,\r\nworshipped the Pitris with great reverence, and always respected the\r\ngods. And he brought the whole world under his sway and was never\r\nvanquished by any foe. And the sons of Yayati were all great bowmen and\r\nresplendent with every virtue. And, O king, they were begotten upon (his\r\ntwo wives) Devayani and Sarmishtha. And of Devayani were born Yadu and\r\nTurvasu, and of Sarmishtha were born Drahyu, Anu, and Puru. And, O king,\r\nhaving virtuously ruled his subjects for a long time, Yayati was attacked\r\nwith a hideous decrepitude destroying his personal beauty. And attacked\r\nby decrepitude, the monarch then spoke, O Bharata, unto his sons Yadu and\r\nPuru and Turvasu and Drahyu and Anu these words, \'Ye dear sons, I wish to\r\nbe a young man and to gratify my appetites in the company of young women.\r\nDo you help me therein.\' To him his eldest son born of Devayani then\r\nsaid, \'What needest thou, O king? Dost thou want to have your youth?\'\r\nYayati then told him, \'Accept thou my decrepitude, O son! With thy youth\r\nI would enjoy myself. During the time of a great sacrifice I have been\r\ncursed by the Muni Usanas (Sukra). O son, I would enjoy myself with your\r\nyouth. Take any of you this my decrepitude and with my body rule ye my\r\nkingdom. I would enjoy myself with a renovated body. Therefore, ye my\r\nsons, take ye my decrepitude.\' But none of his sons accepted his\r\ndecrepitude. Then his youngest son Puru said unto him, \'O king, enjoy\r\nthyself thou once again with a renovated body and returned youth! I shall\r\ntake thy decrepitude and at thy command rule thy kingdom.\' Thus\r\naddressed, the royal sage, by virtue of his ascetic power then\r\ntransferred his own decrepitude unto that high-souled son of his and with\r\nthe youth of Puru became a youth; while with the monarch\'s age Puru ruled\r\nhis kingdom.\r\n\r\n"Then, after a thousand years had passed away, Yayati, that tiger among\r\nkings, remained as strong and powerful as a tiger. And he enjoyed for a\r\nlong time the companionship of his two wives. And in the gardens of\r\nChitraratha (the king of Gandharvas), the king also enjoyed the company\r\nof the Apsara Viswachi. But even after all this, the great king found his\r\nappetites unsatiated. The king, then recollected the following truths\r\ncontained in the Puranas, \'Truly, one\'s appetites are never satiated by\r\nenjoyment. On the other hand, like sacrificial butter poured into the\r\nfire, they flame up with indulgence. Even if one enjoyed the whole Earth\r\nwith its wealth, diamonds and gold, animals and women, one may not yet be\r\nsatiated. It is only when man doth not commit any sin in respect of any\r\nliving thing, in thought, deed, or speech, it is then that he attaineth\r\nto purity as that of Brahman. When one feareth nothing, when one is not\r\nfeared by anything, when one wisheth for nothing, when one injureth\r\nnothing, it is then that one attaineth to the purity of Brahman.\' The\r\nwise monarch seeing this and satisfied that one\'s appetites are never\r\nsatiated, set his mind at rest by meditation, and took back from his son\r\nhis own decrepitude. And giving him back his youth, though his own\r\nappetites were unsatiated, and installing him on the throne, he spoke\r\nunto Puru thus, \'Thou art my true heir, thou art my true son by whom my\r\nrace is to be continued. In the world shall my race be known by thy name.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Then that tiger among kings, having installed\r\nhis son Puru on the throne, went away to the mount of Bhrigu for devoting\r\nhimself to asceticism. And, having acquired great ascetic merit, after\r\nlong years, he succumbed to the inevitable influence of Time. He left his\r\nhuman body by observing the vow of fasting, and ascended to heaven with\r\nhis wives.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVI\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Janamejaya said, \'O thou of the wealth of asceticism, tell me how our\r\nancestor Yayati, who is the tenth from Prajapati, obtained for a wife the\r\nunobtainable daughter of Sukra. I desire to hear of it in detail. Tell me\r\nalso, one after another, of those monarchs separately who were the\r\nfounders of dynasties.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'The monarch Yayati was in splendour like unto Indra\r\nhimself. I will tell thee, in reply to thy question, O Janamejaya, how\r\nboth Sukra and Vrishaparvan bestowed upon him, with due rites, their\r\ndaughters, and how his union took place with Devayani in special.\r\n\r\n"Between the celestials and the Asuras, there happened, of yore, frequent\r\nencounters for the sovereignty of the three worlds with everything in\r\nthem. The gods, then, from desire of victory, installed the son of\r\nAngiras (Vrihaspati) as their priest to conduct their sacrifices; while\r\ntheir opponents installed the learned Usanas as their priest for the same\r\npurpose. And between those two Brahmanas there are always much boastful\r\nrivalry. Those Danavas assembled for encounter that were slain by the\r\ngods were all revived by the seer Sukra by the power of his knowledge.\r\nAnd then starting again, into life,--these fought with the gods. The\r\nAsuras also slew on the field of battle many of the celestials. But the\r\nopen-minded Vrihaspati could not revive them, because he knew not the\r\nscience called Sanjivani (re-vivification) which Kavya endued with great\r\nenergy knew so well. And the gods were, therefore, in great sorrow. And\r\nthe gods, in great anxiety of heart and entertaining a fear of the\r\nlearned Usanas, then went to Kacha, the eldest son of Vrihaspati, and\r\nspoke unto him, saying, \'We pay court to thee, be kind to us and do us a\r\nservice that we regard as very great. That knowledge which resides in\r\nSukra, that Brahmana of immeasurable prowess, make thy own as soon as\r\nthou canst. Thou shalt find the Brahmana in the court of Vrishaparvan. He\r\nalways protects the Danavas but never us, their opponents. Thou art his\r\njunior in age, and, therefore, capable of adoring him with reverence.\r\nThou canst also adore Devayani, the favourite daughter of that\r\nhigh-souled Brahmana. Indeed, thou alone art capable of propitiating them\r\nboth by worship. There is none else that can do so. By gratifying\r\nDevayani with thy conduct, liberality, sweetness, and general behaviour,\r\nthou canst certainly obtain that knowledge.\' The son of Vrihaspati, thus\r\nsolicited by the gods, said \'So be it, and went to where Vrishaparvan\r\nwas. Kacha, thus sent by the gods, soon went to the capital of the chief\r\nof the Asuras, and beheld Sukra there. And beholding him, he thus spoke\r\nunto him, \'Accept me as thy disciple. I am the grandson of the Rishi\r\nAngiras and son of Vrihaspati. By name I am known as Kacha. Thyself\r\nbecoming my preceptor, I shall practise the Brahmacharya mode of life for\r\na thousand years. Command me, then, O Brahmana!\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra (hearing this) said, \'Welcome art thou, O Kacha! I accept thy\r\nspeech. I will treat thee with regard; for by so doing, it is Vrihaspati\r\nwho will be regarded.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Kacha commanded by Kavya or Usanas himself,\r\ncalled also Sukra, then said, \'So be it,\' and took the vow he had spoken\r\nof. And, O Bharata, accepting the vow of which he had spoken, at the\r\nproper time, Kacha began to conciliate regardfully both his preceptor and\r\n(his daughter) Devayani. Indeed, he began to conciliate both. And as he\r\nwas young, by singing and dancing and playing on different kinds of\r\ninstruments, he soon gratified Devayani who was herself in her youth.\r\nAnd, O Bharata, with his whole heart set upon it, he soon gratified the\r\nmaiden Devayani who was then a young lady, by presents of flowers and\r\nfruits and services rendered with alacrity. And Devayani also with her\r\nsongs and sweetness of manners used, while they were alone, to attend\r\nupon that youth carrying out his vow. And when five hundred years had\r\nthus passed of Kacha\'s vow, the Danavas came to learn his intention. And\r\nhaving no compunctions about slaying a Brahmana, they became very angry\r\nwith him. And one day they saw Kacha in a solitary part of the woods\r\nengaged in tending (his preceptor\'s) kine. They then slew Kacha from\r\ntheir hatred of Vrihaspati and also from their desire of protecting the\r\nknowledge of reviving the dead from being conveyed by him. And having\r\nslain him, they hacked his body into pieces and gave them to be devoured\r\nby jackals and wolves. And (when twilight came) the kine returned to the\r\nfold without him who tended them. And Devayani, seeing the kine returned\r\nfrom the woods without Kacha, spoke, O Bharata, unto her father thus:\r\n\r\n\'Thy evening-fire hath been kindled. The Sun also hath set, O father! The\r\nkine have returned without him who tendeth them. Kacha is, indeed, not to\r\nbe seen. It is plain that Kacha hath been lost, or is dead. Truly do I\r\nsay, O father, that without him I will not live.\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra hearing this said, I will revive him by saying, \'Let this one\r\ncome.\' Then having recourse to the science of reviving the dead, Sukra\r\nsummoned Kacha. And summoned by his preceptor, Kacha appeared before him\r\nin the gladness of heart tearing by virtue of his preceptor\'s science the\r\nbodies of the wolves (that had devoured him). And asked about the cause\r\nof his delay, he thus spoke unto Bhargava\'s daughter. Indeed, asked by\r\nthat Brahman\'s daughter, he told her, \'I was dead. O thou of pure\r\nmanners, burdened with sacrificial fuel, Kusa grass, and logs of wood, I\r\nwas coming towards our abode. I sat under a banian tree. The kine also,\r\nhaving been brought together, were staying under the shade of that same\r\nbanian tree. The Asuras, beholding me, asked \'Who art thou?\' They heard\r\nme answer, \'I am the son of Vrihaspati.\' As soon as I said this, the\r\nDanavas slew me, and hacking my body into pieces gave my remains to\r\njackals and wolves. And they then went home in the gladness of heart. O\r\namiable one, summoned by the high-souled Bhargava, I after all come\r\nbefore thee fully revived.\'\r\n\r\n"On another occasion, asked by Devayani, the Brahmana Kacha went into the\r\nwoods. And as he was roving about for gathering flowers, the Danavas\r\nbeheld him. They again slew him, and pounding him into a paste they mixed\r\nit with the water of the ocean. Finding him long still (in coming), the\r\nmaiden again represented the matter unto her father. And summoned again\r\nby the Brahmana with the aid of his science, Kacha appearing before his\r\npreceptor and his daughter told everything as it had happened. Then\r\nslaying him for the third time and burning him and reducing him to ashes,\r\nthe Asuras gave those ashes to the preceptor himself, mixing them with\r\nhis wine. And Devayani again spoke unto her father, saying, \'O father,\r\nKacha was sent to gather flowers. But he is not to be seen. It is plain\r\nhe hath been lost, or has died. I tell thee truly, I would not live\r\nwithout him.\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra hearing this said, \'O daughter, the son of Vrihaspati hath gone to\r\nthe region of the dead. Though revived by my science, he is thus slain\r\nfrequently. What, indeed, am I to do? O Devayani, do not grieve, do not\r\ncry. One like thee should not grieve for one that is mortal. Thou art\r\nindeed, O daughter, in consequence of my prowess, worshipped thrice a day\r\nduring the ordained hours of prayer, by Brahmanas, the gods with Indra,\r\nthe Vasus, the Aswins, the Asuras, in fact, by the whole universe. It is\r\nimpossible to keep him alive, for revived by me he is often killed.\' To\r\nall this Devayani replied, \'Why shall I, O father, not grieve for him\r\nwhose grandfather is old Angiras himself, whose father is Vrihaspati who\r\nis an ocean of ascetic merit, who is the grandson of a Rishi and the son\r\nalso of a Rishi? He himself too was a Brahmacharin and an ascetic; always\r\nwakeful and skilled in everything. I will starve and follow the way Kacha\r\nhas gone. The handsome Kacha is, O father, dear unto me.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The great Rishi Kavya, then, afflicted by what\r\nDevayani said, cried in anger, \'Certainly, the Asuras seek to injure me,\r\nfor they slay my disciple that stayeth with me. These followers of Rudra\r\ndesire to divest me of my character as a Brahmana by making me\r\nparticipate in their crime. Truly, this crime hath a terrible end. The\r\ncrime of slaying a Brahmana would even burn Indra himself.\' Having said\r\nthis, the Brahmana Sukra, urged by Devayani, began to summon Kacha who\r\nhad entered the jaws of Death. But Kacha, summoned with the aid of\r\nscience, and afraid of the consequence to his preceptor, feebly replied\r\nfrom within the stomach of his preceptor, saying, \'Be graceful unto me, O\r\nlord! I am Kacha that worshippeth thee. Behave unto me as to thy own\r\ndearly-loved son.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Sukra then said, \'By what path, O Brahmana,\r\nhast thou entered my stomach, where thou stayest now? Leaving the Asuras\r\nthis very moment, I shall go over to the gods." Kacha replied, \'By thy\r\ngrace, memory hath not failed me. Indeed, I do recollect everything as it\r\nhath happened. My ascetic virtues have not been destroyed. It is,\r\ntherefore, that I am able to bear this almost insufferable pain. O Kavya,\r\nslain by the Asuras and burnt and reduced to powder, I have been given to\r\nthee with thy wine. When thou art present, O Brahmana, the art of the\r\nAsuras will never be able to vanquish, the science of the Brahmana.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing this, Sukra said, \'O daughter, what good can I do to thee? It is\r\nwith my death that Kacha can get his life back. O Devayani, Kacha is even\r\nwithin me. There is no other way of his coming out except by ripping open\r\nmy stomach.\' Devayani replied, \'Both evils shall, like fire, burn me! The\r\ndeath of Kacha and thy own death are to me the same! The death of Kacha\r\nwould deprive me of life. If thou also diest, I shall not be able to bear\r\nmy life.\' Then Sukra said, \'O son of Vrihaspati, thou art, indeed, one\r\nalready crowned with success, because Devayani regards thee so well.\r\nAccept the science that I will today impart to thee, if, indeed, thou be\r\nnot Indra in the form of Kacha. None can come out of my stomach with\r\nlife. A Brahmana, however, must not be slain, therefore, accept thou the\r\nscience I impart to thee. Start thou into life as my son. And possessed\r\nof the knowledge received from me, and revived by me, take care that, on\r\ncoming out of my body, thou dost act gracefully.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Receiving the science imparted to him by his\r\npreceptor the handsome Kacha, ripped open his stomach, came out like the\r\nmoon at evening on the fifteenth day of the bright fort-night. And\r\nbeholding the remains of his preceptor lying like a heap of penances,\r\nKacha revived him, aided by the science he had learned. Worshipping him\r\nwith regard, Kacha said unto his preceptor, \'Him who poureth the nectar\r\nof knowledge into one\'s ears, even as thou hast done into those of myself\r\nwho was void of knowledge, him do I regard both as my father and mother.\r\nAnd remembering the immense service done by him, who is there so\r\nungrateful as to injure him? They that, having acquired knowledge, injure\r\ntheir preceptor who is always an object of worship, who is the giver of\r\nknowledge, who is the most precious of all precious objects on Earth,\r\ncome to be hated on Earth and finally go to the regions of the sinful.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The learned Sukra, having been deceived while\r\nunder the influence of wine, and remembering the total loss of\r\nconsciousness that is one of the terrible consequences of drink, and\r\nbeholding too before him the handsome Kacha whom he had, in a state of\r\nunconsciousness, drunk with his wine, then thought of effecting a reform\r\nin the manners of Brahmanas. The high-souled Usanas rising up from the\r\nground in anger, then spoke as follows: "The wretched Brahmana who from\r\nthis day, unable to resist the temptation, will drink wine shall be\r\nregarded as having lost his virtue, shall be reckoned to have committed\r\nthe sin of slaying a Brahmana, shall be hated both in this and the other\r\nworlds. I set this limit to the conduct and dignity of Brahmanas\r\neverywhere. Let the honest, let Brahmanas, let those with regard for\r\ntheir superiors, let the gods, let the three worlds, listen!\' Having said\r\nthese words that high-souled one, that ascetic of ascetics, then\r\nsummoning the Danavas who had been deprived by fate of the good sense,\r\ntold them these words, Ye foolish Danavas, know ye that Kacha hath\r\nobtained his wishes. He will henceforth dwell with me. Having obtained\r\nthe valuable knowledge of reviving the dead, that Brahmana hath, indeed,\r\nbecome in prowess even as Brahman himself!\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Bhargava having said so much cut short his\r\nspeech. The Danavas were surprised and went away to their homes. Kacha,\r\ntoo, having stayed with his preceptor for a full thousand years, then\r\nprepared to return to the abode of the celestials, after having obtained\r\nhis preceptor\'s permission.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'After the expiry of the period of his vow, Kacha,\r\nhaving obtained his preceptor\'s leave, was about to return to the abode\r\nof the celestials, when Devayani, addressing him, said, \'O grandson of\r\nthe Rishi Angiras, in conduct and birth, in learning, asceticism and\r\nhumility, thou shinest most brightly. As the celebrated Rishi Angiras is\r\nhonoured and regarded by my father, so is thy father regarded and\r\nworshipped by me. O thou of ascetic wealth, knowing this, listen to what\r\nI say. Recollect my conduct towards thee during the period of thy vow\r\n(Brahmacharya). Thy vow hath now been over. It behoveth thee to fix thy\r\naffections on me. O accept my hand duly with ordained mantras.\'\r\n\r\n"Kacha replied, \'Thou art to me an object of regard and worship even as\r\nthy father! O thou of faultless features, thou art, indeed, even an\r\nobject of greater reverence! Thou art dearer than life to the high-souled\r\nBhargava, O amiable one! As the daughter of my preceptor, thou art ever\r\nworthy of my worship! As my preceptor Sukra, thy father, is ever\r\ndeserving of my regards, so art thou, O Devayani! Therefore, it behoveth\r\nthee not to say so.\' Hearing this, Devayani replied, \'Thou, too, art the\r\nson of my father\'s preceptor\'s son. Therefore, O best of Brahmanas, thou\r\nart deserving of my regards and worship. O Kacha, when thou wert slain so\r\nmany times by the Asuras, recollect today the affection I showed for\r\nthee. Remembering my friendship and affection for thee, and, indeed, my\r\ndevoted regard also, O virtuous one, it behoveth thee not to abandon me\r\nwithout any fault. I am truly devoted to thee.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing all this, Kacha said, \'O thou of virtuous vows, do not urge me\r\ninto such a sinful course. O thou of fair eye-brows, be gracious unto me.\r\nBeautiful one, thou art to me an object of greater regard than my\r\npreceptor. Full of virtuous resolves, O large-eyed one, of face as\r\nhandsome, as moon, the place where thou hadst resided, viz., the body of\r\nKavya, hath also been my abode. Thou art truly my sister. Amiable one,\r\nhappily have we passed the days that we have been together. There is\r\nperfect good understanding between us. I ask thy leave to return to my\r\nabode. Therefore, bless me so that my journey may be safe. I must be\r\nremembered by thee, when thou recallest me in connection with topics of\r\nconversation, as one that hath not transgressed virtue. Always attend\r\nupon my preceptor with readiness and singleness of heart.\' To all this,\r\nDevaniya answered, \'Solicited, by me, if, indeed, thou truly refusest to\r\nmake me thy wife, then, O Kacha, this thy knowledge shall not bear fruit.\'\r\n\r\n"Hearing this, Kacha said, \'I have refused thy request only because thou\r\nart the daughter of my preceptor, and not because thou hast any fault.\r\nNor hath my preceptor in this respect issued any command. Curse me if it\r\nplease thee. I have told thee what the behaviour should be of a Rishi. I\r\ndo not deserve thy curse, O Devayani. But yet thou hast cursed me! Thou\r\nhast acted under the influence of passion and not from a sense of duty.\r\nTherefore, thy desire will not be fulfilled. No Rishi\'s son shall ever\r\naccept thy hand in marriage. Thou hast said that my knowledge shall not\r\nbear fruit. Let it be so. But in respect of him it shall bear fruit to\r\nwhom I may impart it.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'That first of Brahmanas, Kacha, having said so\r\nunto Devayani speedily wended his way unto the abode of the chief of the\r\ncelestials. Beholding him arrived, the celestials with Indra ahead,\r\nhaving first worshipped him, spoke unto him as follows, \'Thou hast\r\nindeed, performed an act of great benefit for us. Wonderful hath been thy\r\nachievement! Thy fame shall never die! Thou shall be a sharer with us in\r\nsacrificial offerings.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXVIII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'The dwellers in heaven became exceedingly glad in\r\nwelcoming Kacha who had mastered the wonderful science. And, O bull of\r\nBharata\'s race, the celestials then learnt that science from Kacha and\r\nconsidered their object already achieved. And assembling together, they\r\nspoke unto him of a hundred sacrifices, saying, \'The time hath come for\r\nshowing prowess. Slay thy foes, O Purandara!\' And thus addressed,\r\nMaghavat, then accompanied by the celestials, set out, saying, \'So be\r\nit.\' But on his way he saw a number of damsels. These maidens were\r\nsporting in a lake in the gardens of the Gandharva Chitraratha. Changing\r\nhimself into wind, he soon mixed up the garments of those maidens which\r\nthey had laid on the bank. A little while after, the maidens, getting up\r\nfrom the water, approached their garments that had, indeed, got mixed up\r\nwith one another. And it so happened that from the intermingled heap, the\r\ngarments of Devayani were appropriated by Sarmishtha, the daughter of\r\nVrishaparvan, from ignorance that it was not hers. And, O king,\r\nthereupon, between them, Devayani and Sarmishtha, then ensued a dispute.\r\nAnd Devayani said, \'O daughter of the Asura (chief), why dost thou take\r\nmy attire, being, as thou art, my disciple? As thou art destitute of good\r\nbehaviour, nothing good can happen to thee!\' Sarmishtha, however, quickly\r\nreplied, \'Thy father occupying a lower seat, always adoreth with downcast\r\nlooks, like a hired chanter of praises, my father, whether he sitteth at\r\nhis ease or reclineth at full length! Thou art the daughter of one that\r\nchanteth the praises of others, of one that accepteth alms. I am the\r\ndaughter of one who is adored, of one who bestoweth alms instead of ever\r\naccepting them! Beggar-woman as thou art, thou art free to strike thy\r\nbreast, to use ill words, to vow enmity to me, to give way to thy wrath.\r\nAcceptress of alms, thou weepest tears of anger in vain! If so minded, I\r\ncan harm thee, but thou canst not. Thou desirest to quarrel. But know\r\nthou that I do not reckon thee as my equal!\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Hearing these words, Devayani became\r\nexceedingly angry and began to pull at her clothes. Sarmishtha thereupon\r\nthrew her into a well and went home. Indeed, the wicked Sarmishtha\r\nbelieving that Devayani was dead, bent her steps home-wards in a wrathful\r\nmood.\r\n\r\n"After Sarmishtha had left, Yayati the son of Nahusha soon came to that\r\nspot. The king had been out a-hunting. The couple of horses harnessed to\r\nhis car and the other single horse with him were all fatigued. And the\r\nking himself was thirsty. And the son of Nahusha saw a well that was by.\r\nAnd he saw that it was dry. But in looking down into it, he saw a maiden\r\nwho in splendour was like a blazing fire. And beholding her within it,\r\nthe blessed king addressed that girl of the complexion of the celestials,\r\nsoothing her with sweet words. And he said, \'Who art thou, O fair one, of\r\nnails bright as burnished copper, and with ear-rings decked with\r\ncelestial gems? Thou seemest to be greatly perturbed. Why dost thou weep\r\nin affliction? How, indeed, hast thou fallen into this well covered with\r\ncreepers and long grass? And, O slender-waisted girl, answer me truly\r\nwhose daughter thou art.\r\n\r\n"Devayani then replied, \'I am the daughter of Sukra who brings back into\r\nlife the Asuras slain by the gods. He doth not know what hath befallen\r\nme. This is my right hand, O king, with nails bright as burnished copper.\r\nThou art well-born; I ask thee, to take and raise me up! I know thou art\r\nof good behaviour, of great prowess, and of wide fame! It behoveth thee,\r\ntherefore, to raise me from this well.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'King Yayati, learning that she was a Brahmana\'s\r\ndaughter, raised her from that well by catching hold of her right hand.\r\nAnd the monarch promptly raising her from the pit and squinting to her\r\ntapering thighs, sweetly and courteously returned to his capital.\r\n\r\n"When the son of Nahusha had gone away, Devayani of faultless features,\r\nafflicted with grief, then spoke unto her maid, Ghurnika by name, who met\r\nher then. And she said, \'O Ghurnika, go thou quickly and speak to my\r\nfather without loss of time of everything as it hath happened. I shall\r\nnot now enter the city of Vrishaparvan.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Ghurnika, thus commanded, repaired quickly to\r\nthe mansion, of the Asura chief, where she saw Kavya and spoke unto him\r\nwith her perception dimmed by anger. And she said, \'I tell thee, O great\r\nBrahmana, that Devayani hath been ill-used, O fortunate one, in the\r\nforest by Sarmishtha, the daughter of Vrishaparvan.\' And Kavya, hearing\r\nthat his daughter had been ill-used by Sarmishtha speedily went out with\r\na heavy heart, seeking her in the woods. And when he found her in the\r\nwoods, he clasped her with affection and spoke unto her with voice choked\r\nwith grief, \'O daughter, the weal or woe that befalleth people is always\r\ndue to their own faults. Thou hast therefore some fault, I ween, which\r\nhath been expiated thus.\' Hearing this Devayani replied, \'Be it a penalty\r\nor not, listen to me with attention. O, hear that all Sarmishtha, the\r\ndaughter of Vrishaparvan, hath said unto me. Really hath she said that\r\nthou art only the hired chanter of the praises of the Asura king! Even\r\nthus hath she--that Sarmishtha, Vrishaparvan\'s daughter,--spoken to me,\r\nwith reddened eyes, these piercing and cruel words, \'Thou art the\r\ndaughter of one that ever chanteth for hire the praises of others, of one\r\nthat asketh for charities, of one that accepteth alms; whereas I am the\r\ndaughter of one that receiveth adorations, of one that giveth, of one\r\nthat never accepteth anything as gift!\' These have been the words\r\nrepeatedly spoken unto me by the proud Sarmishtha, the daughter of\r\nVrishaparvan, with eyes red with anger. If, O father, I am really the\r\ndaughter of a hired chanter of praises, of one that accepteth gifts, I\r\nmust offer my adorations in the hope of obtaining her grace! Oh, of this\r\nI have already told her!\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra replied, \'Thou art, O Devayani, no daughter of a hired adorer, of\r\none that asketh for alms and accepteth gifts. Thou art the daughter of\r\none that adores none, but of one that is adored by all! Vrishaparvan\r\nhimself knoweth it, and Indra, and king Yayati too. That inconceivable\r\nBrahma, that unopposable Godhead, is my strength! The self-create,\r\nhimself, gratified by me, hath said that I am for aye the lord of that\r\nwhich is in all things on Earth or in Heaven! I tell thee truly that it\r\nis I who pour rain for the good of creatures and who nourish the annual\r\nplants that sustain all living things!\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'It was by such sweet words of excellent import\r\nthat the father endeavoured to pacify his daughter afflicted with woe and\r\noppressed by anger.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXIX\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Sukra continued, \'Know, then, O Devayani, that he that mindeth not the\r\nevil speeches of others, conquereth everything! The wise say that he is a\r\ntrue charioteer who without slackening holdeth tightly the reins of his\r\nhorses. He, therefore, is the true man that subdueth, without indulging\r\nin his rising wrath. Know thou, O Devayani, that by him is everything\r\nconquered, who calmly subdueth his rising anger. He is regarded as a man\r\nwho by having recourse to forgiveness, shaketh off his rising anger like\r\na snake casting off its slough He that suppresseth his anger, he that\r\nregardeth not the evil speeches of others, he that becometh not angry,\r\nthough there be cause, certainly acquireth the four objects for which we\r\nlive (viz., virtue, profit, desire, and salvation) Between him that\r\nperformeth without fatigue sacrifices every month for a hundred years,\r\nand him that never feeleth angry at anything, he that feeleth not wrath\r\nis certainly the higher. Boys and girls, unable to distinguish between\r\nright and wrong, quarrel with each other. The wise never imitate them.\'\r\nDevayani, on hearing this speech of her father, said, \'O father, I know,\r\nalso what the difference is between anger and forgiveness as regards the\r\npower of each. But when a disciple behaveth disrespectfully, he should\r\nnever be forgiven by the preceptor if the latter is really desirous of\r\nbenefiting the former. Therefore, I do not desire to live any longer in a\r\ncountry where evil behaviour is at a premium. The wise man desirous of\r\ngood, should not dwell among those sinfully inclined men who always speak\r\nill of good behaviour and high birth. But there should one live,--indeed,\r\nthat hath been said to be the best of dwelling places,--where good\r\nbehaviour and purity of birth are known and respected. The cruel words\r\nuttered by Vrishaparvan\'s daughter burn my heart even as men, desirous of\r\nkindling a fire, burn the dry fuel. I do not think anything more\r\nmiserable for a man in the three worlds than to adore one\'s enemies\r\nblessed with good fortune, himself possessing none. It hath been indeed\r\nsaid by the learned that for such a man even death would be better.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXX\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Then Kavya, the foremost of Bhrigu\'s line, became\r\nangry himself. And approaching Vrishaparvan where the latter was seated,\r\nbegan to address him without weighing his words, \'O king,\' he said,\r\n\'sinful acts do not, like the Earth, bear fruit immediately! But\r\ngradually and secretly do they extirpate their doers. Such fruit visiteth\r\neither in one\'s own self, one\'s son, or one\'s grandson. Sins must bear\r\ntheir fruit. Like rich food they can never be digested. And because ye\r\nslew the Brahmana Kacha, the grandson of Angiras, who was virtuous,\r\nacquainted with the precepts of religion, and attentive to his duties,\r\nwhile residing in my abode, even for this act of slaughter--and for the\r\nmal-treatment of my daughter too, know, O Vrishaparvan, I shall leave\r\nthee and thy relatives! Indeed, O king, for this, I can no longer stay\r\nwith thee! Dost thou, O Asura chief, think that I am a raving liar? Thou\r\nmakest light of thy offence without seeking to correct it!\'.\r\n\r\n"Vrishaparvan then said, \'O son of Bhrigu, never have I attributed want\r\nof virtue, of falsehood, to thee. Indeed, virtue and truth ever dwell in\r\nthee. Be kind to me! O Bhargava, if, leaving us, thou really goest hence,\r\nwe shall then go into the depths of the ocean. Indeed, there is nothing\r\nelse for us to do.\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra then replied, \'Ye Asuras, whether ye go into the depths of the\r\nocean or fly away to all directions. I care little. I am unable to bear\r\nmy daughter\'s grief. My daughter is ever dear to me. My life dependeth on\r\nher. Seek ye to please her. As Vrihaspati ever seeketh the good of Indra,\r\nso do I always seek thine by my ascetic merits.\'\r\n\r\n"Vrishaparvan then said, \'O Bhargava, thou art the absolute master of\r\nwhatever is possessed by the Asura chiefs in this world-their elephants,\r\nkine and horses, and even my humble self!\'\r\n\r\n"Sukra then answered, \'If it is true, O great Asura, that I am the lord\r\nof all the wealth of the Asuras, then go and gratify Devayani.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'when the great Kavya was so addressed by\r\nVrishaparvan, he then went to Devayani and told her all. Devayani,\r\nhowever, quickly replied, \'O Bhargava, if thou art truly the lord of the\r\nAsura king himself and of all his wealth, then let the king himself come\r\nto me and say so in my presence.\' Vrishaparvan then approached Devayani\r\nand told her, \'O Devayani of sweet smiles, whatever thou desirest I am\r\nwilling to give thee, however difficult it may be to grant the same.\'\r\nDevayani answered, \'I desire Sarmishtha with a thousand maids to wait on\r\nme! She must also follow me to where my father may give me away.\'\r\n\r\n"Vrishaparvan then commanded a maid-servant in attendance on him, saying,\r\n\'Go and quickly bring Sarmishtha hither. Let her also accomplish what\r\nDevayani wisheth.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'The maid-servant then repaired to Sarmishtha\r\nand told her, \'O amiable Sarmishtha, rise and follow me. Accomplish the\r\ngood of thy relatives. Urged by Devayani, the Brahmana (Sukra) is on the\r\npoint of leaving his disciples (the Asuras). O sinless one, thou must do\r\nwhat Devayani wisheth.\' Sarmishtha replied, \'I shall cheerfully do what\r\nDevayani wisheth. Urged by Devayani Sukra is calling me. Both Sukra and\r\nDevayani must not leave the Asuras through my fault.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Commanded by her father, then, Sarmishtha,\r\naccompanied by a thousand maidens, soon came, in a palanquin, out of her\r\nfather\'s excellent mansion. And approaching Devayani she said, \'With my\r\nthousand maids, I am thy waiting-maid! And I shall follow thee where thy\r\nfather may give thee away.\' Devayani replied, \'I am the daughter of one\r\nwho chanteth the praises of thy father, and who beggeth and accepteth\r\nalms; thou, on the other hand, art the daughter of one who is adored. How\r\ncanst thou be my waiting-maid?\'\r\n\r\n"Sarmishtha answered, \'One must by all means contribute to the happiness\r\nof one\'s afflicted relatives. Therefore shall I follow thee wherever thy\r\nfather may give thee away.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'When Sarmishtha thus promised to be Devayani\'s\r\nwaiting-maid the latter, O king, then spoke unto her father thus, \'O best\r\nof all excellent Brahmanas, I am gratified. I shall now enter the Asura\r\ncapital! I now know that thy science and power of knowledge are not\r\nfutile!\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'That best of Brahmanas, of great reputation,\r\nthus addressed by his daughter, then, entered the Asura capital in the\r\ngladness of his heart. And the Danavas worshipped him with great\r\nreverence.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXXI\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\nVaisampayana said, \'After some length of time, O best of monarchs,\r\nDevayani of the fairest complexion went into the same woods for purposes\r\nof pleasure. And accompanied by Sarmishtha with her thousand maids she\r\nreached the same spot and began to wander freely. And waited upon by all\r\nthose companions she felt supremely happy. And sporting with light\r\nhearts, they began drinking the honey in flowers, eating various kinds of\r\nfruit and biting some. And just at that time, king Yayati, the son of\r\nNahusha, again came there tired and thirsty, in course of his wanderings,\r\nin search of deer. And the king saw Devayani and Sarmishtha, and those\r\nother maidens also, all decked with celestial ornaments and full of\r\nvoluptuous languor in consequence of the flower-honey they drank. And\r\nDevayani of sweet smiles, unrivalled for beauty and possessed of the\r\nfairest complexion amongst them all, was reclining at her ease. And she\r\nwas waited upon by Sarmishtha who was gently kneading her feet.\r\n\r\n"And Yayati seeing all this, said, \'O amiable ones, I would ask you both\r\nyour names and parentage. It seems that these two thousand maids wait on\r\nyou two.\' \'Hearing the monarch, Devayani then answered, \'Listen to me, O\r\nbest of men. Know that I am the daughter of Sukra, the spiritual guide of\r\nthe Asuras. This my companion is my waiting-maid. She attendeth on me\r\nwherever I go. She is Sarmishtha, the daughter of the Asura king\r\nVrishaparvan.\'\r\n\r\n"Yayati then asked, \'I am curious to know why is this thy companion of\r\nfair eye-brows, this maiden of the fairest complexion, the daughter of\r\nthe Asura chief thy waiting-maid!\' Devayani replied, \'O best of king,\r\neverything resulteth from Fate. Knowing this also to be the result of\r\nFate, wonder not at it. Thy feature and attire are both like a king\'s.\r\nThy speech also is fair and correct as that of the Vedas. Tell me thy\r\nname, whence thou art and whose son also.\'\r\n\r\n"The monarch replied, \'During my vow of Brahmacharya, the whole Vedas\r\nentered my ears. I am known as Yayati, a king\'s son and myself a king.\'\r\nDevayani then enquired, \'O king, what hast thou come here for? Is it to\r\ngather lotuses or to angle or to hunt?\' Yayati said, \'O amiable one,\r\nthirsty from the pursuit of deer, I have come hither in search of water.\r\nI am very much fatigued. I await but your commands to leave this spot.\'\r\n\r\n"Devayani answered, \'With my two thousand damsels and my waiting-maid\r\nSarmishtha, I wait but your commands. Prosperity to thee. Be thou my\r\nfriend and lord.\'\r\n\r\n"Yayati, thereupon, replied, \'Beautiful one, I do not deserve thee. Thou\r\nart the daughter of Sukra far superior to me. Thy father cannot bestow\r\nthee even on a great king.\' To this Devayani replied, \'Brahmanas had\r\nbefore this been united with the Kshatriyas, and Kshatriyas with\r\nBrahmanas. Thou art the son of a Rishi and thyself a Rishi. Therefore, O\r\nson of Nahusha, marry me.\' Yayati, however, replied, \'O thou of the\r\nhandsomest features, the four orders have, indeed, sprung from one body.\r\nBut their duties and purity are not the same, the Brahmana being truly\r\nsuperior to all.\' Devayani answered, \'This hand of mine hath never been\r\ntouched before by any man save thee. Therefore, do I accept thee for my\r\nlord. How, indeed, shall any other man touch my hand which had before\r\nbeen touched by thyself who art a Rishi? Yayati then said, \'The wise know\r\nthat a Brahmana is more to be avoided than an angry snake of virulent\r\npoison, or a blazing fire of spreading flames.\' Devayani then told the\r\nmonarch, \'O bull amongst men, why dost thou, indeed, say that Brahmana\r\nshould be more avoided than an angry snake of virulent poison or a\r\nblazing fire of spreading flames?\' The monarch answered, \'The snake\r\nkilleth only one. The sharpest weapon slayeth but a single person. The\r\nBrahmana, when angry destroyeth whole cities and kingdoms! Therefore, O\r\ntimid one, do I deem a Brahmana as more to be avoided than either. I\r\ncannot hence wed thee, O amiable one, unless thy father bestoweth thee on\r\nme. Devayani then said, \'Thou art, indeed, chosen by me. And, O king, it\r\nis understood that thou wilt accept me if my father bestoweth me on thee.\r\nThou needst not fear to accept my poor self bestowed on thee. Thou dost\r\nnot, indeed, ask for me.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'After this, Devayani quickly sent a maidservant\r\nto her father. The maid represented to Sukra everything as it had\r\nhappened. And as soon as he had heard all, Bhargava came and saw Yayati.\r\nAnd beholding Bhargava come, Yayati worshipped and adored that Brahmana,\r\nand stood with joined palms in expectation of his commands.\'\r\n\r\n"And Devayani then said, \'This O father, is the son of Nahusha. He took\r\nhold of my hand, when I was in distress. I bow to thee. Bestow me upon\r\nhim. I shall not wed any other person in the world.\' Sukra exclaimed, \'O\r\nthou of splendid courage, thou hast, indeed, been accepted as her lord by\r\nthis my dear daughter. I bestow her on thee. Therefore, O son of Nahusha,\r\naccept her as thy wife.\'\r\n\r\n"Yayati then said, \'I solicit the boon, O Brahmana, that by so doing, the\r\nsin of begetting a half-breed might not touch me.\' Sukra, however,\r\nassured him by saying, \'I shall absolve thee from the sin. Ask thou the\r\nboon that thou desirest. Fear not to wed her. I grant thee absolution.\r\nMaintain virtuously thy wife--the slender-waisted Devayani. Transports of\r\nhappiness be thine in her company. This other maiden, Vrishaparvan\'s\r\ndaughter, Sarmishtha should ever be regarded by thee. But thou shall not\r\nsummon her to thy bed.\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Thus addressed by Sukra, Yayati then walked\r\nround the Brahmana. And the king then went through the auspicious\r\nceremony of marriage according to the rites of the scriptures. And having\r\nreceived from Sukra this rich treasure of the excellent Devayani with\r\nSarmishtha and those two thousand maidens, and duly honoured also by\r\nSukra himself and the Asuras, the best of monarchs, then, commanded by\r\nthe high-souled Bhargava, returned to his capital with a joyous heart.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXXII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'Yayati then, on returning to his capital which was\r\nlike unto the city of Indra, entered his inner apartments and established\r\nthere his bride Devayani. And the monarch, directed by Devayani,\r\nestablished Vrishaparvan\'s daughter Sarmishtha in a mansion especially\r\nerected near the artificial woods of Asokas in his gardens. And the king\r\nsurrounded Vrishaparvan\'s daughter Sarmishtha with a thousand maids and\r\nhonoured her by making every arrangement for her food and garments. But\r\nit was with Devayani that the royal son of Nahusha sported like a\r\ncelestial for many years in joy and bliss. And when her season came, the\r\nfair Devayani conceived. And she brought forth as her first child a fine\r\nboy. And when a thousand years had passed away, Vrishaparvan\'s daughter\r\nSarmishtha having attained to puberty saw that her season had come. She\r\nbecame anxious and said to herself, \'My season hath arrived. But I have\r\nnot yet chosen a husband. O, what hath happened, what should I do? How am\r\nI to obtain the fruition of my wishes? Devayani hath become mother. My\r\nyouth is doomed to pass away in vain. Shall I choose him also for my\r\nhusband whom Devayani hath chosen? This is, indeed, my resolve: that\r\nmonarch should give me a son. Will not the virtuous one grant me a\r\nprivate interview?\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'While Sarmishtha was thus busy with her\r\nthoughts, the king wandering listlessly came to that very wood of Asokas,\r\nand beholding Sarmishtha before him, stood there in silence. Then\r\nSarmishtha of sweet smiles seeing the monarch before her with nobody to\r\nwitness what might pass, approached him and said with joined palms, \'O\r\nson of Nahusha, no one can behold the ladies that dwell in the inner\r\napartments of Soma, of Indra, of Vishnu, of Yama, of Varuna, and of thee!\r\nThou knowest, O king, that I am both handsome and well-born. I solicit\r\nthee, O king! My season hath arrived. See that it goeth not in vain.\'\r\n\r\n"Yayati answered, \'Well do I know that honour of birth is thine, born as\r\nthou art in the proud race of the Danavas. Thou art also gifted with\r\nbeauty. I do not, indeed, see even the speck of a fault in thy feature.\r\nBut Usanas commanded me, while I was united with Devayani, that never\r\nshould Vrishaparvan\'s daughter he summoned to my bed.\'\r\n\r\n"Sarmishtha then said, \'It hath been said, O king, that it is not sinful\r\nto lie on the occasion of a joke, in respect of women sought to be\r\nenjoyed, on occasions of marriage, in peril of immediate death and of the\r\nloss of one\'s whole fortune. Lying is excusable on these five occasions.\r\nO king, it is not true that he is fallen who speaks not the truth when\r\nasked. Both Devayani and myself have been called hither as companions to\r\nserve the same purpose. When, therefore, thou hadst said that you wouldst\r\nconfine thyself to one only amongst as, that was a lie thou hadst\r\nspoken.\' Yayati replied, \'A king should ever be a model in the eyes of\r\nhis people. That monarch certainly meets with destruction who speaks an\r\nuntruth. As for myself, I dare not speak an untruth even if the greatest\r\nloss threatens me!\' Sarmishtha answered, \'O monarch, one may look upon\r\nher friend\'s husband as her own. One\'s friend\'s marriage is the same as\r\none\'s own. Thou hast been chosen by my friend as her husband. Thou art as\r\nmuch my husband, therefore.\' Yayati then said, \'It is, indeed my vow\r\nalways to grant what one asketh. As thou askest me, tell me then what I\r\nam to do.\' Sarmishtha then said, \'Absolve me, O king, from sin. Protect\r\nmy virtue. Becoming a mother by thee, let me practise the highest virtue\r\nin this world. It is said, O king, that a wife, a slave, and a son can\r\nnever earn wealth for themselves. What they earn always belongeth to him\r\nwho owneth them. I am, indeed, the slave of Devayani. Thou art Devayani\'s\r\nmaster and lord. Thou art, therefore, O king, my master and lord as much\r\nas Devayani\'s! I solicit thee! O, fulfil my wishes!\'\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana continued, \'Thus addressed by Sarmishtha, the monarch was\r\npersuaded into the truth of all she spoke. He therefore, honoured\r\nSarmishtha by protecting her virtue. And they passed some time together.\r\nAnd taking affectionate farewell of each other, they then parted, each\r\nreturning to whence he or she had come.\r\n\r\n"And it came to pass that Sarmishtha of sweet smiles and fair eyebrows\r\nconceived in consequence of that connection of hers with that best of\r\nmonarchs. And, O king, that lotus-eyed lady then in due course of time\r\nbrought forth a son of the splendour of a celestial child and of eyes\r\nlike-lotus-petals.\'"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSECTION LXXXIII\r\n\r\n(Sambhava Parva continued)\r\n\r\n"Vaisampayana said, \'When Devayani of sweet smiles heard of the birth of\r\nthis child, she became jealous, and O Bharata,